Cassandra Cross

Cassandra Cross
Queensland University of Technology | QUT · School of Justice

About

46
Publications
19,976
Reads
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641
Citations
Citations since 2017
34 Research Items
619 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
The rapid growth in the availability of information and communications technologies has also expanded opportunities to commit cybercrime. Law enforcement officers are often the first responders to such incidents. Internationally, research has revealed how police preparedness to respond to cybercrime is mediated by organizational policies and proced...
Article
Full-text available
This article assesses 3,259 romance fraud reports made by individuals to Scamwatch (Australian online reporting portal for fraud), between July 2018–July 2019 (inclusive). It seeks to highlight experiences of fear of crime as articulated by the complainants. Drawing on frameworks used to analyze fear of crime (specifically the affective, behavioral...
Article
Romance fraud involves the guise of a perceived genuine relationship to gain a financial reward. While those who commit these crimes employ a variety of techniques, emerging evidence suggests the use of sextortion to financially gain from victims. To date, sextortion has been explored generally in the image-based sexual abuse and sexual violence li...
Article
Full-text available
Romance fraud uses the guise of a genuine relationship to deceive a victim for a financial gain. Each year, millions of individuals globally lose money to these approaches. Current prevention messaging focuses heavily on promoting the use of internet searches (specifically reverse image searches) to verify or refute the identity/scenario that one i...
Book
Full-text available
Advancements in information technology are sources of both opportunity and vulnerability for citizens. Previous research indicates that there are significant challenges for police in investigating cybercrime, that community expectations about police responses are based largely on media representations, and that victims experience high levels of fru...
Chapter
This chapter reflects on the ethical dilemmas that the researcher has faced in her career when conducting research with fraud victims. It argues that the process of gaining ethics approval does not account for the reality of ethical dilemmas encountered in the field when doing the research. Instead, her experience suggests that there are ongoing et...
Article
Full-text available
Romance fraud occurs when offenders use the guise of a genuine relationship to defraud a victim, typically via online communications. Research has focused on the general structure of romance frauds, but few scholars have considered the potential link between victimization and specific narratives employed by offenders. This article explores the repo...
Article
Full-text available
Romance fraud impacts the lives of thousands of people globally. Financial losses exceed millions of dollars each year and are steadily increasing annually. It occurs when an offender uses the guise of an intimate relationship to gain a financial advantage. Offenders use a variety of platforms and communications methods to target victims and develo...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand how COVID-19 may alter the vulnerability levels of older persons, and how this may change their potential for fraud victimisation. This is particularly focused on the government’s use of isolation, restrictions on activity and physical distancing to combat the virus. Design/methodology/approach In...
Article
Scambaiters have emerged as a proactive means to targeting fraud offenders. Put simply, scambaiters act as an incapacitator, seeking to deliberately engage fraud offenders to waste their time and reduce their communication with genuine victims. For some, this is a deliberate act of vigilantism that seeks to respond in a way that authorities (such a...
Article
Full-text available
The significant economic and emotional consequences of online fraud have not been equally matched by the policing response to these offenses. This paper examines constables’ and sergeants’ perceived preparation to respond to online fraud through a quantitative analyses of survey data collected from over 1300 officers from 35 local police agencies a...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore current knowledge of business email compromise (BEC) fraud, or approaches that specifically target organisations for financial gain, through the exploitation of trusted relationships. BEC fraud affects organisations globally and is estimated to have netted offenders over US$26bn since 2016. Despite the sheer magni...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses surrounding accountability as it relates to fraud victimisation. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based upon interviews with 31 professionals across the fraud justice network (FJN) in the UK and Canada. Findings The paper highlights the complexities that surround participant’...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the reporting of cybercrime in Australia, specifically the reporting of fraud. Design/methodology/approach Using an evaluation of the (former) Australian Cybercrime Online Reporting Network (ACORN), this paper provides a commentary on the report findings, including both positive and negative aspec...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Fraud is not a new offence. However, the recent evolution and proliferation of technologies (predominantly the internet) has seen offenders increasingly use virtual environments to target and defraud victims worldwide. Several studies have examined the ways that fraud is perpetrated with a clear demarcation between terrestrial and cyber of...
Article
The impact of fraud on an individual victim can have devastating consequences. Not only do victims experience a financial loss, but in many cases the impacts extend to their physical health and emotional wellbeing as well potentially enduring relationship breakdown, unemployment, homelessness and in extreme cases, suicide or suicide ideation. Despi...
Article
One of the most pressing challenges with policing online fraud relates to jurisdiction. Policing is traditionally based on territoriality, but the internet has changed this. Offenders in one country can target a victim in a second country, who is requested to send money to a third or fourth country. This article examines online fraud victims’ repor...
Article
It is well-established that (online) fraud has one of the lowest reporting rates across all crime categories. However, there is a large gap examining why some victims choose to report online fraud offenses. Therefore, this paper examines the under-researched group of online fraud victims who reported their crimes to authorities. Based on interviews...
Article
Full-text available
Romance fraud affects thousands of victims globally, yet few scholars have studied it. The dynamics of relationships between victims and offenders are not well understood, and the effects are rarely discussed. This article adapts the concept of psychological abuse from studies of domestic violence to better understand romance fraud. Using interview...
Article
This article examines the response to online fraud, particularly as it relates to the Australian “fraud justice network”. Current research indicates that victims overwhelmingly experience a negative response to reporting online fraud. Much of this can be seen to stem from a misunderstanding and unrealistic expectations on what agencies can do, thei...
Chapter
Online fraud victimisation affects millions of individuals globally. Despite its prevalence, it remains a contested area, whereby there is a strong victim blaming attitude towards those who are victims. There is a strong negative stereotype that victims are greedy, gullible, uneducated and somewhat deserving of their victimisation. This works as a...
