Carsten K W De Dreu

Carsten K W De Dreu
Leiden University | LEI · Institute of Psychology

PhD

About

402
Publications
436,639
Reads
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35,412
Citations
Citations since 2016
83 Research Items
18645 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,500
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,0002,500
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
Leiden University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
September 2015 - present
Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen
Position
  • Fellow
January 2015 - present
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Part-time, affiliated with Research Priority Area "Behavioral Economics"

Publications

Publications (402)
Article
Full-text available
In a globalizing world, conflict between citizens and foreigners hinders cooperation and hampers how well the global community can tackle shared problems. Here we study conflict between citizens and foreigners and find that people substantially misperceive how competitive foreigners are. Citizens (from 51 countries; N = 12,863; 656,274 decisions) i...
Article
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Intergroup conflict profoundly affects the welfare of groups and can deteriorate intergroup relations long after the conflict is over. Here, we experimentally investigate how the experience of an intergroup conflict influences the ability of groups to establish cooperation after conflict. We induced conflict by using a repeated attacker-defender ga...
Article
Human society operates on large-scale cooperation. However, individual differences in cooperativeness and incentives to free-ride on others' cooperation make large-scale cooperation fragile and can lead to reduced social-welfare. Thus, how individual cooperation spreads through human social networks remains puzzling from ecological, evolutionary an...
Article
Peaceful coexistence and trade among human groups can be fragile and intergroup relations frequently transition to violent exchange and conflict. Here we specify how exogenous changes in groups' environment and ensuing carrying-capacity stress can increase individual participation in intergroup conflict, and out-group aggression in particular. In t...
Article
Full-text available
Across vertebrate species, intergroup conflict confronts individuals with a tension between group interests best served by participation in conflict and personal interest best served by not participating. Here, we identify the neurohormone oxytocin as pivotal to the neurobiological regulation of this tension in distinctly different group-living ver...
Article
Full-text available
Although uniquely destructive and wasteful, intergroup conflict and warfare are not confined to humans. They are seen across a range of group-living species, from social insects, fishes and birds to mammals, including nonhuman primates. With its unique collection of theory, research and review contributions from biology, anthropology and economics,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Attempts at predatory capture may provoke a defensive response that reduces the very value of the predated resource. We provide a game-theoretic analysis of simultaneous-move, two-player Attacker-Defender games that model such interactions. When initial endowments are equal, Attackers win about a third of such games in equilibrium. Under power disp...
Preprint
Full-text available
Across vertebrate species, intergroup conflict confronts individuals with a tension between group interests best served by participation in conflict and personal interest best served by not participating. Here, we identify the neurohormone oxytocin as pivotal to the neurobiological regulation of this tension in distinctly different group-living ver...
Article
Full-text available
Helping other people can entail risks for the helper. For example, when treating infectious patients, medical volunteers risk their own health. In such situations, decisions to help should depend on the individual’s valuation of others’ well-being (social preferences) and the degree of personal risk the individual finds acceptable (risk preferences...
Article
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Intergroup conflict can be modeled as a two-level game of strategy, in which pro-sociality can take the form of trust and cooperation within groups or between groups. We review recent work, from our own laboratory and that of others, that show how biological and socio-cultural mechanisms that promote pro-social preferences and beliefs create in-gro...
Article
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Humans differ in their preferences for personal rewards, fairness, and others' welfare. Such social preferences predict trust, public goods provision, and mutual gains bargaining, and have been linked to neural activity in regions involved in reward computation, cognitive control, and perspective taking. Although shaped by culture, social preferenc...
Article
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Group discussion often becomes one-sided and confirmatory, with poor decisions as the unfortunate outcome. Here we examine whether intergroup competition amplifies or mitigates effects of individual versus team reward on information sharing biases and group decision quality. Individuals ( N = 309) in 103 interacting groups were given private inform...
Article
Political conflicts often revolve around changing versus defending a status quo . We propose to capture the dynamics between proponents and opponents of political change in terms of an asymmetric game of attack and defence with its equilibrium in mixed strategies. Formal analyses generate predictions about effort expended on revising and protecting...
Article
Full-text available
Humans establish public goods to provide for shared needs like safety or healthcare. Yet, public goods rely on cooperation which can break down because of free-riding incentives. Previous research extensively investigated how groups solve this free-rider problem but ignored another challenge to public goods provision. Namely, some individuals do no...
Article
Experimental games model situations in which the future outcomes of individuals and groups depend on their own choices and on those of other (groups of) individuals. Games are a powerful tool to identify the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying interpersonal and group cooperation and coordination. Here we discuss recent developments in ho...
Article
