Cassandra M. Brooks

Cassandra M. Brooks
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB · Department of Environmental Studies

PhD

About

68
Publications
28,934
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1,281
Citations
Citations since 2016
51 Research Items
1196 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) has been lauded as a leader in high seas conservation. Highlighting its leadership, CCAMLR joined the international movement to designate a representative network of marine-protected areas (MPAs) throughout the world’s oceans by 2012. Over the last decade, CCAMLR has...
Article
The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and its 1995 implementing agreement for highly migratory and straddling fish stocks (the UN Fish Stocks Agreement) articulate the need for * Acknowledgments: We appreciate the support of sponsors for the Stanford Law School Symposium Emerging Perspectives on the Law, Science, and Policy of Dy...
Article
The Antarctic provides vital ecosystem services and contains the world’s healthiest marine ecosystems, but faces increasing impacts from climate change and fishing. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), lauded as a leader in international fisheries management, is committed to adopting marine protected ar...
Article
Full-text available
The Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, adopted under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, provides the basis for taking effective action to curb biodiversity loss across the planet by 2020—an urgent imperative. Yet, Antarctica and the Southern Ocean, which encompass 10% of the planet’s surface, are excluded from assessments of prog...
Article
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In October 2016, the international community made history by adopting the world's largest marine protected area in the Ross Sea, Antarctica-by consensus. Achieving this feat required trade-offs and compromise among the 24-Member States (plus the European Union) comprising the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. The...
Article
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Multiple initiatives have called for large-scale representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). MPAs should be ecologically representative to be effective, but in large, remote regions this can be difficult to quantify and assess. We present a novel bioregionalization for the Southern Ocean, which uses the modelled circumpolar habitat im...
Article
Evidence-informed decision-making is in increasing demand given growing pressures on marine environments. A way to facilitate this is by knowledge exchange among marine scientists and decision-makers. While many barriers are reported in the literature, there are also examples whereby research has successfully informed marine decision-making (i.e.,...
Article
Full-text available
Coral reef ecosystems are among the most diverse habitats on earth, providing essential social and ecological services. Raja Ampat, Indonesia - located in the Coral Triangle, the heart of marine biodiversity - has a rich history of traditional management, which included area-based management tools akin to modern marine protected areas (MPAs). Decen...
Article
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Due to the remarkable ecological value of the Ross Sea, the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) adopted a large-scale Ross Sea region marine protected area (RSRMPA) in 2016. Since then, many CCAMLR Members have conducted research and monitoring in the region. In 2021, the U.S. Ross Sea science community con...
Article
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a key tool for achieving goals for biodiversity conservation and human well-being, including improving climate resilience and equitable access to nature. At a national level, they are central components in the U.S. commitment to conserve at least 30% of U.S. waters by 2030. By definition, the primary goal of an MPA...
Article
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) can provide a range of ecological benefits. Frameworks—including the IUCN protected area categories and The MPA Guide—offer tools towards evaluating an MPA’s objectives, types, Level of Protection, and potential effectiveness. However, the majority of MPAs exist in national waters, raising the question of how these fra...
Article
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Remote, high-latitude oceans can prove challenging for the designation and implementation of marine protected areas (MPAs), partly due to issues in monitoring inaccessible localities and large spatial scales. A lack of protection combined with damage from growing human activities has contributed to the degradation of some of the Earth's richest mar...
Article
Full-text available
A central objective of the Ross Sea region Marine Protected Area (MPA) is to protect areas important to the life cycle of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni), a top fish predator and by far the region’s most important commercial species. Juvenile toothfish predominate in deep basins along the inner continental shelf, whereas adults are found...
Preprint
Full-text available
Climate change projections are central to fisheries and aquatic conservation research, and to planning for a warming world. Projections require assumptions about future emissions pathways and climate-system sensitivity to emissions. Fisheries and aquatic conservation research typically uses emissions scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Pane...
Article
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Norway is an important player in Antarctic governance. As a claimant state with historic whaling interests, it has long held influence in decision-making. Today, Norway lands the largest catch of the Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) while also leading innovations in sustainable management. The Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine...
Chapter
The unique combination of natural and cultural resources has made the Salas y Gómez and Nazca Ridges a top priority for protection on the high seas. With support from global datasets and GIS analysis, researchers have identified this area off the west coast of South America as a key location to conserve and protect marine biodiversity without impac...
Article
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Southern Ocean ecosystems offer numerous benefits to human society and the global environment, and maintaining them requires well-informed and effective ecosystem-based management. Up to date and accurate information is needed on the status of species, communities, habitats and ecosystems and the impacts of fisheries, tourism and climate change. Th...
Article
Full-text available
As the first large-scale (>150,000 km 2) marine protected area (MPA) on the high seas, the Ross Sea region MPA sets a precedent for other MPAs in areas beyond national jurisdiction. In the myriad of MPA guides and rankings (including the new "MPA Guide"), categorization and evaluation of the Ross Sea region MPA also sets precedent for categorizing...
