Carrie Cuttler

Carrie Cuttler
Washington State University | WSU · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

81
Publications
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Publications

Publications (81)
Article
Introduction: The endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis, including the regulation of metabolism and stress responses. Chronic stress may blunt eCB signaling, and disruptions in eCB signaling have been linked to stress-related psychiatric disorders and physical health conditions, including anxiety, depression, post...
Article
Objective: People with ADHD are more likely to use cannabis but little is known about the effects of cannabis on ADHD symptoms, ADHD medication side effects, or ADHD-related executive dysfunction. Method: Students (n = 1,738) completed an online survey containing measures of ADHD symptoms, cannabis use, perceived effects of cannabis on ADHD symp...
Article
Introduction: Cannabigerol (CBG), and its precursor before decarboxylation, cannabigerolic acid is sometimes labeled the "mother of all cannabinoids." The purpose of the present study was to investigate reasons for use and self-reported therapeutic effects in CBG-predominant cannabis users. Usage patterns and adverse effects, including withdrawal s...
Article
Labeling oneself as a sexual minority and sharing that identity with others often represents a significant and intentional process for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, as most individuals are assumed to be heterosexual. However, little previous research has explored the effects of sexual identity labels on perceptions of LGB individual...
Article
While cannabis has been used for centuries for its stress-alleviating properties, the effects of acute and chronic cannabinoid exposure on responses to stress remain poorly understood. This review provides an overview of studies that measured stress-related endpoints following acute or chronic cannabinoid exposure in humans and animals. Acute canna...
Article
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Statewide legislation has increased public access to high-potency cannabis flower and concentrates, yet federal restrictions limit researchers’ access to relatively low-potency whole-plant cannabis. The goal of this study was to examine the acute effects of high-potency cannabis on cognition using a novel methodology. We further sought to compare c...
Article
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New venture ideation is critical to the entrepreneurial process. To generate creative ideas, some entrepreneurs turn to cannabis, proposing its benefits. However, extant research has not validated such claims. Using a new venture ideation task, we explore differences between cannabis users' and non-users' creativity in new venture ideation by asses...
Article
Previous research indicates that circulating concentrations of cortisol increase during interactions with opposite-sex others in the presence of mating cues. However, it remains unknown whether this phenomenon extends to work-related tasks in which explicit mating cues are absent. In a series of two studies, we assessed women’s and men’s salivary c...
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Background Trends toward legalizing cannabis may increase experimentation with the drug among less experienced users with limited knowledge of possible adverse reactions. This study explores the prevalence, frequency, and levels of distress produced by various acute adverse reactions to cannabis, as well as predictors of these reactions. Methods T...
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Rationale Cannabis users frequently report stress relief as their primary reason for use. Recent studies indicate that human cannabis users exhibit blunted stress reactivity; however, it is unknown whether this is a cause or a consequence of chronic cannabis use. Objectives To determine whether chronic cannabis vapor self-administration elicits se...
Article
Background The goals of this study were to determine whether serum concentrations of endocannabinoids (eCB) and related lipids predict disease status in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) relative to healthy controls, and whether concentrations correlate with disease duration and severity. Methods Serum concentrations of the eCBs 2‐...
Article
Introduction: Cannabis use for pain relief is commonly reported, yet laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that cannabinoids are weak analgesics, and it is unclear whether perceived reductions in pain from before to after cannabis use relate to factors such as dose, method of administration, phytocannabinoid content, or the age or gender o...
Article
Background Little is known about the the acute effects of cannabis on symptoms of OCD in humans. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) examine whether symptoms of OCD are significantly reduced after inhaling cannabis, 2) examine predictors (gender, dose, cannabis constituents, time) of these symptom changes and 3) explore potential long-term conseque...
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Background Many individuals use cannabis to manage symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and evidence indicates that the endocannabinoid system represents a viable target for treating these symptoms. Method Data from 404 medical cannabis users who self-identified as having PTSD were obtained from Strainprint®, a medical cannabis app...
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One solution to the increasing cost of textbooks is open educational resources (OER). While previous studies have evaluated the effects of OER on student performance and perceptions of the material quality, few studies have evaluated other possible effects of OER. The goal of these studies was to examine whether the use of OER affects students' per...
Article
Taxometric research on substance use problems has yielded inconsistent results, with some studies yielding evidence of a taxonic (categorical) latent structure and other studies yielding dimensional findings. The two previous studies that specifically examined cannabis misuse supported a dimensional latent structure. However, given the inconsistent...
Article
Background: Cannabis use is widely perceived to produce an “amotivational syndrome” characterized by reduced desire to work or compete, passivity, and lower achievement orientation. The notion that cannabis diminishes motivation has been perpetuated in popular culture, despite the equivocal results of past research. Moreover, previous literature ha...
