Carsten Goebel

Carsten Goebel
Wella Company, Darmstadt, Germany

PhD

About

96
Publications
21,605
Reads
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2,532
Citations
Introduction
Carsten Goebel currently leads the toxicology department , COTY Inc., Darmstadt, Germany. Carsten does research in skin sensitization, metabolism, toxicology and risk assessment. The current project is 'development of a hair dye molecule that is unlikely to induce skin sensitization under hair dye use conditions'.
Additional affiliations
January 2003 - September 2016
Procter & Gamble
Position
  • Research Associate
October 1994 - August 1996
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Allergic contact dermatitis involving the hands is a common occupational skin disease for hairdressers and the potent sensitizers p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) are associated with the development of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze whether the use of the...
Article
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2020.152421 Although the need for non-animal alternatives has been well recognised for the human health hazard assessment of chemicals in general, it has become especially pressing for cosmetic ingredients due to the full implementation of testing and marketing bans on animal testing under the European Cosmetic Regulat...
Article
Although the need for non-animal alternatives has been well recognised for the human health hazard assessment of chemicals in general, it has become especially pressing for cosmetic ingredients due to the full implementation of testing and marketing bans on animal testing under the European Cosmetic Regulation. This means that for the safety assess...
Article
Am Beispiel von Resorcinol, einem weitverbreiteten Haarfarbstoff, stellt dieser Übersichtbeitrag dar, wie die Daten zur Hautsensibilisierung und Hautexposition aus der SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) opinion (Wissenschaftliches Berater-Gremium bei der Europäischen Union [EU]) und aus anderen Quellen verwendet werden, um eine quantita...
Article
Background. Allergic contact dermatitis after exposure to p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye products is a common and important clinical problem. Because there is a high rate of cross-elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to other important hair dye products (such as p-toluene diamine [PTD] and other aminophenol hair dyes) in PPD all...
Article
Occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dyes has been associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) involving the hands. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) have been implicated as important occupational contact allergens. To conduct a quantitative risk assessment for the induction of contact sensitiz...
Article
Full-text available
Background Allergic contact dermatitis caused by p‐phenylenediamine (PPD) is a health concern for hair dye users. Because of its lower sensitization potency, the PPD derivative 2‐methoxymethyl‐p‐phenylenediamine (ME‐PPD) has been developed as an alternative hair dye for primary prevention. However, cross‐elicitation responses can occur in PPD‐aller...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Contact dermatitis to hair dyes remains a health concern. Regulations in many countries require consumer self-testing for hair dyes, but no standardized procedure exists. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a self-test protocol for an allergy alert test (AAT) that can elicit a self-noticeable alert signal in p-phenylenedi...
Article
The Cover Feature shows a persulfate reaction occurring under the conditions of a cosmetic hair bleaching procedure, applied worldwide to lighten hair. 1,13‐diamino‐4,7,10‐trioxatridecane is an ingredient marketed to hair salons and consumers for a so‐called “plex” service. In a model bleach it partially reacts and forms an unexpected azanyl ester...
Article
Full-text available
The stability and unconventional reactivity of 1,13‐diamino‐4,7,10‐trioxatridecane in the presence of NH3, H2O2, and (NH4)2S2O8 are described. The ether‐diamine is an ingredient marketed to hair salons and consumers for so‐called “plex” services to compensate for hair damage during bleaching. The main reaction product identified is an unexpected az...
Article
Full-text available
Cosmetics Europe, the European Trade Association for the cosmetics and personal care industry, is conducting a multi-phase program to develop regulatory accepted, animal-free testing strategies enabling the cosmetics industry to conduct safety assessments. Based on a systematic evaluation of test methods for skin sensitization, five non-animal test...
Article
Full-text available
Skin sensitization is a toxicity endpoint of widespread concern, for which the mechanistic understanding and concurrent necessity for non-animal testing approaches have evolved to a critical juncture, with many available options for predicting sensitization without using animals. Cosmetics Europe and the National Toxicology Program Interagency Cent...
Article
Use of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for assessing the skin sensitization potential of chemicals present in consumer products requires an understanding of hazard and product exposure. In the absence of data, consumer exposure is based on relevant habits and practices and assumes 100% skin uptake of the applied dose. To confirm and refine the e...
Article
A key part of the safety assessment for cosmetic ingredients is the evaluation of skin sensitization, i.e. their potency to induce an immune response in the skin involving the innate and the adaptive immune system. For decades the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been key for assessing the threshold dose per exposed skin area at, or below w...
Article
Background: Allergic contact dermatitis after exposure to p-phenylenediamine (PPD)-containing hair dye products is a common and important clinical problem. Because there is a high rate of cross-elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to other important hair dye products (such as p-toluene diamine and other aminophenol hair dyes) in PPD-allergic...
Article
Background: An allergic contact reaction is accompanied by high oxidative stress in the skin. Pretreatment of the skin with antioxidative substances could reduce the elicitation reaction. Objectives: To investigate, in a proof-of-principle study, whether pretreatment of the skin with the antioxidant ascorbic acid reduces the elicitation reaction...
Article
Background: Despite a positive patch test reaction to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and/or toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) many people attempt to continue dyeing their hair with products containing PPD or its derivatives. Objectives: Investigation of elicitation reactions among PPD/PTD allergic individuals to hair dye products containing the less-sensitizi...
Article
Full-text available
Oral absorption is a key element for safety assessments of cosmetic ingredients, including hair dye molecules. Reliable in vitro methods are needed since the European Union has banned the use of animals for the testing of cosmetic ingredients. Caco-2 cells were used to measure the intestinal permeability characteristics (Papp) of 14 aromatic amine...
Article
Full-text available
Approaches to assess the role of absorption, metabolism and excretion of cosmetic ingredients that are based on the integration of different in vitro data are important for their safety assessment, specifically as it offers an opportunity to refine that safety assessment. In order to estimate systemic exposure (AUC) to aromatic amine hair dyes foll...
Article