Article
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Climate change is rapidly altering the habitat of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), a key species of the Southern Ocean food web. Krill are a critical element of Southern Ocean ecosystems as well as biogeochemical cycles, while also supporting an international commercial fishery. In addition to trends forced by global-scale, human-driven warming...
Article
Full-text available
Southern Ocean ecosystems are globally important and vulnerable to global drivers of change, yet they remain challenging to study. Fish and squid make up a significant portion of the biomass within the Southern Ocean, filling key roles in food webs from forage to mid-trophic species and top predators. They comprise a diverse array of species unique...
Article
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The Salas y Gómez and Nazca ridges are two seamount chains of volcanic origin, which include over 110 seamounts that collectively stretch across over 2,900 km in the southeastern Pacific. Ecosystems in this region are isolated by the Atacama Trench, the Humboldt Current System, and an extreme oxygen minimum zone. This isolation has produced a uniqu...
Article
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Have you ever walked around a forest or park, and noticed signs saying things like: “Do not Pick Flowers” or “Do not Feed the Animals”? These signs indicate that the area you are in is being protected from humans. When these protected spaces are in the ocean, they are called marine protected areas. Marine protected areas vary in type, from heavily...
Article
Banning fishing in warming coastal waters and limiting tourism and construction on land will help to protect marine mammals and seabirds. Banning fishing in warming coastal waters and limiting tourism and construction on land will help to protect marine mammals and seabirds.
Article
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The massive number of seabirds (penguins and procellariiformes) and marine mammals (cetaceans and pinnipeds) – referred to here as top predators – is one of the most iconic components of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean. They play an important role as highly mobile consumers, structuring and connecting pelagic marine food webs and are widely studie...
Article
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Coral reefs are widely regarded as one of the top science and conservation priorities globally, as previous research has demonstrated that these ecosystems harbor an extraordinary biodiversity, myriad ecosystem services, and are highly vulnerable to human stressors. However, most of this knowledge is derived from studies on nearshore and shallow-wa...
Article
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Meta-organizations (MO, i.e. organizations of organizations) are increasingly set up and used to tackle contemporary environmental or social problems. The primary focus of this novel concept has been traditional industries and cases of MO made of one single type of members, e.g. firms, often in the same industry. Little research has examined cross-...
Article
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Researchers share tips for supporting research and life at a distance. Researchers share tips for supporting research and life at a distance. Yellow light bulbs repeating pattern
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Global threats to ocean biodiversity have generated a worldwide movement to take actions to improve conservation and management. Several international initiatives have recommended the adoption of marine protected areas (MPAs) in national and international waters. National governments and the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Livin...
Article
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The beginning of 2015 saw a new era within the United Nations: the era of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Built off the previous Millennium Development Goals, this new set of goals included 17 target areas, including, for the first time, an explicit global goal related to the ocean. In June 2017, at the United Nations Headquarters in New...
Article
Antarctica and the Southern Ocean comprise a critical part of the Earth System. Their environments are better understood than ever before, yet the region remains poorly considered among international agreements to improve the state of the global environment. In part the situation owes to isolated regional regulation within the Antarctic Treaty Syst...
Article
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Large marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being established to contribute to global conservation targets but present an immense challenge for managers as they seek to govern human interactions with the environment over a vast geographical expanse. These challenges are further compounded by the remote location of some MPAs, which magnify...
Article
Global threats to ocean biodiversity have driven international targets calling for a worldwide network of marine protected areas (MPAs). In line with these targets, the Commission on the Conservation of Marine Living Re-sources (CCAMLR) has been working towards adopting MPAs in the Southern Ocean. CCAMLR is considered a leader in science-based mana...
Article
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The view from the south is, more than ever, dominated by ominous signs of change. Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are intrinsic to the Earth system, and their evolution is intertwined with and influences the course of the Anthropocene. In turn, changes in the Antarctic affect and presage humanity's future. Growing understanding is countering popu...
Article
Full-text available
The view from the south is, more than ever, dominated by ominous signs of change. Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are intrinsic to the Earth system, and their evolution is intertwined with and influences the course of the Anthropocene. In turn, changes in the Antarctic affect and presage humanity's future. Growing understanding is countering popu...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems have numerous benefits for human societies around the world and many policy initiatives now seek to maintain the health of these ecosystems. To enable wise decisions, up to date and accurate information on marine species and the state of the environment they live in is required. Moreover, this information needs to be openly access...
Preprint
Full-text available
Inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis of the root causes of overfishing can lead to misguided and ineffective fisheries policies and programmes. The “Malthusian overfishing narrative” suggests that overfishing is driven by too many fishers chasing too few fish and that fishing effort grows proportionately to human population growth, requiring policy i...
Article
The paper first briefly describes the negotiation process of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Southern Ocean. Then it examines China's changing position towards the establishment of a Ross Sea MPA, as proposed by the United States and New Zealand in the Commission for Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Finally, the paper explore...
