Carraro Elisabetta

Carraro Elisabetta
Università degli Studi di Torino | UNITO · Dipartimento di Scienze della Sanità Pubblica e Pediatriche

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103
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Publications

Publications (103)
Article
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Background Wastewater reuse represents a promising alternative source of water supply considering the water scarcity related to climate change. However, if not adequately treated, wastewater represents a source of microbiological health risk. The purpose of this work was to investigate the role of wastewater treatment on microbiological contaminati...
Article
Since many waterborne diseases are caused by human pathogenic viruses, virus monitoring of drinking water (DW) and DW sources is crucial for public health. Therefore, the aim of this review was to describe the occurrence of human pathogenic viruses in DW and DW sources; the occurrence of two viruses proposed as novel indicators of human faecal cont...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Administration of questionnaires to assess the diffusion of disordered eating behaviours via the web is becoming common today. The aim of this study is to assess whether two different approaches of administering a test to assess traits of eating disorders (EDs), orthorexia nervosa (ON) and muscle dysmorphia (MD) by email recruitment and onl...
Article
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Among particulate matter composing paints, titanium dioxide (TiO2) forms about 20% of the final suspension. Although TiO2 is broadly used in many applications, TiO2 powders represent an established respiratory hazard for workers with long-term exposure. In 35 workers of a paints production plant (15 exposed and 20 not exposed), we assessed pro-infl...
Article
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Orthorexia nervosa (ON) is defined as the excessive attention on healthy eating, and studies especially focused on food quality ON prevalence in university students can be extremely variable. The objective of this study is to investigate whether there was a difference in ON risk between health-scientific, economic-humanistic, sport sciences and die...
Article
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One source of water contamination is the release of wastewater that has not undergone efficient treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction obtained with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), UV and peracetic acid disinfection treatment of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Campylobacter, STEC and bacterial indicators in three full-scale municip...
Article
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Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of traits of orthorexia nervosa (ON) and muscle dysmorphia (MD) in a group of undergraduates, investigate the associations between the risk of these conditions and the type of university course attended, the individual characteristics (gender, BMI, amount of physical activity, supplements and medi...
Article
TiO2 is broadly used in a wide range of applications such as photocatalysis, pigments and additives. Despite the promising commercial opportunities, different studies have shown that TiO2 can induce oxidative stress, inflammatory and genotoxic effects. The European Union has classified certain titanium dioxide powders and powder mixtures containing...
Article
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Over the past decade, several outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported in many EU countries in association with the consumption of contaminated drinking water, recreational waters, food consumption and contact with animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in a drinking water treatment plant (...
Article
The global action plan on antimicrobial resistance reports the necessity to develop standards and guidance for the presence of antimicrobial agents in the environment, especially in wastewater, highlighting its possible role in the antibiotic resistance spreading. In addition, the New European One Health Action Plan against Antimicrobial Resistance...
Article
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Background Children are at high risk of suffering health consequences of air pollution and childhood exposure can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. This study, part of the MAPEC_LIFE project (LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614), aimed to investigate the associations between exposure to urban air pollutants and micronucleus (MN) frequ...
Article
Background Children are at high risk of suffering health consequences of air pollution and childhood exposure can increase the risk of developing chronic diseases in adulthood. The MAPEC_LIFE project, funded by EU Life+ Programme (LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614), aimed to evaluate the association between air pollution exposure and biomarkers of early effect...
Article
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in a rural area of northern Italy. Influent and effluent samples were collected at the DWTP over three years (2013–2016). In parallel, tap water samples from a public drinking fountain were collected as well. All sample...
Article
Particulate matter (PM) is considered an atmospheric pollutant that mostly affects human health. The finest fractions of PM (PM2.5 or less) play a major role in causing chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effects of PM0.5 collected in five Italian towns using different bioassays. The role of chemical composition...
Article
Disinfection of hot water systems is critical for reducing Legionnaires’ disease in high-risk buildings. The use of neutral electrolysed oxidising water (NEOW) is a promising method for the control of microorganisms in hot water systems. However, full-scale evaluations of the efficacy of NEOW devices to control Legionella pneumophila are currently...
Article
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Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized to play a primary role in many acute and chronic diseases. Environmental and lifestyle factors, such as physical activity and dietary intake are involved in the oxidative balance, but their specific influence remains unclear. In order to contribute to a greater characterization of the oxidative status in re...
Article
Background: Recent data support the hypothesis that genetic damage occurring early in life during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood, including cancer. Objectives: The objective of this paper, part of the MAPEC_LIFE project, is to describe the frequency of micronuclei and meta-nuclear alterat...