Background Factors influencing elicitation responses in individuals allergic to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) related to hair dyeing are not well understood.Objectives Investigation of the elicitation response to the new, less-sensitizing PPD-alternative 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) under simulated hair dye use conditions.Patients/Methods...
Article
BackgroundA 30 min application of a hair dye product containing 2% PPD to subjects diagnostically graded +, showed that 12/18 reacted; 8/18 with a true + and 4/18 with a doubtful (?+) response, whereas 6/18 did not react at all. In vitro skin binding experiments showed that for diagnostic patch test conditions the measured exposure level (MEL) is m...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In general, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) are expressed in lower levels in the extrahepatic tissues than in the liver, making the former less relevant for the clearance of xenobiotics. Local metabolism, however, may lead to tissue-specific adverse responses, e.g. organ toxicities, allergies or cancer. This review summarizes the kn...
Article
Full-text available
Although adoption of skin sensitization in vivo assays for hazard identification is likely to be successful in the next few years, this does not replace their use in potency prediction. Notably, measurement of potency of skin sensitizers in the local lymph node assay has been important. However, this local lymph node assay potency measure has not b...
Article
The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter t...
Article
Several human skin models employing primary cells and immortalised cell lines, used as monocultures or combined to produce reconstituted 3D skin constructs, have been developed. Furthermore, these models have been included in European genotoxicity and sensitization/irritation assay validation projects. In order to help interpret data, Cosmetics Eur...
Article
With the availability of the local lymph node assay, and the ability to evaluate effectively the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens, a model for quantitative-risk-assessment (QRA) has been developed. This QRA process comprises: (a) determination of a no-expected-sensitisation-induction-level (NESIL), (b) incorporation of sensiti...
Article
Skin is important for the absorption and metabolism of exposed chemicals such as cosmetics or pharmaceuticals. The Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals for cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity; therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the xenobiotic metabolizing capacities of h...
Article
Full-text available
The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits the use of animals in cosmetic testing for certain endpoints, such as genotoxicity. Therefore, skin in vitro models have to replace chemical testing in vivo. However, the metabolic competence neither of human skin nor of alternative in vitro models has so far been fully characterized, althou...
Article
Full-text available
Characterisation of skin sensitisation potential is a key endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients especially when significant dermal exposure to an ingredient is expected. At present the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) remains the 'gold standard' test method for this purpose however non-animal test methods are under developme...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the mechanistic aspects involved in sensitization by chemicals will help to develop relevant preventive strategies. Many potential sensitizers are not directly immunogenic but require activation outside or inside the skin by nonenzymatic oxidation (prehaptens) or metabolic transformation (prohaptens) prior to being able to induce an i...
Article
1,4-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and the structurally-related 1,4-toluenediamine (PTD) are frequently used oxidative hair dye precursors that can induce a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction known as contact allergy. Very rare cases of Type 1 (IgE-mediated) allergic responses associated with PPD or PTD have been reported among hair dye users. As part...
Article
Usage of hair dye products containing p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a concern for PPD-allergic individuals. The present study investigates the role of dose and exposure time on elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis under conditions of permanent hair dyeing. Elicitation responses after application of a typical hair dye product containing 2% PPD f...
Article
Full-text available
For the assessment of genotoxic effects of cosmetic ingredients, a number of well-established and regulatory accepted in vitro assays are in place. A caveat to the use of these assays is their relatively low specificity and high rate of false or misleading positive results. Due to the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive ban on in vivo genot...
Article
Skin protein reactivity is a well established key step in the development of skin sensitization. Understanding the relationship between a chemical's ability to react with or modify skin protein and skin sensitization has led to the development of the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) in our laboratory. A current limitation of the DPRA is that...
Article
The number of studies involved in the development of in vitro skin sensitization tests has increased since the adoption of the EU 7th amendment to the cosmetics directive proposing to ban animal testing for cosmetic ingredients by 2013. Several studies have recently demonstrated that sensitizers induce a relevant up-regulation of activation markers...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Tes...
Article
Full-text available
The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in...
Article
4-Amino-2-hydroxytolune (AHT) is an aromatic amine ingredient in oxidative hair colouring products. As skin contact occurs during hair dyeing, characterisation of dermal metabolism is important for the safety assessment of this chemical class. We have compared the metabolism of AHT in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT with that observed ex-viv...
Article
Full-text available
Skin is a target of allergic reactions to aromatic amine hair dye precursors, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD). As conversion of PPD on or in the skin is expected to be required for the induction of allergic contact dermatitis, we analyzed the role of oxidation and N-acetylation as major transformation steps. PPD and its oxidative and N-acetylated...
Article
The human myeloid cell line U937 was evaluated as an in vitro test system to identify contact sensitizers in order to develop alternatives to animal tests for the cosmetic industry. Specific culture conditions (i.e., presence of interleukin-4, IL-4) were applied to obtain a dendritic cell-like phenotype. In the described test protocol, these cells...
Article
Due to increasing public concern and the adoption of the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive, the development of in vitro models for predicting the sensitizing potential of chemicals is receiving widespread interest. This overview describes some of our current research projects exploiting known molecular and cellular events occurring during th...
Chapter
Einleitung Grundlagen der Immunologie Anatomie des Immunsystems Funktion des Immunsystems Antigene und Haptene Die lokale Entzündungsreaktion Prozessierung und Präsentation von Antigenen T-Lymphocyten B-Lymphocyten Immunologische Toleranz Immuntoxizität Fremdstoffinduzierte Immunsuppression Fremdstoffinduzierte spezifische Immunreaktionen Überempfi...