Carsten Schmidt-Weber

Carsten Schmidt-Weber
Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH) | HZM · Institute of Allergy Research

Prof. Dr.

About

368
Publications
86,335
Reads
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11,980
Citations
Introduction
Interest in immunology at barriers, translational research and innovative options for non-invasive diagnosis, prevention and therapy.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Helmholtz Zentrum München Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Gesundheit und Umwelt (GmbH)
Position
  • Director of the Institute of Allergy Research of the Helmholtz Center Munich (part of the ZAUM; hybrid institution of TUM)
Description
  • The Helmholtz Center & the Technische Universität München have founded a "hybrid" institute (center of allergy & environment; ZAUM) taking advantage of the advanced technology of Helmholtz and strength of clinical of allergy at Klinikum rechts der Isar.
April 2010 - present
Technische Universität München
Position
  • Chair of Molecular Allergology and Environment
Description
  • Full professorship and chair at the medical faculty.
October 2007 - March 2010
National Hearth and Lung Institue, Imperial College London
Position
  • Reader at Imperial College London
Description
  • Basic research & design of a clinical trial involving an anti-IL-4 principal in the Department of Prof. Stephen Durham.

Publications

Publications (368)
Article
Full-text available
MicroRNAs (miRs) have gained scientific attention due to their importance in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases as well as their potential as biomarkers in allergen-specific treatment options. Their function as post-transcriptional regulators, controlling various cellular processes, is of high importance since any single miR can target multip...
Article
Full-text available
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is the only currently available curative treatment option for allergic diseases. AIT often includes depot-forming and immunostimulatory adjuvants, to prolong allergen presentation and to improve therapeutic efficacy. The use of aluminium salts in AIT, which are commonly used as depot-forming adjuvants, is contr...
Preprint
Highly specific and efficient drugs have been developed during the last two decades to treat non-communicable chronic inflammatory skin diseases (ncISD). Due to their specificity, these drugs are asking for precise diagnostic measures to attribute the most efficient treatment to each patient. Diagnosis, however, is complicated by the complex pathog...
Article
Full-text available
The severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19, but host cell factors contributing to COVID-19 pathogenesis remain only partly understood. We identify the host metalloprotease ADAM17 as a facilitator of SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and the metalloprotease ADAM10 as a host factor required for lung cell s...
Article
Full-text available
The lung epithelial barrier serves as a guardian towards environmental insults and responds to allergen encounter with a cascade of immune reactions that can possibly lead to inflammation. Whether the environmental sensor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) together with its downstream targets cytochrome P450 (CYP1) family members contribute to the reg...
Article
Full-text available
Indoor allergens (i.e. from mite, cat and dog) are carried by airborne particulate matter. Thus, removal of particles would reduce allergen exposure. This work aims to assess the performance of air filtration on particulate matter and thus allergen removal in 22 bedrooms. Indoor air was sampled (with and without air filtration) with a cascade impa...
Article
Full-text available
The airway epithelium provides the first line of defense to the surrounding environment. However, dysfunctions of this physical barrier are frequently observed in allergic diseases, which are tightly connected with pro- or anti-inflammatory processes. When the epithelial cells are confronted with allergens or pathogens, specific response mechanisms...
Article
Allergy to Polistes dominula (European paper wasp) venom is of particular relevance in Southern Europe, potentially becoming a threat in other regions in the near future, and can be effectively cured by venom immunotherapy (VIT). As allergen content in extracts may vary and have an impact on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, the aim was to com...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the kinin-kallikrein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV-2-infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein-system at the kinin B2 receptor lev...
Preprint
Current concepts regarding the biology of aging are based on studies aimed at identifying factors regulating natural lifespan. However, lifespan as a sole proxy measure for aging can be of limited value because it may be restricted by specific sets of pathologies, rather than by general physiological decline. Here, we employed large-scale phenotypi...
Article
Full-text available
Pollen related allergic diseases have been increasing for decades. The reasons for this increase are unknown, but environmental pollution like diesel exhaust seem to play a role. While previous studies explored the effects of pollen extracts, we studied here for the first time priming effects of diesel exhaust on native pollen exposure using a nove...
Article
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Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) drive the inflammatory response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and they are a major source of eicosanoids in airway inflammation. Here we report that MDM from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with mild disease show an inflammatory transcriptional and metabolic imprint that lasts for...
