Carsten Herbes

Carsten Herbes
Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen | HfWU · Institute for International Research on Sustainable Management and Renewable Energy

Prof. Dr.

About

93
Publications
17,204
Reads
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980
Citations
Citations since 2016
59 Research Items
936 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250
Introduction
Carsten Herbes is Director of the 'Institute for International Research on Sustainable Management and Renewable Energy' at Nuertingen-Geislingen University, Germany. Carsten does research on marketing, acceptance, business models and cost of renewable energy.
Additional affiliations
March 2012 - present
Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen
Position
  • Managing Director
Education
January 2005 - September 2006
Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder)
Field of study
  • Business administration
April 1997 - March 1998
Hitotsubashi University
Field of study
  • Business administration
October 1993 - September 1998
Universität Mannheim
Field of study
  • Business administration

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
The demand to develop and produce eco-friendly alternatives for food packaging is increasing. The huge negative impact that the disposal of so-called "single-use plastics" has on the environment is propelling the market to search for new solutions, and requires initiatives to drive faster responses from the scientific community, the industry, and g...
Article
One of the key challenges of increasing renewable energy use is consumer demand. In the residential heating sector, where long-lived fossil-fuel systems are slow to be replaced, consumer demand for drop-in renewable gases like biomethane or Synthetic Natural Gas could play an important role in short-term decarbonization. As this sector is a major e...
Article
Full-text available
While consumer understanding of and preferences for environmentally friendly packaging options have been well investigated, little is known about the environmentally friendly packaging attributes communicated to consumers by suppliers via packaging cues. We thus propose a literature based attribute-cue matrix as a tool for analyzing packaging solut...
Article
Policy makers in various countries have made the development of community energy, especially in the form of a renewable energy cooperative (REC), a goal of energy policy. Weaknesses in qualifications of REC management teams have been identified by previous research as a barrier for the further development of RECs, especially when implementation of...
Article
Given the global importance of deploying renewable energies (RE) in countries of the Global South, the relevant research landscape is still sparse. Through a systematic literature review and analysis of the 90 most highly cited articles on RE in Africa, Asia and South America, we characterize the topics and approaches explored so far. We find that...
Article
Full-text available
Renewable energy technology (RET) can help small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing economies to both meet the need for a stable energy supply and contribute to the fight against climate change. In Senegal, SMEs have the opportunity through RET to become electricity prosumers. Whether it works as such in Senegalese SMEs is one of the quest...
Article
Replacing natural gas with biomethane is an option to help decarbonize residential heating and cooling. But little biomethane is in the voluntary markets for heating. We examined biomethane-based gas tariff offerings in the UK, Germany, Austria and Switzerland, using qualitative content analysis and compared them to the national policy contexts. We...
Article
Full-text available
The processing of slurry and biogas digestate reduces their volume and separates nutrient flows, especially in regions with nutrient surpluses. This makes it possible to cut transport costs for supra-regional utilisation and to configure tailor-made products for different customers. However, the additional capital and equipment costs can usually on...
Chapter
This chapter presents an overview of bio‐based packaging, clarifying for readers the important difference between bio‐based and bio‐degradable. It explores consumer broad perception of bio‐based plastics, since these materials are an important part of the bio‐based packaging material portfolio. The chapter addresses more specific consumer perceptio...
Article
Full-text available
Biogas from anaerobic digestion has become an important element in the renewable energy portfolio of many countries. In anaerobic digestion, digestate is produced as a byproduct. This could be used to produce fertilizers and potting soils for home gardeners substituting mineral fertilizers or peat-based products. However, this depends on consumer w...
Article
Full-text available
Research on green identity work has so far concentrated on sustainability managers and/or top-management actors. How lower-level green employees cope with identity tensions at work is, as yet, under-researched. The paper uses an identity work perspective and a qualitative empirical study to identify four strategies that lower-level employees use in...
Article
With state-led support being only temporary, attention has turned to retail electricity markets to provide long-term support for renewable electricity. Past research has focused on consumer preferences for green electricity, i.e. the demand side. We investigated the supply side by analyzing what suppliers selling green retail electricity products i...
Article
Full-text available
As consumers have grown increasingly aware of the impact of packaging on the environment. Therefore, interest has grown in more environmentally friendly packaging but we wondered how consumers recognize “green” as distinct from “grey” when evaluating packaging. We asked over 3,000 respondents from Germany, France and the United States how they reco...