Article
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Several studies have noted that treated and untreated wastewaters are primary contributors of a variety of pathogenic microorganisms to the aquatic ecosystem. Conventional wastewater treatment may not be sufficient to achieve microbiologically safe effluent to be discharged into natural waters or reused, thus requiring wastewater effluents to be di...
Article
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Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous microorganism widely distributed in aquatic environments and can cause Legionellosis in humans. A promising approach to detect viable cells in water samples involves the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in combination with photoactivatable DNA intercalator propidium monoazide (PMA). However...
Article
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Background: From November 2015 to January 2016, the routine air monitoring showed a peak of air pollution (in particular of PM10) that caused alarm in many Italian cities and was widely reported by mass media. After some weeks from this alarm, we tried to evaluate the citizen awareness and interest towards air pollution together with their positive...
Article
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Background Lifestyles profoundly determine the quality of an individual’s health and life since his childhood. Many diseases in adulthood are avoidable if health-risk behaviors are identified and improved at an early stage of life. The aim of the present research was to characterize a cohort of children aged 6–8 years selected in order to perform a...
Chapter
Wastewater refers to any water whose quality has been compromised by human activities. It includes liquid waste discharged from domestic homes, agricultural commercial sectors, pharmaceutical sectors, and hospitals. Hospital wastewater (HWW) can contain hazardous substances, such as pharmaceutical residues, chemical hazardous substances, pathogens,...
Article
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Extract Background In Italy, in December 2015 and January 2016, the routine air monitoring showed a peak of pollution (PM10 in particular) that caused alarm in many cities and was widely reported by mass media. After some weeks from this alarm, we tried to understand the people awareness towards air pollution and their positive behaviors, using di...
Article
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The prevalence of obesity among Italian children has reached such alarming levels as to require detailed studies of the causes of the phenomenon. A cross-sectional study was carried out in order to assess the weight status of 1164 Italian children aged 6–8 years (the Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy (...
Article
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Background: The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered one of the healthiest dietary models, as it decreases the risk of chronic diseases and may modulate the organism's early response to environmental pollution. In recent decades, Mediterranean countries have been replacing their traditional diet with other less healthy eating habits, especially a...
Article
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The aim of the MAPEC_LIFE (Monitoring Air Pollution Effects on Children for Supporting Public Health Policy) study is to evaluate the associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and early biological effects in children living in five Italian towns (Brescia, Torino, Lecce, Perugia and Pisa) characterised by varying levels of air pollut...
Article
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Preparation of the value-added products from e-waste resources is an important step in the recycling process. The present paper aims to propose a methodology for the recovery of In from scrap LCD panel via preparation of InBO3 nanostructure. Discarded LCD panel was subjected to a recycling process through crushing, milling, and oxalic acid leaching...
Article
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One of the objectives of the MAPEC-Life project is raising children's awareness on air quality and its health effects. To achieve this goal, we designed didactic tools for primary school students, including leaflets with more information for teachers, a cartoon, and three educational videogames. The tools were then tested with 266 children who atte...
Article
To contribute to a greater characterization of the airborne particulate matter's toxicity, size-fractionated PM10 was sampled during different seasons in a polluted urban site in Torino, a northern Italian city. Three main size fractions (PM10 – 3 μm; PM3 – 0.95 μm; PM < 0.95 μm) extracts (organic and aqueous) were assayed with THP-1 cells to evalu...
Poster
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Il progetto MAPEC_LIFE si occupa di studiare gli effetti dell’inquinamento atmosferico sui bambini ed elaborare modelli di rischio per interventi a favore della protezione ambientale. Oltre agli aspetti scientifici dello studio, il progetto ha la finalità di aumentare la consapevolezza dei bambini sull’inquinamento atmosferico e sui suoi effetti su...
Article
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Background: In Italy, students from Movement Science (MS) Degree Courses often work in sport and recreational facilities before graduation. Objective: The employment conditions of Movement Science students working in sport/recreational facilities were investigated, and the management and structural features of the facilities were evaluated, incl...
Article
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INTRODUCTION: The MAPEC-Life project aims to study the biological effects of early exposure to air pollutants on the oral mucosa cells of school-age children in five Italian cities. A questionnaire was created to evaluate the association between outdoor and indoor airborne pollutants, lifestyle, diet and biomarker effects. The feasibility and relia...
Article
Background – Air pollution is one of the most important worldwide health concern (WHO_Europe, 2013). In the last years, in both the US and Europe, new directives and regulations supporting more restrictive pollution limits were published (Krzyzanowski, 2008). However, the early effects of air pollution cannot be avoided, especially for the urban po...
Article
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Context: Physical exercise is a key component of treatment and management of people with Type 2 Diabetes, but the role of strategies and interventions to increase and promote physical activity is unclear. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of intervention studies assessing the effects of physical activity counselling on health outcomes in su...