Article
Full-text available
The immune system interacts with many nominal ‘danger’ signals, endogenous danger‐associated (DAMP), exogenous pathogen (PAMP) and allergen (AAMP)‐associated molecular pattern molecules. The immune context under which these are received can promote or prevent immune activating or inflammatory mechanisms and may orchestrate diverse immune responses...
Article
Full-text available
Sensing of the intestinal microbiota by the host immune system is important to induce protective immune responses. Hence, modification of the gut microbiota might be able to prevent or treat allergies, mediated by proinflammatory Th2 immune responses. The aim was to investigate the ex vivo immunomodulatory effects of the synbiotics Pollagen® and Ka...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The rates of obesity, its associated diseases, and allergies are raising at alarming rates in most countries. House dust mites (HDM) are highly allergenic and exposure often associates with an urban sedentary indoor lifestyle, also resulting in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological association and physio...
Article
Background Cutaneous bacterial dysbiosis is a characteristic hallmark of atopic dermatitis (AD) and it decisively influences the severity of the disease. Despite this, frequently used murine models of AD have not been characterized regarding the changes in skin microbiome communities. Objective To analyze the skin microbiome of two frequently used...
Article
Full-text available
TGF-β1 is known to have a pro-inflammatory impact by inducing Th9 and Th17 cells, while it also induces anti-inflammatory Treg cells (Tregs). In the context of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) its dual role can be of critical importance in influencing the outcome of the disease. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β is a major player in AAI by driving e...
Article
The content for this preprint is already published as peer reviewed article with this DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.113987
Article
Full-text available
Background Infectious agents can reprogram or “train” macrophages and their progenitors to respond more readily to subsequent insults. However, whether such an inflammatory memory exists in type-2 inflammatory conditions such as allergic asthma was not known. Objective To decipher macrophage trained immunity in allergic asthma. Methods We used a...
Article
TGF‐β1 is known to have a pro‐inflammatory impact by inducing Th9 and Th17 cells, while it also induces anti‐inflammatory Treg cells (Tregs). In the context of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) its dual role can be of critical importance in influencing the outcome of the disease. Here we demonstrate that TGF‐β is a major player in AAI by driving e...
Article
Full-text available
In real life, humans are exposed to whole pollen grains at the air epithelial barrier. We developed a system for in vitro dosing of whole pollen grains at the Air-Liquid Interface (ALI) and studied their effect on the immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Pollen are sticky and large particles. Dosing pollen needs resuspension o...
Preprint
Full-text available
The lung epithelial barrier serves as a guardian towards environmental insults and responds to allergen encounter with a cascade of immune reactions that can possibly lead to inflammation. Whether the environmental sensor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) together with its downstream targets cytochrome P450 (CYP1) family members contribute to the reg...
Article
Background: Several microRNAs (miRs) have been described as potential biomarkers in liquid biopsies and in the context of allergic asthma, while therapeutic effects on the airway expression of miRs remain elusive. In this study, we investigated epigenetic miR-associated mechanisms in the sputum of grass pollen-allergic patients with and without of...
Article
Reactivation of latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and/or Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a dreaded complication in immunocompromised patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Evidence is sparse if subclinical reactivation of viral infection may also be of clinical relevance in dermatological patients. We screened patients (n= 206...
Preprint
TGF-β1 is known to have a pro-inflammatory impact by inducing Th9 cells, while it also induces anti-inflammatory Treg cells (Tregs). In the context of allergic airway inflammation (AAI) its dual role can be of critical importance in influencing the outcome of the disease. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β acts in AAI by driving effector T cells into T...
Preprint
Background: SARS-CoV2 has evolved to enter the host via the ACE2 receptor which is part of the Kinin-kallirein pathway. This complex pathway is only poorly understood in context of immune regulation but critical to control infection. This study examines SARS-CoV2 infection and epithelial mechanisms of the kinin-kallikrein system at the kinin B2 rec...
Article
Full-text available
Discriminating Polistes dominula and Vespula spp. venom allergy is of growing importance worldwide, as systemic reactions to either species’ sting can lead to severe outcomes. Administering the correct allergen-specific immunotherapy is therefore a prerequisite to ensure the safety and health of venom-allergic patients. Component-resolved diagnosti...