Article
The digestate of biogas plants is a nutrient-rich product whose value can be increased by processing to improve transportability and transform it into a saleable fertilizer or soil amendment which is also called for due to nutrient surpluses in many regions and increasingly strict legislation. The limited focus of past research on processing costs...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses the technical potential for utilising excess heat from biogas plants, in order to supply local settlements through district heating. Based on a survey of around 600 biogas plant operators, the fractions of excess heat from the cogeneration units in these plants are analysed. A heuristic is developed to match biogas plants (heat...
Article
Full-text available
Background Utilization of energy crops for biogas production has been controversially discussed in Germany due to negative environmental effects and the “food vs. fuel” debate. This led to a search for alternative substrates focusing on material from landscape management measures. Aquatic biomass is harvested during water body management, yet it ha...
Article
Full-text available
Background French energy policy calls for ambitious growth in the biogas sector, with the quantity of biomethane fed into the public grid targeted at 8 TWh per year by 2023. Although today biomethane in France serves predominantly as vehicle fuel, the domestic heating market, with its high share of gas heating, should see biogas growth in the futur...
Article
Bioenergy represents a promising approach not only to sustainable energy but also to effective management of organic waste. As an end product of bioenergy production, digestate is often treated as another waste product, although it has substantial agricultural value. Efforts to integrate digestate-based compost products into the potting soil market...
Article
Full-text available
Background Landscape maintenance in Germany today requires regular and extensive de-weeding of waterways, mostly to ensure water runoff and provide flood protection. The costs for this maintenance are high, and the harvested biomass goes to waste. Methods We evaluated the economic feasibility of using water plant biomass as a substrate in biogas g...
Article
Heat prices are crucial for the revenues that biogas plants can generate; they can make or break a plant's business. But little empirical price data exists. To remedy this and to identify factors influencing heat prices received by biogas plants, we surveyed 602 plant operators in Germany, yielding 1035 price points. We found a mean price of 1.91 E...
Article
Aquatic macrophytes are important components of aquatic habitats. However, the overgrowth of aquatic plants can cause severe problems for the management of bodies of water. As a result, these plants must be removed and disposed of as waste. However, the usage of this biomass as a substrate in biogas plants would appear to be more beneficial. The pr...
Article
Growing awareness of the environmental damage associated with conventional product packaging has led to keen interest in ‘green’ ‘environmentally friendly’ or ‘sustainable’ packaging. Research tells us a great deal about how the ‘environmental friendliness’ of a package may influence a consumer purchasing decision, but we have little scientific ins...
Article
Modern social and marketing research relies heavily on surveys to collect data. At the same time, it is well established that survey responses are influenced by response style biases that vary across individuals, countries and cultures. Investigating such biases, we focused on Mexico and South Korea, two uprising markets mostly neglected in respons...
Article
Full-text available
Die Energiewende in den Unternehmen wird bestimmt von gesetzlichen Vorgaben, vom „Business Case“ und der persönlichen Werthaltung einzelner Unternehmer/innen. Wir haben untersucht, ob und wie auch ganz normale Mitarbeiter/innen, Initiativen für die Energiewende am Arbeitsplatz entwickeln
Chapter
Die Energiewende ist seit Jahren eines der zentralen politischen Projekte in Deutschland und entfaltet Wirkung weit über die Landesgrenzen hinaus. Den Unternehmen und anderen Organisationen kommt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle zu, machen sie doch 2013 immer noch 44 % am Energieverbrauch aus (Umweltbundesamt, 2015). Von politischer Seite sind zahlreiche...
Article
Full-text available
De-weeding of streams and lakes occurs in Germany on a widespread level, mostly to ensure water runoff and to provide flood protection. But de-weeding also affects a range of stakeholders, who have their own reasons to support or oppose it. For the list of stakeholders identified, see chapter 4. As part of a project analysing the feasibility of u...
Article
Renewable Energy Cooperatives (RECs) in Germany have received considerable attention in recent years, their number having risen to nearly a thousand since 2004. This growth has resulted largely from Germany's feed-in tariff system. Recent changes in this policy, however, have made the previous REC business models mostly unprofitable, so RECs are lo...
Chapter
Biomethane is playing an important role in the transition to a sustainable energy system. It is renewable and can be easily stored, and its availability can be matched to times of peak demand. It benefits from an existing infrastructure for transport, storage, and use, namely, the public gas grid, gas-based heating systems in millions of private ho...