Article
Full-text available
The MAPEC-Life project aims to study the biological effects of early exposure to air pollutants on the oral mucosa cells of school-age children in five Italian cities. A questionnaire was created to evaluate the association between outdoor and indoor airborne pollutants, lifestyle, diet and biomarker effects. The feasibility and reliability of the...
Article
The continued expansion of the green economy increases the risk profile for green occupational jobs. One of the broadest green sectors in terms of growth is the anaerobic digestion of biomasses. In recent years, this development has also interested Italian regions. The management of biomass includes biological risk and the risk of particulate and e...
Article
Background: Physical education (PE) can be considered an instrument for active lifestyle promotion, and PE teachers can motivate youths to continue their studies in the field of Movement Sciences (MS). Methods: To evaluate the role of PE in higher secondary school in promoting physical activity (PA) and MS career, previous PE experiences and cur...
Article
Anaerobic digestion was introduced into wastewater treatment plants several years ago, but anaerobic digestion performance has not yet been achieved. The variability of the microbial community in digesters is poorly understood, and despite the crucial role of anaerobic digestion reactors, the microbial equilibrium that yields the best performance i...
Article
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Background Air pollution is a global problem especially in highly urbanized areas. The use of genetic biomarkers has been studied largely in adult population, but few studies have investigated genetic damage in children exposed to air pollution. Studies in children are very important because they are a high-risk group in terms of the health effec...
Conference Paper
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Aim: bigorexia is a mental disorder characterized by a constant worry that his own body is too thin (Ferrari & Ruberto, 2012). Bigorexics are generally obsessed with developing muscles, overtrain, and overuse dietary supplements (Hepworth, 2010). Bigorexy may: (i) cause risk behaviors such as the use of anabolic steroids; (ii) be associated with ea...
Article
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Introduction Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the agricultural reuse of the digestate products (DPs) obtained from mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of different organic wastes (sludge, cattle slurries and organic fraction of municipal solid wastes). At this scope, the content of faecal indicators and pathogens as well as the heavy metal concentration of D...
Article
Inactivation of Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus in liquid media by pulsed electric fields (PEF) was conducted at varying bacterial populations with and without sample agitation. A laboratory-scale PEF batch unit with a rectangular electric pulse was used, operating under the following conditions: 25 kV/cm (E. coli, E. c...
Article
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The swimming pool legislation is extremely various and uneven. This diversity is related to the different approaches of individual health authorities, attributable to the different social, economic and cultural conditions of each country. In Italy the regulation about sanitary aspects for the construction, maintenance and control of swimming pools...
Article
In June 2011, an outbreak of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin food poisoning gastroenteritis occurred in Turin, Italy, following a catered dinner party at a private home. Within a few hours, 26 of the 47 guests experienced gastrointestinal illness, and 9 were hospitalized. A retrospective cohort study using a standardized questionnaire was carried...
Article
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The aim of this study was the evaluation of the photoactivated antibacterial activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2)-coated surfaces. Bacterial inactivation was evaluated using TiO2-coated Petri dishes. The experimental conditions optimized with Petri dishes were used to test the antibacterial effect of TiO2-coated ceramic tiles. The best antibacterial...
Article
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a biotechnology that is able to produce an energy vector from waste organic materials. Its inclusion in the food industries, especially if farming activities are present, represents an interesting perspective. This work reviews the main aspects of the inclusion of AD in milk and dairy production. It includes an analysis...
Article
Acetaldehyde (AA) is the main metabolic product in ethanol metabolism, although it can also derive from sources of airborne pollution. As a typical aldehyde, AA is able to react with a variety of molecular targets, including DNA and protein. This property justifies the hypothesis of a immune reaction against this kind of adduct, to be studied by a...
Article
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We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all no...
Article
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this article summarises the results of eight years (2002-2009) of investigations on food borne disease outbreaks carried out the Regional Agency for Public Health in Piedmont, which is an Italian Region (4,432,571 citizens, 2008). the investigations were conducted as cohort studies supported by laboratory analysis of: food and patients. The data we...
Article
Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology is a promising non-thermal processing method for inactivation of microorganisms. A small PEF bench system able to treat a 0.4 ml static liquid volume has been built and tested at the laboratories of theUniversi a del Piemonte Orientale in Alessandria, Italy. The technique used to produce the required fields c...
Article
This study was performed to investigate the microbiological contamination of digestate product (DP) obtained from the anaerobic co-digestion of bovine manure and agricultural by-products. Microbiological analyses were performed on bovine manure, fresh DP, liquid and solid fractions and stored liquid fraction of DP. A statistically significant reduc...
Article
Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are pathogenic microorganisms that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans. These pathogens may be transmitted in a variety of ways, including food and water. The presence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in surface waters constitutes a potential threat to human health when used for either drinki...
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