Cary Stothart

Cary Stothart
U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences

Ph.D., Florida State University, 2016

About

47
Publications
23,145
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
905
Citations
Introduction

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Full-text available
It is well documented that interacting with a mobile phone is associated with poorer performance on concurrently performed tasks because limited attentional resources must be shared between tasks. However, mobile phones generate auditory or tactile notifications to alert users of incoming calls and messages. Although these notifications are general...
Article
Full-text available
We sometimes fail to notice unexpected objects or events when our attention is directed elsewhere, a phenomenon called inattentional blindness. We explored whether unexpected objects that shared the color of consequential objects would be noticed more often. In three pre-registered experiments, participants played a custom video game in which they...
Article
Full-text available
People often conduct visual searches in which multiple targets are possible (e.g., medi-cal x-rays can contain multiple abnormalities). In this type of search, observers are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). Recent evi-dence suggests that this effect may be due to a depletion of cognitive...
Article
Full-text available
One of the strongest predictors of whether or not an object in our environment captures our attention is the similarity between that object's features and those we have prioritized--our attention set. For example, in inattentional blindness tasks, people are more likely to notice an unexpected white shape when tracking white objects than when track...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Due to the growing number of sensors and increasing use of artificial intelligence AI in our world, future military operations will be characterized by abundant information and decision-making at machine speeds. Thus, Army leaders will need the ability to make decisions and sift through large amounts of information more quickly. AI systems have the...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study, we assessed whether typicality can influence the visual awareness of objects. Participants tracked moving images of objects and counted how often members of one category bounced off the edges of the display. On the last trial, an unexpected object moved across the display. In our first two experiments, this object could belong...
Article
Full-text available
Older adults are at greater risk of death and serious injury in transportation crashes which have been increasing in older adult cohorts relative to younger cohorts. Can technology provide a safer road environment? Even if technology can mitigate crash risk, is it acceptable to older road users? We outline the results from several studies that test...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Discourse is important for Army operational activities such as strategic planning, but little is currently known about when discourse is required or the factors that predict productive discourse in the operational Army. We examined discourse in current Army doctrine and the group processes literature and then used three methods to collect informati...
Article
Full-text available
When searching for multiple targets in a display, finding one target hinders people's ability to find additional targets. These errors were originally proposed to stem from a "satisfaction" with finding a first target that leads people to prematurely stop searching. However, empirical evidence for this premise has been elusive, prompting considerat...
Article
Full-text available
When observers adopt a category-level attentional set, objects that belong to the same category as this attentional set are more likely to enter awareness. For example, a driver who is monitoring the road for cars may be more likely to notice an oncoming car than a pedestrian who is crossing the road. Semantic associations between categories are al...
Article
Full-text available
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) hold considerable promise for maintaining aging adults’ mobility as they develop impairments in driving skill. Nonetheless, attitudes can be a significant barrier to adoption as has been shown for other technologies. We investigated how different introductions to AV, video with a driver in the front seat, the rear seat, an...
Article
Full-text available
Previous theories of inattentional blindness (IB; a phenomenon of observers failing to notice a salient but unexpected event when attention is already occupied) have suggested that an unexpected object reaches conscious awareness when: 1) the location of the unexpected object and attention align, and 2) the unexpected object undergoes sufficient pr...
Poster
Full-text available
Many real-world visual searches often involve teams of observers (e.g., military scouts searching for enemy combatants, police officers looking for suspects in a crowd), or are amenable to team coordination (e.g., security screening, imagery intelligence). In a collaborative search task, how do observers coordinate their behavior? Does coordination...
Poster
Full-text available
When searching for two or more targets, people are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). This may be due to a depletion of cognitive resources from tracking the location of the first target. Given that tracking moving objects is resource-demanding, would finding a moving target further increa...
Poster
Full-text available
To guide attention during visual search, observers must maintain a visual working memory (VWM) representation of the search target. Distractors often capture attention when they share features with this representation (or with other items in VWM). However, distractors are less likely to capture attention when they appear frequently across trials, s...
Preprint
People often conduct visual searches in which multiple targets are possible (e.g., medical x-rays can contain multiple abnormalities). In this type of search, observers are more likely to miss a second target after having found a first one (a subsequent search miss). Recent evidence suggests that this effect may be due to a depletion of cognitive r...
Technical Report
Our objective was to provide empirically supported guidelines and templates for the design of tip cards and other public service transportation materials to educate aging road users on traffic control devices. Task 1 identified relevant theories and data concerning the design of public service materials. We used this literature review to provide gu...
Preprint
We sometimes fail to notice unexpected objects or events when our attention is directed elsewhere, a phenomenon called inattentional blindness. We explored whether unexpected objects that shared the color of consequential objects would be noticed more often. In three pre-registered experiments, participants played a custom video game in which they...
Article
Full-text available
How is feature-based attention distributed when engaged in a challenging attentional task? Thanks to formative electrophysiological and psychophysical work, we know a great deal about the spatial distribution of attention, but much less is known about how feature-based attention is allocated. In a large-scale online study, we investigated the distr...