Chapter
Against the background of a modern understanding of marketing, which stresses value orientation and the interactive web, the attributes of renewable energy (commodity, low-involvement product, credence good, partially public good, product that needs explanation in two dimensions, and prosumer good), as well as the aims of the consumers of renewable...
Article
We investigate conflict handling in Renewable Energy Cooperatives (RECs) in Germany. Conflict handling in this context shows to be unique due to RECs’ business model and the relationship between members and their organization. Unlike in other cooperative firms, most REC members in Germany neither work for their cooperative nor do they receive goods...
Book
▶ Explains fundamental concepts of renewable energy marketing in an easy to understand and comprehensive way ▶ Describes customer preferences towards renewables and helps marketers to design, price, distribute their products and communicate about them ▶ Explains legal frameworks of state-led support for renewables in different countries that set...
Article
Managing the excessive nutrient surplus in the vicinity of many biogas plants presents an ever-increasing challenge. By opening additional markets for digestate products, plant operators can create alternative routes for their digestate streams and so lessen the economic burdens arising from digestate disposal. A relatively new and promising market...
Conference Paper
The project “AquaMak” (Aquatic Macrophytes – economic and ecological ways of use) deals with the emergence of aquatic weeds in rivers and lakes in Germany. The Subject of research was based on the idea of reducing costs for deweeding affected water bodies in Germany. It is assumed that the biomass gained by de-weeding can be integrated into existin...
Chapter
Kunden verfolgen sowohl eigenen psychologischen Nutzen als auch die Absicht, Verbesserungen im Umwelt- und Klimaschutz sowie grundlegende Veränderungen für die Energiewirtschaft zu erreichen, wenn sie sich für den Bezug von Erneuerbare Energien entscheiden.
Chapter
Mittlerweile haben die Anforderungen der Kunden auch Unternehmen dazu veranlasst, Produkte unter Verwendung von Erneuerbarer Energie (EE) herzustellen – und das im Marketing für diese Produkte zu nutzen.
Chapter
Als Marketing 3.0 wird ein innovatives Konzept von Kotler et al. (2010) vorgestellt, das einen bestens geeigneten Rahmen für Marketing und Vertrieb von Erneuerbaren Energien (EE) bildet.
Chapter
Die Eigenschaften von Erneuerbare-Energie-Produkten haben grundlegende Auswirkungen auf die vier P: Produktpolitik, Preispolitik, Distributionspolitik und Kommunikationspolitik.
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE), presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated...
Chapter
Im IEKP wurde 2007 das Ziel formuliert, bis 2020 jährlich 6 Mrd. Kubikmeter Biomethan zu nutzen. Mit dem EEWärmeG wurde 2009 die gesetzliche Grundlage geschaffen, um den prozentualen Anteil erneuerbarer Energieträger an der Wärme- und Kältebereitstellung zu erhöhen, der bis 2020 auf 14 % steigen soll. Der Einsatz von Biomethan ist in diesem Kontext...
Article
Full-text available
In the effort to combat global warming, renewable energies play a key role. However, most efforts are still focused on the electricity market, so renewables remain underrepresented in the heat market. Biomethane derived from biogas is an intriguing option for using renewable energy to generate heat in residential homes. However, biomethane comes at...
Technical Report
In February 2016, GBEP published the Report "Examples of Positive Bioenergy and Water Relationships", developed in the framework of the Activity Group 6 "Bioenergy and Water" (AG6) of the Working Group on Capacity Building, led by IEA. The report is the result of the ‘Call for Evidence of Positive Bioenergy and Water Relationships’, launched by GBE...
Chapter
Aus strategischen und produktspezifischen Erwägungen heraus werden nachfolgend Vermarktungsstrategien für Grünstrom und Biomethan dargestellt.
Chapter
Das Umfeld für die Vermarktung von EE ist durch Werteorientierung und das interaktive Web gekennzeichnet. Dieser Rahmen wird unserer Zeit und unserer gesellschaftlichen Wirklichkeit gerecht und ist umfassend geeignet für das Marketing von EE. Innerhalb dieses Rahmens sind die Ziele der Konsumenten beim Konsum von EE zu beachten, die nicht allein di...
Chapter
Erneuerbare Energien (EE) sind durch eine Reihe von gemeinsamen Eigenschaften charakterisiert: Sie sind 1) Commodities, 2) Low-Involvement-Produkte und gleichzeitig 3) Vertrauensgüter. Sie sind 4) partiell öffentliche Güter und dabei 5) in doppelter Hinsicht erklärungsbedürftig. Schließlich werden sie zunehmend 6) zu Prosumer-Gütern.