Article
Recent trends in cannabis legalization have increased the necessity to better understand the effects of cannabis use. Animal models involving traditional cannabinoid self-administration approaches have been notoriously difficult to establish and differences in the drug employed and its route of administration have limited the translational value of...
Article
Full-text available
A college education is becoming increasingly expensive, and the burden of this cost is often felt disproportionately by marginalized students. One aspect of rising college costs are textbook prices, which have increased at a rate that far surpasses inflation. Open educational resources (OER; free, openly-licensed course materials) are often propose...
Article
As open textbook initiatives are on the rise, a burgeoning literature has begun exploring student perceptions of openly licensed textbooks used in higher education. Most of this research has lacked consideration of potential differences in the perceptions of online and on-campus students and has failed to include a control group of students using t...
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Use of cannabis to alleviate headache and migraine is relatively common, yet research on its effectiveness remains sparse. We sought to determine whether inhalation of cannabis decreases headache and migraine ratings as well as whether gender, type of cannabis (concentrate vs. flower), THC, CBD, or dose contribute to changes in these ratings. Final...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent trends in cannabis legalization have increased the necessity to better understand the effects of cannabis use. Animal models involving traditional cannabinoid self-administration approaches have been notoriously difficult to establish and differences in the drug employed and its route of administration have limited the translational value of...
Article
Young adults in the U.S. report high levels of stress which are known to contribute to depression and anxiety. Regular cannabis users frequently cite coping with stress as their primary motivation for use. However, research indicates that coping motives are associated with potentially negative outcomes, including cannabis-related problems and negat...
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Objectives: There is a rapidly evolving legal and medical culture around cannabis, with corresponding changes in the demographics of users. For instance, the percentage of the aging population accessing cannabis is growing substantially, outpacing other age groups. The goals of this study were to describe the acute effects of cannabis, subjective e...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Prospective memory pervades our daily lives and failures can have detrimental consequences. This ability to execute delayed intentions may be impacted by stress, yet few studies have examined these effects. Moreover, as many cannabis users report using cannabis to cope with stress, it is important to understand how stress impacts memory i...
Article
Many fear that social networking sites (SNSs) are disconnecting people from meaningful face-to-face relationships. Nevertheless, previous research suggests that SNS use is related to increased face-to-face communication. The present study was conducted to determine whether personality traits and attachment styles moderate this relationship. Student...
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The bulk of previous research on students' perceptions of open educational resources have lacked a control group of students rating traditional textbooks. Moreover, few studies have examined differences in the perceptions of online students and those taking classes in the classroom. A 2 × 2 cross-sectional design was used in which 925 students, ass...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: There is a rapidly evolving legal and medical culture around cannabis, with corresponding changes in the demographics of users. For instance, the percentage of the aging population accessing cannabis is growing substantially, outpacing other age groups. The goals of this study were to describe the acute effects of cannabis, subjective...
Article
Research suggests that religious/paranormal beliefs are related to symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), including scrupulosity (i.e., religious/moral obsessions and compulsions). However, the mechanisms that underlie these relationships are not well understood. This study focused on examining whether dysfunctional beliefs (DBs) mediate...
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Background: Cannabis is commonly used to alleviate symptoms of negative affect. However, a paucity of research has examined the acute effects of cannabis on negative affect in everyday life. The current study provides a naturalistic account of perceived changes in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress as a function of dose and concentration...
Article
The stigma that burdens individuals with mental disorders often prevents them from seeking the treatment they need to improve their lives. The present study was designed to examine the stigmatizing effects of noun labels. A sample of 450 participants read 5 scenarios describing hypothetical characters and subsequently rated each character on 10 tra...
Article
Previous research indicates that an acute bout of exercise enhances retrospective memory (i.e., memory for previously learned information, facts, and events). However, the vast majority of this research has used aerobic exercise, and few studies have examined the effects of acute bouts of resistance exercise (strength training). Moreover, researche...
Article
Previous research suggests cannabis may enhance some aspects of creativity, although the results remain somewhat equivocal. Moreover, it is unclear whether differences in cannabis users' personalities may account for any potentially beneficial effects of cannabis on creativity. This study was designed to examine whether sober cannabis users demonst...
Article
Background: Cannabis use has increased rapidly in recent decades. The increase in cannabis use makes it important to understand the potential influence of chronic use on attentional control and other executive functions (EFs). Because cannabis is often used to reduce stress, and because stress can constrain attentional control and EFs, the primary...
Article
Introduction: Adults in Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) for opioid addiction are at risk for substance use relapse and opioid overdose. They often have high rates of cannabis use and comorbid symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. Low levels of self-efficacy (confidence that one can self-manage symptoms) are linked to higher symptom burden...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale: One of the most commonly cited reasons for chronic cannabis use is to cope with stress. Consistent with this, cannabis users have shown reduced emotional arousal and dampened stress reactivity in response to negative imagery. Objectives: To our knowledge, the present study represents the first to examine the effects of an acute stress...