Chapter
Introduction Victimhood is a contested space. Far from being a fixed category, ‘the “victim” label is contingent and complex, shifting frequently according to social practices, race, gender, and class relations’ (Spalek, 2006: 31). Not all persons who experience harm and trauma associated with criminal acts will see themselves as victims or be affo...
Article
This article examines the issue of alleged elder financial abuse arising from the misuse of an enduring power of attorney (EPA) and the experiences of those vulnerable elders in attempting to access justice to gain information about their situation and/or to remedy the abuse. To achieve this, case file notes from 100 individuals aged sixty-five yea...
Article
Australia provides victims of violent crime access to financial support to assist with recovery, excluding victims of nonviolent offences. The author examines the experiences of online fraud victims, and details how the impacts experienced extend beyond financial losses, to include deterioration in health and well-being, relationship breakdown, hom...
Article
Data breaches are an increasingly common event across businesses globally. Many companies have been subject to large-scale breaches. Consequently, the exposure of 37 million customers of the Ashley Madison website is not an extraordinary event in and of itself. However, Ashley Madison is an online dating website predominantly known for facilitating...
Article
Full-text available
Police views of young people inform the way they exercise discretion over this group. However, few studies have sought to formally document and examine police views of young people. The limited existing research is also mostly dated. This article begins to address this gap in the literature by presenting the results of semi-structured qualitative i...
Chapter
Current online fraud research presents a narrative dominated by global North scholars and perspectives. While Nigerian scholars have examined the problem of online fraud, this research has largely been marginalized from academic discourse. This chapter seeks to rectify this exclusion through an analysis of research examining online fraud within a N...
Article
Institutional Review Boards often raise concerns about qualitative research with vulnerable populations such as crime victims, and assume that research with vulnerable populations will be distressing for participants. It is therefore vital to examine whether participants do in fact experience adverse effects stemming from their participation. The e...
Book
Crime is undergoing a metamorphosis. The online technological revolution has created new opportunities for a wide variety of crimes which can be perpetrated on an industrial scale, and crimes traditionally committed in an offline environment are increasingly being transitioned to an online environment. This book takes a case study-based approach to...
Article
The Senior Support Unit (SSU) operates from the Canadian Anti-Fraud Centre and uses volunteers (all seniors themselves) to provide telephone support to older fraud victims across Canada. Many fraud victims have experienced significant trauma, and working with them to assist in their recovery can be difficult. Secondary trauma is well established in...
Article
Full-text available
Identity crime is argued to be one of the most significant crime problems of today. This article examines identity crime, through the attitudes and practices of a group of seniors in Queensland, Australia. It examines their own actions towards the protection of their personal data in response to a fraudulent email request. Applying the concept of a...
Article
Full-text available
p>There are many theories which seek to explain fraud victimisation. In particular, older victims find themselves at the intersection of various discourses which account for victimisation, primarily from a deficit model. This article examines two discourses relevant to older fraud victims. The first positions older victims of crime as weak and vuln...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the current prevention messages that exist surrounding the prevention of online fraud. In particular, it focuses on the amount and level of detail that is promoted for each type of potential fraudulent approach. Design/methodology/approach Multiple data sources are used to establish the main premis...
Article
Full-text available
Globally there are limited support services that specifically target fraud victims. Despite the devastating effects of fraud on an individual, dedicated support programmes are rare. This article examines the ‘Senior Support Unit’ (SSU), a Canadian-based telephone support service for older victims of fraud. The SSU is a unique example of a service t...
Article
Although fraud has been practised throughout history, the advent of the internet has created new and effective avenues for targeting potential victims. Victims of online fraud experience substantial financial and other harms, resulting in annual losses in Australia of more than $2b, significant organisational disruption and devastating human suffer...
Article
It is well established that policing in an online environment is fraught with challenges. To combat losses attributed to online fraud, Australia has seen the emergence of a victim-oriented approach, which uses financial intelligence to identify potential victims and deliberately intervenes through the sending of a letter. This approach predominantl...
Chapter
An unexpected finding within the financial literacy debate centres on the relationship between financial literacy levels and fraud victimisation. It has often been assumed that increasing financial literacy levels would also act as a protective factor for individuals falling victim to financial and investment fraud. While some support for this assu...
Article
In recent years, numerous current affairs stories on online fraud victimisation have been broadcast on Australian television. These stories typically feature highly organised, international ‘sting’ operations, in which alleged offenders are arrested and investigated by law enforcement. These portrayals of police responses influence the expectations...
Article
There is a strong sense of negativity associated with online fraud victimization. Despite an increasing awareness, understanding about the reality of victimization experiences is not apparent. Rather, victims of online fraud are constructed as greedy and gullible and there is an overwhelming sense of blame and responsibility levelled at them for th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
PCYCs, individually and as a whole, are highly valued in communities across Queensland. Participants in this evaluation identified numerous benefits of PCYCs, including: providing structured low-cost activities for young people and other community groups; developing positive relationships and trust between young people and police; developing young...
Article
Online fraud poses a significant problem to society in terms of its monetary losses and the devastating impact on victims. It also poses significant challenges to law enforcement agencies, regarding their ability to investigate crimes which are complex, occur in a virtual environment, incorporate multiple (often international) jurisdictions, and ha...
Article
Financial literacy may not be as effective as previously thought in protecting against fraud victimisation. It does not inoculate investors from persuasion or social engineering tactics used by offenders to secure investment in fraudulent schemes. In fact, recent research indicates that overconfidence in investment knowledge may make individuals mo...

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