Book
In diesem essential werden die Herausforderungen der Vermarktung regenerativ erzeugter Energie analysiert und exemplarisch auf Grünstrom und auf aus Biomasse erzeugte Energie angewendet. Dabei verbinden die Autoren systematische Herleitungen mit praxisrelevanten Anregungen, die vielfältige Ansätze für Marketing und Vertrieb von Erneuerbaren Energie...
Article
Consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) represents a central question for providers of renewable energy. Most studies on the subject have used contingent valuation and choice experiments. However, all empirical designs employed to date suffer from serious biases, such as strategic behavior. We introduce a novel neuroscience-based approach to renewable...
Article
Full-text available
Ambitious European and national energy-political targets are leading to an upheaval of the energy system, which is most strongly defined through the rapid expansion of renewable energies. The characteristics of these energy carriers means they must be at least partly exploited decentrally. In Germany the large number of private persons investing in...
Article
Managing digestate output and developing a market for the product is a serious challenge for the biogas industry. Without effective strategies for sustainable management, the large volume of digestate produced by biogas plants may cripple the industry and its potential. Through interviews with diverse biogas stakeholders, we examine current approac...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gärprodukte werden überwiegend in der Landwirtschaft als organischer Dünger und Bo-denverbesserer eingesetzt. Deren Einsatz wird u. a. durch die Düngeverordnung (DüV) geregelt. Aufgrund von Nährstoffüberschüssen in einigen Regionen Deutschlands kön-nen diese Gärprodukte nicht im regionalen Kontext eingesetzt werden. Abbildung 1 ver-deutlicht die St...
Chapter
Biomethan bietet besondere Chancen für die Energiewende: Es ist speicherbar, kann bedarfsgerecht erzeugt werden und baut auf existierende Infrastrukturen wie das Erdgasnetz oder Erdgasfahrzeuge auf. Die Vermarktung von Biomethan ist aber komplex: Von der Verstromung z. B. in einem Blockheizkraftwerk über den Einsatz als Kraftstoff im Verkehrssektor...
Chapter
Vor dem Hintergrund eines modernen Marketingverständnisses, das Werteorientierung und interaktives Web herausstellt, sind die Eigenschaften von Erneuerbarer Energie (Commodity, Low Involvement Produkt, Vertrauensgut, partiell öffentliches Gut, doppelt erklärungsbedürftiges Produkt und Prosumer-Gut) sowie die Ziele der Konsumenten für den Konsum von...
Conference Paper
In this paper we investigate the ways conflicts in Renewable Energy Cooperatives (RECs) are handled. It is shown how the organizational frame of RECs influences the choice of styles of conflict handling by the involved parties. Using a qualitative approach, we depict how conflict, mainly by members of the Executive Board, is being handled in RECs a...
Book
Wie vermarktet man Ökostrom oder Biomethan? Was ist der richtige Preis für Erneuerbare Energien und wie gestaltet man den optimalen Einsatz von Social Media? Welche Auswirkungen haben das EEG oder die Elektromobilität auf das Grünstrom-Marketing? Funktioniert Direktvertrieb oder ist Online-Marketing der Erfolgsgarant? Antworten auf diese und viele...
Article
Companies play a key role in the energy transition under way in many countries across the globe. Often, respective programs such as environmental management systems are limited to a top-down, managerial approach and are insufficient to provide the momentum for a genuine transition process. Recent studies draw attention to grassroot pro-environmenta...
Article
Through an amendment to the Renewable Energies Act(EEG), the German Bundestag introduced in 2012 the so-called “maize cap”, limiting the use of maize or cereal grains as a substrate in new biogas plants. The political decision had been preceded by a short, fierce public debate revolving around social and environmental aspects of an unreasonable ext...
Article
Full-text available
Through an amendment to the Renewable Energies Act(EEG), the German Bundestag introduced in 2012 the so-called “maize cap”, limiting the use of maize or cereal grains as a substrate in new biogas plants. The political decision had been preceded by a short, fierce public debate revolving around social and environmental aspects of an unreasonable ext...
Article
Through an amendment to the Renewable Energies Act (EEG), the German Bundestag introduced in 2012 the so-called "maize cap", limiting the use of maize or cereal grains as a substrate in new biogas plants. The political decision had been preceded by a short, fierce public debate revolving around social and environmental aspects of an unreasonable ex...