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Ingroup favoritism and discrimination against outgroups are pervasive in social interactions. To uncover the cognitive processes underlying generosity towards in- and outgroup members, we employ eye-tracking in two pre registered studies. We replicate the well-established ingroup favoritism effect and uncover that ingroup compared to outgroup decis...
Article
Full-text available
Compared with working alone, interacting in groups can increase dishonesty and give rise to collaborative cheating—the joint violation of honesty. At the same time, collaborative cheating emerges some but not all of the time, even when dishonesty is not sanctioned and economically rational. Here, we address this conundrum. We show that people diffe...
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Individuals immersed in groups sometimes lose their individuality, take risks they would normally avoid and approach outsiders with unprovoked hostility. In this study, we identified within-group neural synchronization in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFC) and the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) as a candidate mechanism underly...
Article
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As colleagues and collaborators, we reflect on the work and legacy of Peter Carnevale, currently professor at the University of Southern California, and recipient of the 2002 Jeffrey Z. Rubin Theory‐to‐Practice Award of the International Association for Conflict Management (IACM). We review Carnevale’s main contributions, including his work on time...
Article
Peaceful intergroup relations deteriorate when individuals engage in parochial cooperation and parochial competition. To understand when and why intergroup relations change from peaceful to violent, we present a theoretical framework mapping out the different interdependence structures between groups. According to this framework, cooperation can le...
Preprint
Helping others can entail risks. Doctors that treat infectious patients may risk their own health, intervening in a fight can lead to injury, and organ donations can lead to medical complications. When helping others comes with a risk to oneself, decisions depend on the individual’s valuation of others’ well-being (social preferences) and the degre...
Article
Competitions are part and parcel of daily life and require people to invest time and energy to gain advantage over others and to avoid (the risk of ) falling behind. Whereas the behavioral mechanisms underlying competition are well documented, its neurocognitive underpinnings remain poorly understood.We addressed this using neuroimaging and computa...
Article
An increasing number of healthy people use methylphenidate, a psychostimulant that increases dopamine and noradrenaline transmission in the brain, to help them focus over extended periods of time. While methylphenidate has been shown to facilitate some cognitive functions, like focus and distractor-resistance, the same drug might also contribute to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ingroup favoritism and discrimination against outgroups are pervasive in socialinteractions. To uncover the cognitive processes underlying generosity towards in- and out-group members, we employ eye-tracking in two pre-registered studies. We replicate the well- established ingroup favoritism effect and uncover that in-group compared to out-group de...
Article
Our target article modeled conflict within and between groups as an asymmetric game of strategy and developed a framework to explain the evolved neurobiological, psychological, and sociocultural mechanisms underlying attack and defense. Twenty-seven commentaries add insights from diverse disciplines, such as animal biology, evolutionary game theory...
Article
Economic games offer an analytic tool to examine strategic decision-making in social interactions. Here we identify four sources of power that can be captured and studied with economic games - asymmetric dependence, the possibility to reduce dependence, the ability to punish and reward, and the use of knowledge and information. We review recent stu...
Article
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Significance Using an interdisciplinary experimental approach grounded in behavioral economics and personality psychology, we identify an antisocial personality profile and examine its role across strategic contexts. Antisocial individuals exhibit a specific combination of behaviors and beliefs: they have a high propensity to betray others’ trust a...
Article
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Alone and together, climatic changes, population growth, and economic scarcity create shared problems that can be tackled effectively through cooperation and coordination. Perhaps because cooperation is fragile and easily breaks down, societies also provide individual solutions to shared problems, such as privatized healthcare or retirement plannin...
Article
History is rife with examples of the dark side of creativity—ingenious weapons, novel torture practices, and creative terrorist attacks—yet its psychological origins are sparsely addressed and poorly understood. Building on work showing that social threat induces focused thinking as well as aggressive cognitions and readiness to fight, we propose t...
Article
Full-text available
Humans exhibit a remarkable capacity for cooperation among genetically unrelated individuals. Yet, human cooperation is neither universal, nor stable. Instead, cooperation is often bounded to members of particular groups, and such groups endogenously form or break apart. Cooperation networks are parochial and under constant reconfiguration. Here, w...
Article
The eyes are extremely important in communication and can send a multitude of different messages. Someone's pupil size carries significant social information and can reflect different cognitive and affective states that within a social interaction can prove to be particularly meaningful. In 3 studies we investigated the impact of a person's pupil s...
Article
Psychologists have long sought to understand how people experience, think, and communicate about situations. Psychology's protracted journey toward understanding psychological situations recently took a momentous turn toward more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of situational characteristics along multiple dimensions. We provide a select...
Article
Existing findings on the intriguing link between vulnerability to psychopathology and creativity are scattered and inconclusive. Here we report 3 studies (total N = 826) that tested a 2-step solution to the possible relationship between vulnerability to psychopathology and creativity. First, we propose that inclinations toward psychopathologies tha...