Poster
Observers sometimes fail to notice seemingly obvious and unobscured events in their visual environment (inattenational blindness; IB). Unfortunately, even though real-world examples of IB can result in dangerous or even fatal consequences, few reliable individual difference predictors have shown success at distinguishing noticers from non-noticers....
Poster
Full-text available
We sometimes fail to notice unexpected objects or events when our attention is directed elsewhere, a phenomenon called inattentional blindness. Given that threatening objects tend to hold attention longer than non-threatening information, we explored whether unexpected but potentially dangerous objects might be noticed more often. Participants play...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We may fail to notice things in our environment because our attention is directed somewhere else, a phenomenon called inattentional blindness. Our susceptibility to inattentional blindness increases as we age. We explored three potential moderators of the age and inattentional blindness relationship: (1) the spatial proximity of the unexpected obje...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As drivers and pedestrians, older adults face greater risk for serious injury and death resulting from a crash. Part of this increased risk can be attributed to increased fragility with age, but increased risk is also due in part to a mismatch between the demands of the driving/pedestrian task and the perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities of t...
Code
An HTML5 video game I created to study attentional guidance. This game is online and you can play it at http://www.cary-stothart.net/files/mean-rectangles-video-game.html. See https://github.com/cstothart/mean-rectangles-video-game.git for more details.
Code
A multiple-target visual search task using satellite images. You can try this task online at http://www.cary-stothart.net/files/satellite-image-search-task.php.
Poster
The current studies examine if individual differences in attentional control predict inattentional blindness (IB; the failure to notice a salient unexpected event when attention is occupied). Study 1 examined unexpected object salience as the moderator between the potential relationship between working memory capacity and IB. Study 2 explored the d...
Article
Full-text available
Few studies have used online data collection to study cognitive aging. We used a large ('N' = 515) online sample to replicate the findings that inattentional blindness increases with age and with the distance of the unexpected object from the focus of attention. Critically, we assessed whether distance moderates the relationship between age and not...
Technical Report
Wrong-way crashes (WWCs) are severe and more likely to be fatal compared to other highway crashes. We report two tasks aimed at understanding and reducing this type of crash. Task 1 was a review of five decades of research on the characteristics of wrong-way drivers, interchange designs associated with wrong-way entries, and the effectiveness of co...
Poster
The authors analyzed pedestrian crash data by age group for parking lot crashes occurring 2004-2008 in West Central Florida, finding: 1) Temporal variation in crash frequency in parking lots with higher frequencies in winter and spring, likely associated with tourist influxes to Florida; 2) Variation in crash frequency during daytime hours with a p...
Code
An HTML5 letter tracking inattentional blindness task based off of the one used in Most et al. (2000). You can try this task online at http://www.cary-stothart.net/files/letter-tracking-inattentional-blindness-task.html.
Code
A Python version of the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) as detailed by Robertson et al. (1997). Requires PsychoPy (see https://github.com/cstothart/sustained-attention-to-response-task.git for details).
Article
Full-text available
A number of studies and meta-analyses conclude that aerobic fitness (walking) interventions improve cognition. Such interventions typically compare improvements from these interventions to an active control group in which participants engage in non-aerobic activities (typically stretching and toning) for an equivalent amount of time. However, in th...
Poster
Self-reported action video game experience has been linked to better performance on many cognitive tasks, including multiple object tracking. However, the limitations of these studies preclude a reliable measure of the size of the association: (a) most used small samples (often just 10 subjects per group) and (b) many tested participants who knew t...
Poster
Poster presented at the 2014 Florida State University Psychology Department Undergraduate Research Day.
Technical Report
Task 1.1 assessed younger (21-35 years), middle-aged (50-64 years), and older (65+) drivers’ ability to quickly perceive the presence of marked/unmarked crosswalks and pedestrians within them in computer-based laboratory tasks that recorded response times and eye movements. There was an advantage for special emphasis markings in that they were dete...
Article
Full-text available
Older drivers are at greatest risk for injury or death as a result of a car crash. In this mini-review, we outline the normative age-related changes to perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities that contribute to increased crash risk and decreased comfort with driving, and highlight specific driving scenarios and conditions that are particularly c...
Article
Full-text available
To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placeb...
Poster
Poster presented at the Florida State University Psychology Department Graduate Research Day
Technical Report
In task 1 of this report drivers' knowledge of various bicycle warning signs and pavement markings were assessed. In general knowledge was high. Share the Road and Three Foot Minimum signs were generally more quickly understood and recognized in versions of the sign depicting a sideways view of a bicycle rather than a rear view of a bicyclist/bicyc...
Poster
Although a number of studies find that video gamers far outperform non-gamers on measures of visual and attentional skill, Boot, Blakely, and Simons (2011) have argued that overt participant recruitment in which gamers know they are being selected for their game experience might induce demand characteristic responsible for superior gamer performanc...
Poster
Poster presented at the Florida State University Psychology Department Graduate Research Day.
Technical Report
In Task 1, we analyzed pedestrian crash data for parking lots in West Central Florida, finding: 1) Seasonal variation in crash frequency in parking lots with higher frequencies in winter and spring, likely associated with tourist influxes to Florida; 2) Variation in crash frequency during daytime hours with peaks from noon to 6 pm; 3) Greater crash...
Technical Report
We conducted six tasks with younger (ages 21-35), middle-aged (ages 50-64), and older (ages 65 and up) drivers and pedestrians. Task 1 evaluated effective word order for message signs, showing that decision making efficiency for standard orders for Dynamic Message Signs (DMS) and Portable Changeable Message Signs (PCMS) did not differ significantly...

Network

Cited By