Data
Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory 5-26-17
Article
Full-text available
Objective We created the Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory (DFAQ-CU) because the current lack of psychometrically sound inventories for measuring these dimensions of cannabis use has impeded research on the effects of cannabis in humans. Method A sample of 2,062 cannabis users completed the DFAQ-CU and...
Data
DFAQ-CU inventory. (DOCX)
Article
Introduction: Cannabis use has been linked to many psychological disorders. There is, however, a paucity of research investigating the link between cannabis use and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study sought to examine this link by exploring associations between severity of OCD symptoms, cannabis use, and cannabis misuse; determ...
Article
Research suggests that religiosity is related to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Moreover, one previous study found that paranormal beliefs are associated with OCD. It is currently unclear whether these relationships are independent of one another and what mechanisms may underlie them. The objectives of this study were to determine whether rel...
Article
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Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Metho...
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Background: The political climate around Cannabis as a medicine is rapidly changing. Legislators are adopting policies regarding appropriate medical applications, while the paucity of research may make policy decisions around conditions for which Cannabis is an effective medicine difficult. Methods: An anonymous online survey was developed to query...
Article
Prospective memory refers to the ability to plan and execute future intentions. A burgeoning body of research indicates that a significant proportion of the variability in prospective memory performance can be accounted for by personality traits, with two recent studies revealing that the various dimensions of impulsivity measured by the Barratt Im...
Article
Several traits of impulsiveness (e.g. lack of planning and perseverance, difficulty focusing attention) seem intimately connected to the skills required for successful prospective memory performance. This is the first study to examine whether the various inter-correlated dimensions of impulsiveness are related to problems with prospective memory. U...
Article
According to an integrative model of checking compulsions, experiences with prospective memory failures diminish confidence in the ability to reliably execute tasks and lead to intrusive doubts that previous tasks were not properly completed. These intrusive doubts trigger attempts to recall performing the task in question, however, diminished conf...
Article
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Previous research has demonstrated links between prospective memory failures and checking compulsions. The findings suggest that experiences with prospective memory failures may contribute to the intrusive doubts that tasks were not completed that instigate checking compulsions. However, the link between prospective memory and intrusive doubts has...
Article
Full-text available
While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms un...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on cognitive models of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and related disorders. It begins with a historical perspective, in which the antecedents of cognitive models are described. Contemporary cognitive models are then reviewed, predictions derived from the models are identified, and empirical evidence for these predictions...
Article
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Converging evidence indicates that pregnant women report experiencing problems with memory, but the results of studies using objective measures are ambiguous. The present study investigated potential reason(s) for the discrepancy between findings of subjective and objective memory deficits, as well as potential source(s) of pregnant women's problem...
Article
This study focused on examining whether sub-clinical checkers perform worse on a behavioral measure of habitual prospective memory, and on uncovering the source of a dissociation we previously reported between sub-clinical checkers’ performance on event- and time-cued episodic prospective memory tasks [Cuttler, C., & Graf, P. (2007). Sub-clinical c...
Article
The memory deficit theory and meta-memory deficit theory provide intuitive accounts for checking compulsions. According to these theories, deficits in memory and/or a lack of confidence in memory contribute to the compulsion to check. Our goal was to examine whether, as predicted by the theories, memory deficits and/or meta-memory deficits are uniq...
Article
In this study, we explored whether relationships between checking compulsions and prospective memory are a result of the increased levels of distractibility, depression, state and trait anxiety associated with checking compulsions. Students (N=126) completed a prospective memory task and questionnaires which assess the frequency of experiencing pro...
Article
Do interindividual differences in prospective memory task performance reflect individual differences in personality and lifestyle? Do the cognitive abilities known to change with age retain their power to predict episodic prospective memory task performance after controlling for personality and lifestyle variables, and do personality and lifestyle...
Article
We explored whether prospective memory task performance is impaired in sub-clinical compulsive checkers. Participants were 126 undergraduate students who were divided into three groups: high, medium, low checkers. Participants completed two objective tests of their episodic prospective memory, one event- and one time-cued, as well as two questionna...
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An underlying theme common to prominent theoretical accounts of cognition in schizophrenia is that information processing is disproportionately influenced by recently/currently encountered information relative to the influence of previously learned information. In this study, the authors tested this account by using the hindsight bias or knew-it-al...
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A neuropsychological paradigm is introduced that provides a measure of a bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE), and its correspondence with delusions in people with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder was investigated. Fifty-two patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (36 were acutely delusional) and 24 healt...
Article
In two previous studies, it was observed that schizophrenic patients display increased confidence in memory errors compared with controls. The patient group displayed an increased proportion of errors in their knowledge system, quantified as the percentage of high-confident responses that are errors. The latter phenomenon has been termed knowledge...
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In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred u...