Article
Full-text available
The proteins of the secretoglobin (SCGB) family are expressed by secretory tissues of barrier organs. They are embedded in immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory processes of airway diseases. This review particularly illustrates the immune regulation of SCGBs by cytokines and their implication in the pathophysiology of airway diseases. The biology...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change impacts on the structure and function of ecosystems will worsen public health issues like allergic diseases. Birch trees (Betula spp.) are important sources of aeroallergens in Central and Northern Europe. Birches are vulnerable to climate change as these trees are sensitive to increased temperatures and summer droughts. This study a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Children with asthma have impaired production of interleukin (IL) 37; in mice IL-37 reduces hallmarks of experimental allergic asthma (EAA). However, it remains unclear how IL-37 exerts its inhibitory properties in asthma. This study aimed to identify the mechanism(s) by which IL-37 controls allergic inflammation. Methods IL-37 target c...
Article
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Background Native allergen extracts or chemically modified allergoids are routinely used to induce allergen tolerance in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), although mechanistic side-by-side studies are rare. It is paramount to balance optimal dose and allergenicity to achieve efficacy warranting safety. AIT safety and efficacy could be addresse...
Preprint
Abundant polyclonal T cells infiltrate chronic inflammatory diseases and characterization of these cells is needed to distinguish disease-driving from bystander immune cells. Here, we investigated 52,000 human cutaneous transcriptomes of non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases (ncISD) using spatial transcriptomics. Despite the expected T cell i...
Article
Full-text available
Background Studies show that proallergic TH2‐cells decrease after successful allergen‐specific immunotherapy (AIT). It is likely that iatrogenic administration of allergens drives these cells to exhaustion due to chronic T cell receptor stimulation. This study aimed to investigate the exhaustion of T cells in connection with allergenexposure during...
Article
Full-text available
Extensive remodeling of the airways is a major characteristic of chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To elucidate the importance of a deregulated immune response in the airways for remodeling processes, we established a matching Drosophila model. Here, triggering the Imd (immune deficie...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change affects the reproductive life cycles of plants, including pollen production, which has consequences for allergic respiratory diseases. We examined climatic trends at eight locations in Bavaria, Southern Germany, with pollen time series of at least 10 years (up to 30 years in Munich). Climate change in Bavaria was characterized by a r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: While several systemic immunomodulatory effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) have been discovered, local anti-inflammatory mechanisms in the respiratory tract are largely unknown. We sought to elucidate local and epithelial mechanisms underlying allergen-specific immunotherapy in a genome-wideapproach. Methods: We induced...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is highly complex and understanding of disease endotypes may improve disease management. Immunoglobulins E (IgE) against human skin epitopes (IgE autoantibodies) are thought to play a role in disease progression and prolongation. These antibodies have been described in patients with severe and...
Article
Full-text available
In past 10 years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have gained scientific attention due to their importance in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases and their potential as biomarkers in liquid biopsies. They act as master post-transcriptional regulators that control most cellular processes. As one miRNA can target several mRNAs, often within the same pathway,...
Article
Full-text available
Background A comprehensive diagnostic work-up is essential to ensure adequate patient management for the potentially life-threatening condition of Hymenoptera venom allergy (HVA). This includes an unambiguous identification of the allergy-relevant venom as prerequisite for successful venom-specific immunotherapy (VIT). If the clinical history does...
Preprint
2020.11.20- This publication has now been accepted and published in Allergy. This article has been accepted for publication and undergone full peer review but has not been through the proofreading process, which may lead to differences between this version and the Version of Record.
Article
Full-text available
Sex steroids, such as estrogens and androgens, are important regulators of the humoral immune response. Studies in female mice have demonstrated that alteration of circulating estrogen concentration regulates antibody-mediated immunity. As males have normally little endogenous estrogen, we hypothesized that in males high estrogens and low androgens...
Article
Background: Common ragweed has been spreading as a neophyte in Europe. Elevated CO2 levels, a hallmark of global climate change, have been shown to increase ragweed pollen production, but their effects on pollen allergenicity remain to be elucidated. Methods: Ragweed was grown in climate-controlled chambers under normal (380 ppm, control) or eleva...
Conference Paper
Background: Allergies are still on the rise. In the last years, major improvements were made regarding detrimental environmental exposure and its influence on allergic diseases. Until now, studies were done using extracts of pollen. A more real-life exposure is using whole pollen, which until now was almost impossible to do. Our aim was to build an...