Article
Environmental pressures and overfishing might soon push some species to the brink, warn Cassandra Brooks and colleagues. Environmental pressures and overfishing might soon push some species to the brink, warn Cassandra Brooks and colleagues.
Article
Full-text available
Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic appro...
Article
Full-text available
A recent population hypothesis for Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica), a critical forage species, argued that interactions between life history and circulation associated with glacial trough systems drive circumpolar distributions over the continental shelf. In the Ross Sea, aggregations of eggs and larvae occur under fast ice in Terra...
Article
Full-text available
Inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis of the root causes of overfishing can lead to misguided and ineffective fisheries policies and programmes. The “Malthusian overfishing narrative” suggests that overfishing is driven by too many fishers chasing too few fish and that fishing effort grows proportionately to human population growth, requiring policy i...
Article
We add comments to a recent series of publications in peer-reviewed journals concerning the distribution of large Antarctic toothfish ( Dissostichus mawsoni ) found over the inner shelf of the Ross Sea. We note that earlier fish ecologists advanced innovative hypotheses invoking physical–biological interactions with life history, and that these, fa...
Article
Large marine protected areas are increasingly being established to meet global conservation targets and promote sustainable use of resources. Although the factors affecting the performance of small-scale marine protected areas are relatively well studied, there is no such body of knowledge for large marine protected areas. We conducted a global met...
Chapter
World fishery take peaked during the 1980s and has since declined as stocks have become fully or over exploited, forcing fishermen into ever deeper and more remote waters. Antarctic fishing has reflected this global trend. In 1996 a single, exploratory long-line vessel from New Zealand penetrated the icy waters of the Ross Sea, and in doing so, ini...
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Full-text available
We expand the paper by Hanchet et al. (Hydrobiologia 761:397–414, 2015), published in Hydrobiologia, by elaborating upon neutral buoyancy, a critical aspect of Antarctic toothfish life history that was only briefly treated by those authors. Neutral buoyancy, although not common among adult notothenioid fish, is an attribute that expands the water c...
Article
The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CAMLR Convention) is the legal doctrine presiding over the exploitation of marine life in the Southern Ocean. At recent Commission (CCAMLR) meetings, some member states have interpreted the term 'rational use' in the Convention text as 'the unrestricted right to fish' and, mo...
Conference Paper
The word “Antarctica” rightly conjures images of pristine stretches of land and sea, but the Antarctic also represents perhaps the most poignant example of peaceful international diplomacy and scientific collaboration. The Commission responsible for managing the Southern Ocean living resources, CCAMLR, has been lauded as a leader in high seas conse...
Article
Marine and coastal ecosystems provide important benefits and services to coastal communities across the globe, but assessing the diversity of social relationships with oceans can prove difficult for conservation scientists and practitioners. This presents barriers to incorporating social dimensions of marine ecosystems into ecosystem-based planning...
Article
Full-text available
Harvesting impacts on Antarctic marine ecosystems: changes in food web structure and loss of ecosystem value Ecosystems are composed of the physical environment and the species that live in them (the abiotic and biotic components of an ecosystem, respectively). Today there is great concern for the effects of climate change (change in the abiotic c...
Article
A multidisciplinary approach incorporating otolith chemistry, age data, and numerical Lagrangian particle simulations indicated a single, self-recruiting population of Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) in the Southeast Pacific Basin (SPB) and Ross Sea, with a life history structured by the large-scale circulation. Chemistry deposited prior...
Chapter
Springer 2012 3.1 Fishing Further and Deeper Historically, fishermen targeted fish in shallow, nearshore waters relatively close to port (Pauly et al. 2005). As these species became depleted, to meet growing demands, fishermen were forced to move offshore and into deeper waters (Hutchings and Reynolds 2004; Koslow et al. 2000; Morato et al. 2006; H...
Article
Full-text available
Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) are the target of an important commercial fishery in the Southern Ocean, yet age data used for management have not been comprehensively tested for accuracy. In this study, Antarctic toothfish were aged using counts of otolith growth zones based on criteria established for Patagonian toothfish, D. eleginoid...
Article
Full-text available
Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) or 'Chilean sea bass' support a valuable and controversial fishery, yet their life history is not well understood and longevity estimates range from similar to 20 to >50 years. In this study, lead-radium dating provided valid ages for juvenile to older adult groups, which were consistent with the coun...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we tell the story of a Wabanaki sagamore who travelled from the Presumpscot River (in present-day Maine, United States) to Boston in 1739 to protest the damming of the river that he "belongs to," and on which his people depended for sustenance. In this account of the first documented dam protest in New England, we explore the notion...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
To compile United States research and monitoring projects related to the Ross Sea region Marine Protected Area
Project
This project utilizes multidisciplinary methods (including genetics, otolith chemistry, hydrography, and life history data) to investigate population structure and connectivity of Antarctic fish species (suborder Notothenioidei). The current focus is on Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni), with previous and ongoing work related to Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarctica).