Carrie Bernard

Carrie Bernard
University of Toronto | U of T · Department of Family and Community Medicine

About

37
Publications
2,699
Reads
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343
Citations
Citations since 2017
28 Research Items
320 Citations
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Introduction
Carrie Bernard currently works at the Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto. Carrie does research in Educational Leadership, Curriculum Theory and Primary Care. Her current projects include 'Improving Advance Care Planning in Primary Care' and 'From Classroom to Clinic: assessing a novel integrated curriculum to teach ethical decision making for future physicians'.

Publications

Publications (37)
Chapter
It is clear that in the eyes of a growing number of humanitarian fieldworkers and decision-makers, palliative care is something humanitarian organizations should strive to provide as they address the needs of populations affected by crises. What remains less clear are the moral justifications underlying the push to do so. This chapter dives beneath...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a serious illness decision aid (Plan Well Guide) in increasing the engagement of substitute decision-makers (SDM) in advance care planning (ACP). Methods This trial was conducted (2017–2019) in outpatient settings in Ontario, Canada, aiming to recruit 90 dyads of patients aged 65 years and olde...
Article
Full-text available
Background Tools for advance care planning (ACP) are advocated to help ensure patient values guide healthcare decisions. Evaluation of the effect of tools introduced to patients in clinical settings is needed. Objective To evaluate the effect of the Canadian Speak Up Campaign tools on engagement in advance care planning (ACP), with patients attend...
Article
Full-text available
Background Humanitarian non-governmental organizations provide assistance to communities affected by war, disaster and epidemic. A primary focus of healthcare provision by these organizations is saving lives; however, curative care will not be sufficient, appropriate, or available for some patients. In these instances, palliative care approaches to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although patient-centred care has become increasingly important across all medical specialties, when it comes to end of life care, research has shown that treatments ordered are not often concordant with people's expressed preferences. Patient and family engagement in Advance Care Planning (ACP) in the primary care setting could improv...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Online programs may help to engage patients in advance care planning in outpatient settings. We sought to implement an online advance care planning program, PREPARE (Prepare for Your Care; http://www.prepareforyourcare.org), at home and evaluate the changes in advance care planning engagement among patients attending outpatient clinics....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Although patient-centred care has become increasingly important across all medical specialties, when it comes to end of life care, research has shown that treatments ordered are not often concordant with people’s expressed preferences. Patient and family engagement in Advance Care Planning (ACP) in the primary care setting could improve...
Conference Paper
Background Advance care planning (ACP) can improve satisfaction with end-of-life care among patients and families and reduce unwanted treatments. Primary care is an ideal setting in which to facilitate ACP. This study analyzed the reasons why patients find it difficult to discuss ACP with their family physicians. Methods A self-completed, validate...
Conference Paper
Background People who engage in advance care planning (ACP) are more likely to receive healthcare that is concordant with their goals and wishes at the end of life. Primary care providers are ideally positioned to facilitate ACP. This study sought to describe the confidence, willingness and participation of primary care clinicians to have advance c...
Article
Background: People who engage in advance care planning (ACP) are more likely to receive health care that is concordant with their goals at the end of life. Little discussion of ACP occurs in primary care. Objective: The objective of this study was to describe primary care clinicians' perspectives on having ACP conversations with their patients....
Article
Full-text available
Objective The purpose of this randomised trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a decision support intervention for serious illness decisions (the Plan Well Guide decision aid; www.PlanWellguide.com ) in increasing the engagement of substitute decision-makers (SDMs) in the patient’s advance care planning process (ie, ‘ACP engagement’), specifically t...
Article
Objective: To examine whether family medicine residents and faculty members appreciate the full spectrum of health advocacy as described in articles published in Canadian Family Physician in 2016 and to identify the perceived challenges and enablers of advocating across the entire spectrum. Design: Analysis of a subset of data from a qualitative...
Preprint
Background Although patient-centred care has become increasingly important across all medical specialties, when it comes to end of life care, research has shown that treatments ordered are not often concordant with people’s expressed preferences. Patient and family engagement in Advance Care Planning (ACP) in the primary care setting could improve...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Although patient-centred care has become increasingly important across all medical specialties, when it comes to end of life care, research has shown that treatments ordered are not often concordant with people’s expressed preferences. Patient and family engagement in Advance Care Planning (ACP) in the primary care setting could improve...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To develop and validate a values clarification tool, the Short Graphic Values History Tool (GVHT), designed to support person-centred decision making during serious illness. Methods The development phase included input from experts and laypersons and assessed acceptability with patients/family members. In the validation phase, we recrui...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Wars, disasters, and epidemics affect millions of individuals every year. International non-governmental organizations respond to many of these crises and provide healthcare in settings ranging from a field hospital deployed after an earthquake, to a health clinic in a longstanding refugee camp, to a treatment center during an infectious d...
Article
Full-text available
Background We explored understanding and experiences of health advocacy among psychiatry and family medicine residents and faculty and the implications for clinical care and teaching through the lens of relationship-centred care. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in the psychiatry and family medicine departments at a large urban univers...
Article
Objective: To assess primary care patients' engagement in advance care planning (ACP) and predictors of engagement. Design: Cross-sectional survey using a revised version of a validated questionnaire. Setting: Alberta, Ontario, and British Columbia. Participants: Convenience sample of 20 family practices that provided a consecutive sample of...
Article
Objective: To identify barriers to and enablers of advance care planning (ACP) perceived by physicians and other health professionals in primary care. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia. Participants: Family physicians (n = 117) and other health professionals (n = 64) in primary...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Decisions about care options and the use of life-sustaining treatments should be informed by a person's values and treatment preferences. The objective of this study was to examine the consistency of ratings of the importance of the values statements and the association between values statement ratings and the patient's expressed treat...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Valid and reliable measurement of barriers to advance care planning (ACP) in health care settings can inform the design of robust interventions. Objective: This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of an instrument to measure the presence and magnitude of perceived barriers to ACP discussion with patients from the...
Article
Full-text available
Making research data readily accessible during a public health emergency can have profound effects on our response capabilities. The moral milieu of this data sharing has not yet been adequately explored. This article explores the foundation and nature of a duty, if any, that researchers have to share data, specifically in the context of public hea...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
To evaluate the efficacy and utility of a novel ethics curriculum for postgraduate Family Medicine trainees at the University of Toronto.
Project
To improve communication and decision making about end of life in primary care. We are evaluating tools and processes to help patients, families and health care providers have more and better conversations. Visit www.thecarenet.ca @mhoward101 @eolresearchers
Project
The three main purposes of this project are: · To develop evidence clarifying ethical and practical possibilities, challenges, and consequences of humanitarian organizations addressing or failing to address patients’ and families’ palliative needs during public health emergencies · To inform realistic, context-sensitive guidance, education, and practices for the provision of palliative care during public health emergencies · To develop a baseline of current palliative care provisions for clinical and psychosocial care in humanitarian action against which progress can be measured. Existing palliative care competencies may not transfer easily into crisis settings in the face of social-political or environmental catastrophe. HCPs require a framework for providing palliative care in humanitarian settings so they can offer something even when ‘there is nothing left to offer.’