Article
Full-text available
Intergroup conflict contributes to human discrimination and violence, but persists because individuals make costly contributions to their group’s fighting capacity. Yet, how group members effectively coordinate their contributions during intergroup conflict remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of oxytocin for (the coordination of) c...
Article
When humans compete, they invest energy and effort to injure others and to protect against injury and exploitation. The psychology behind exploiting others and protecting against exploitation is still poorly understood and is addressed here in an incentivized economic contest game in which individuals invested in predatory attack and prey defense....
Article
Conflict can profoundly affect individuals and their groups. Oftentimes, conflict involves a clash between one side seeking change and increased gains through victory, and the other side defending the status quo and protecting against loss and defeat. However, theory and empirical research largely neglected these conflicts between attackers and def...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intergroup conflict contributes to human discrimination and violence, but persists because individuals make costly contributions to their group's fighting capacity. Yet how groups effectively synchronize their contributions during intergroup conflict remains poorly understood. Here we examine whether the evolutionary ancient neuropeptide oxytocin p...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Trusting others is central for cooperative endeavors to succeed. To decide whether to trust or not, people generally make eye contact. As pupils of interaction partners align, mimicking pupil size helps them to make well-informed trust decisions. How the brain integrates information from the partner and from their own bodily feedback t...
Article
Decision-making groups decide on many numerical issues, which makes them potentially vulnerable to cognitive anchors. In the current study we investigated (1) whether the anchoring-bias operates in groups, (2) under which circumstances group anchoring is more or less likely to occur and (3) which processes underlie the anchoring-bias in groups. In...
Article
People are particularly sensitive to injustice. Accordingly, deeper knowledge regarding the processes that underlie the perception of injustice, and the subsequent decisions to either punish transgressors or compensate victims, is of important social value. By combining a novel decision-making paradigm with functional neuroimaging, we identified sp...
Article
In intergroup settings, humans often contribute to their in-group at a personal cost. Such parochial cooperation benefits the in-group and creates and fuels intergroup conflict when it simultaneously hurts out-groups. Here, we introduce a new game paradigm in which individuals can display universal cooperation (which benefits both in- and out-group...
Article
Full-text available
Human history is shaped by landmark discoveries in science and technology. However, across both time and space the rate of innovation is erratic: Periods of relative inertia alternate with bursts of creative science and rapid cascades of technological innovations. While the origins of the rise and fall in rates of discovery and innovation remain po...
Article
Being observed by others fosters honest behavior. In this study, we examine a very subtle eye signal that may affect participants' tendency to behave honestly: observed pupil size. For this, we use an experimental task that is known to evoke dishonest behavior. Specifically, participants made private predictions for a coin toss and earned a bonus b...
Article
Previous work on the threat-creativity link has mainly used paradigms in which participants had ample time to generate ideas. However, people under imminent threats have limited time to think of, and select, the single best response for actual implementation. In three studies, we examined the effect of imminent threats on the generation and selecti...
Article
We examined how formal organizational diversity policies affect minorities’ leadership-relevant self-perceptions and goals in two experiments. Organizational mission statements were manipulated to reflect policies acknowledging and valuing subgroup differences (Multiculturalism), de-emphasizing subgroup differences while valuing interindividual dif...
Article
Creative cognition is key to human functioning yet the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are sparsely addressed and poorly understood. Here we address the possibility that creative cognition is a function of dopaminergic modulation in fronto-striatal brain circuitries. It is proposed that (i) creative cognition benefits from both flexible and p...
Article
Full-text available
Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to other...
Article
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Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here, we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive rule adherence is reduced by oxytocin-a hypothalam...
Article
We investigated the appraisal processes and personality antecedents that regulate people’s attraction to schema-violations - targets and objects that disconfirm schema - and stereotype-based expectancies. In two studies a preference for schema-violations (vs. consistencies) correlated positively with openness to experience, and negatively with the...
Article
Full-text available
Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At...
Article
Human groups function because members trust each other and reciprocate cooperative contributions, and reward others’ cooperation and punish their non-cooperation. Here we examined the possibility that such third-party punishment and reward of others’ trust and reciprocation is modulated by oxytocin, a neuropeptide generally involved in social bondi...
Article
Significance Across a range of domains, from group-hunting predators to laboratory groups, companies, and nation states, we find that out-group aggression is less successful because it is more difficult to coordinate than in-group defense. This finding explains why appeals for defending the in-group may be more persuasive than appeals to aggress a...
Article
In dit artikel bespreken we recent onderzoek waaruit blijkt wanneer mensen geneigd zijn om parochiale of universele coöperatie te tonen. Hierbij kijken we met name naar iemands persoonlijke sociale waarde oriëntatie. Daarnaast wordt onderzoek naar vertegenwoordigend onderhandelen uitgebreid besproken, waarin wordt gekeken wat voor invloed een achte...