Article
There is an increasing body of research on consumer preferences concerning electricity from renewable resources. The purpose of this study is to analyze how providers’ online marketing in one of the most developed markets for green energy can be improved. We conducted a content analysis of nearly 480 providers’ websites, examining as many as 620 pr...
Article
Im IEKP wurde 2007 das Ziel formuliert, bis 2020 jährlich 6 Mrd. Kubikmeter Biomethan zu nutzen. Mit dem EEWärmeG wurde 2009 die gesetzliche Grundlage geschaffen, um den prozentualen Anteil erneuerbarer Energieträger an der Wärme- und Kältebereitstellung zu erhöhen, der bis 2020 auf 14 % steigen soll. Der Einsatz von Biomethan ist in diesem Kontext...
Chapter
The bursting of the speculative ‘bubble economy’ — and the longest recession in Japan’s post-war history that followed it — plunged the Japanese economy into crisis and called many of the idiosyncrasies into question which, until that time, had been seen as factors in the successes of Japanese businesses (Schmidt, 1997, p. 95). In order to deal wit...
Article
Full-text available
Merger and acquisitions are doing a roaring trade in Japan and legal changes introduced in May 2007 make it easier for foreign companies to buy Japanese companies via share exchange. In Japan, as in other countries, mergers stand or fall by the degree to which integration really works. This article surveys the specific integration problems and comm...
Chapter
Kommunikationsfähigkeit und Kommunikationsbereitschaft sind elementare Voraussetzungen für die kulturelle Integration im multinationalen Unternehmen. Nur wenn diese beiden Größen gegeben sind, können Wertesysteme innerhalb des Unternehmens ausgetauscht werden. Dies wiederum ist die Grundlage für die gemeinsame Imterpretation bestimmter Schverhalte,...
Chapter
In Unterabschnitt B.III.1.c. wurden die Generalziele der Aktoren und ihre Subziele für den Integrationsprozess identifiziert. In den folgenden beiden Kapiteln soll darauf aufbauend die potenzielle Entstehung von Konflikten aufgezeigt werden. Dies geschieht anhand konkreter Entscheidungen bezüglich der Gestaltungsfelder (= Integrationsmaßnahmen) für...
Chapter
In diesem Teil der Arbeit wird der Bezugsrahmen für die in Teil C. dargestellten maßnahmenspezifischen Konfliktpotenziale aufgespannt. Da die individuellen Ziele der Aktoren als Grundlage für potenzielle Konflikte vom kulturellen und institutionellen Hintergrund abhängen, werden in Kapitel I. zunächst Elemente japanischer Unternehmenskulturen einge...
Chapter
Teil D. der Arbeit dient der Weiterentwicklung, zum einen der Erkenntnisse zu den verschiedenen Stufen des Konfliktprozesses im europäisch-japanischen Kontext aus Kapitel B.III. und zum anderen der hypothetisch formulierten konkreten Zielkonflikte aus Teil C. mit Hilfe von Fallstudien. Dazu wird im ersten Kapitel die Art und Weise der empirischen U...
Book
Immer häufiger übernehmen europäische Firmen Unternehmen in Japan. Über den Erfolg solcher Transaktionen entscheidet die Phase der Post-Merger-Integration. Kulturelle Unterschiede zwischen dem erwerbenden europäischen Unternehmen und dem japanischen Zielunternehmen können die Post-Merger-Integration jedoch gefährden. Dessen sind sich europäische Kä...
Chapter
Japan sieht sich in der jüngeren Vergangenheit mit verschiedenen wirtschaftlichen und demographischen Problemen konfrontiert: Die anhaltende Wachstumsschwäche im Anschluß an die als „Bubble Economy“ bekannte Überhitzung der späten 80er Jahre erfordert tiefgreifende Veränderungen, insbesondere im Finanzsektor, um das verloren gegangene Vertrauen der...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years inbound mergers and acquisitions (M&As) in Japan have been on the rise and legislative changes have opened up new strategic opportunities for foreign companies. To make their acquisition strategies work, foreign acquirers typically initiate a number of post-merger integration (PMI) activities at the Japanese companies acquired. It i...

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Projects

Projects (9)
Project
We do reasearch on how Fridays for Future shapes (sustainable) consumption. We focus on young consumers' behavior as well as on the enterpreneurs' views on sustainable consumption in young consumers. We use quantitative as well as qualitative methods.
Archived project
The project goals was to identify topics of internal conflicts in renewable energy cooperatives in Germany and ways in how these conflicts can be dealt with productively in the specific setting of a renewable energy cooperative.