Article
Full-text available
The immune response to antigens is a key aspect of immunology, as it provides opportunities for therapeutic intervention. However, the induction of immunological tolerance is an evolving area that is still not sufficiently understood. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a disease-modulating therapy available for immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated airway d...
Article
Full-text available
Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common inflammatory skin disease in children, with 30% of all those diagnosed developing chronic or relapsing disease by adolescence. Such disease persistence cannot yet be predicted. The aim of the present study was to predict the natural course of AD using clinical parameters and serum proteins. Meth...
Article
There is high demand for online, real-time and high-quality pollen data. To the moment pollen monitoring has been done manually by highly specialized experts. Here we evaluate the electronic Pollen Information Network (ePIN) comprising 8 automatic BAA500 pollen monitors in Bavaria, Germany. Automatic BAA500 and manual Hirst-type pollen traps were r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic inflammatory diseases of the cardiovascular system, brain, gut, joints, skin and lung are characterized by complex interactions between genetic predisposition and tissuespecific immune responses. This heterogeneity complicates diagnoses and the ability to exploit omics approaches to improve disease management, develop more effective therape...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of review: Stings of Hymenoptera of the superfamily Vespoidea such as yellow jackets, paper wasps or stinging ants are common triggers for severe and even fatal allergic reactions. Antigen 5 allergens are potent allergens in the majority of these venoms with major importance for diagnosis and therapy. Reviewed here are the characteristics...
Article
Background NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD) is a chronic inflammatory condition, which is driven by an aberrant arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. Macrophages are major producers of AA metabolites and subject to metabolic reprogramming, but they have been neglected in N-ERD. Objective We sought to elucidate a potential metabolic and ep...
Article
Full-text available
With the worldwide spread of the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus‐2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) resulting in declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, the SARS‐CoV‐2‐induced Coronavirus disease‐19 (COVID‐19) has become one of the main challenges of our times. The high infection rate and the severe disea...
Article
Full-text available
Allergic reactions to stings of Hymenoptera species can have serious or even fatal consequences. If the identification of the culprit insect is possible, venom-specific immunotherapy effectively cures Hymenoptera venom allergies. Although component-resolved diagnostics has strongly evolved in recent years, the differentiation between allergies to c...
Article
Eicosanoids are key mediators of type-2 inflammation, e.g., in allergy and asthma. Helminth products have been suggested as remedies against inflammatory diseases, but their effects on eicosanoids are unknown. Here, we show that larval products of the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri ( HpbE ), known to modulate type-2 responses, trigger a...
Article
Diagnostic allergens are defined as medicinal products in the EU. Marketing authorization by national authorities is necessary, howeverdiagnostic allergensare not homogeneously regulated in different EU member states. Allergen manufacturers argue with increasing costs forcing them to continuously reduce the diagnostic allergen portfolios offeredto...
Article
Correction to: Allergo J Int 2019 10.1007/s40629-019-00110-9 Affiliation and disclaimer have been misrepresented and are hereby corrected: Vera Mahler: Affiliation: Med. Faculty, Friedrich-Alexander-University (FAU) Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this …
Article
Full-text available
Airborne pollen concentrations vary depending on the location of the pollen trap with respect to the pollen sources. Two Hirst-type pollen traps were analyzed within the city of Munich (Germany): one trap was located 2 m above ground level (AGL) and the other one at rooftop (35 m AGL), 4.2 km apart. In general, 1.4 ± 0.5 times higher pollen amounts...
Article
Full-text available
The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) organized the first European Strategic Forum on Allergic Diseases and Asthma. The main aim was to bring together all relevant stakeholders and decision‐makers in the field of allergy, asthma and clinical Immunology around an open debate on contemporary challenges and potential solution...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The number of patients affected by allergies is increasing worldwide. The resulting allergic diseases are leading to significant costs for health care and social systems. Integrated care pathways are needed to enable comprehensive care within the national health systems. The ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative...
Article
Background: Key pathogenic events of psoriasis and atopic eczema (AE) are misguided immune reactions of the skin. IL-17C is an epithelial derived cytokine, whose impact on skin inflammation is unclear. Objective: We sought to characterize the role of IL-17C in human ISD. Methods: IL-17C gene and protein expression was assessed by immunohistoch...