Carolyn J Baglole

Carolyn J Baglole
McGill University | McGill

36.85
 · 
PhD

About

87
Publications
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2,528
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Publications

Publications (87)
Article
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E-cigarettes have a liquid that may contain flavors, solvents, and nicotine. Heating this liquid generates an aerosol that is inhaled into the lungs in a process commonly referred to as vaping. E-cigarette devices can also contain cannabis-based products including tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of cannabis (marijuana). E-cig...
Article
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Background: Asthma is a heterogenous disease characterized by chronic inflammation and airway remodeling. An increase in the severity of airway remodeling is associated with a more severe form of asthma. There is increasing interest in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition process and mechanisms involved in the differentiation and repair of the...
Article
Inflammation is a response to injury and infection. Although protective under physiological conditions, excessive and persistent inflammation is linked to numerous diseases. As the lungs are continuously exposed to the external environment, the respiratory system is particularly liable to damage from inflammation. RelB is a member of the non-canoni...
Article
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Links between solar UV exposure and immunity date back to the ancient Greeks with the development of heliotherapy. Skin contains several UV-sensitive chromophores and exposure to sunlight can produce molecules, such as vitamin D3, that act in an endocrine manner. We investigated the role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an environmental sens...
Article
Full-text available
Much of what is known about the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) centers on its ability to mediate the deleterious effects of the environmental toxicant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; dioxin). However, the AhR is both ubiquitously-expressed and evolutionarily-conserved, suggesting that it evolved for purposes beyond strictly mediating re...
Preprint
Full-text available
Links between solar UV exposure and immunity date back to the ancient Greeks with the development of heliotherapy. Skin contains several UV-sensitive chromophores and exposure to sunlight can produce molecules, such as vitamin D3, that act in an endocrine manner. We investigated whether the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), an environmental sensor a...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is most often caused by mutations in type I collagen genes. Respiratory complications have been largely attributed to spine and ribcage deformities. We hypothesized that direct involvement of the pulmonary parenchyma and/or diaphragm by the disease may occur. METHODS: In Col1a1Jrt/+ mice, a model of severe...
Article
Background: Bronchial vascular remodeling may contribute to the severity of airway narrowing through mucosal congestion. Interleukin (IL)-17A is associated with the most severe asthmatic phenotype but whether it might contribute to vascular remodeling is uncertain. Objective: To assess vascular remodeling in severe asthma and whether IL-17A dire...
Article
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Susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) beyond cigarette smoking is incompletely understood, although several genetic variants associated with COPD are known to regulate airway branch development. We demonstrate that in vivo central airway branch variants are present in 26.5% of the general population, are unchanged over 10 y...
Article
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Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive, irreversible chronic inflammatory disorder typified by increased recruitment of monocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Because of this, as well as the convenience of peripheral blood nuclear cells (PBMCs) assessments, miRNA profiling of PBMCs has drawn increasing attention i...
Article
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Key points: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is largely caused by smoking, and patient limb muscle exhibits a fast fibre shift and atrophy. We show that this fast fibre shift is associated with type grouping, suggesting recurring cycles of denervation-reinnervation underlie the type shift. Compared to patients with normal fat-free mass...
Article
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Heightened inflammation, including expression of COX-2, is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is reduced in COPD-derived lung fibroblasts. The AhR also suppresses COX-2 in response to cigarette smoke, the main risk factor for...
Article
Silica nanoparticles are widely used for biomedical purposes, but also in cosmetic products, food, the car industry, paints, etc. Considering their mega production, one should not ignore their potential hazardous effects on humans, flora and fauna. Human exposure to nanosilica can occur unintentionally in daily life and in industrial settings. Here...
Article
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and prevalent respiratory disease caused primarily by long term inhalation of cigarette smoke. A major hallmark of COPD is elevated apoptosis of structural lung cells including fibroblasts. The NF-κB member RelB may suppress apoptosis in response to cigarette smoke, but its role in lung cell...
Article
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Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood), fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks), incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benze...
Article
Full-text available
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor historically known for its toxic responses to man-made pollutants such as dioxin. More recently, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis from cigarette smoke by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA. However, l...
Article
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa are gram-negative bacteria that frequently infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. This bacterium is highly responsive to changes in its environment, resulting in the expression of a diverse array of genes that may contribute to the host inflammatory response. P. aeruginosa is well-known to induce neutrophilic infl...
Article
Background: Chronic inflammation, typified by increased expression of IL-17A, together with airway and parenchymal remodeling are features of chronic lung diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that phenotypic heterogeneity of repair and inflammatory capacities of fibroblasts may contribute to the differential structural changes observed in differen...
Article
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Background: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are acute events of worsened respiratory symptoms that may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a leading cause of mortality amongst COPD patients. The utility of lung-specific inflammatory mediators such as club cell protein-16 (CC-16) and surfactant protein D...
Data
Box plot showing mean absolute change in RelB concentrations (ng/mL) over time as compared to first assessment. Bars represent the maximal and minimal values obtained. (PPTX)
Article
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ubiquitously expressed receptor/transcription factor that mediates toxicological responses of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Emerging evidence indicates that the AhR suppresses apoptosis and proliferation independent of exogenous ligands, including suppression...
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-...
Article
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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which involves changes in cellular morphology of highly polarized epithelial cells and the gain of mesenchymal cell phenotype with migratory and invasive capacities, is implicated in smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the interactions of fibroblasts and epithelial cells...
Article
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An emerging area in environmental toxicology is the role that chemicals and chemical mixtures have on the cells of the human immune system. This is an important area of research that has been most widely pursued in relation to autoimmune diseases and allergy/asthma as opposed to cancer causation. This is despite the well-recognized role that innate...
Article
Full-text available
Lifestyle factors are responsible for a considerable portion of cancer incidence worldwide, but credible estimates from the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) suggest that the fraction of cancers attributable to toxic environmental exposures is between 7% and 19%. To explore the hypothesis that low-...
Article
Full-text available
Heightened inflammation, including expression of COX-2, is associated with COPD pathogenesis. RelB is an NF-κB family member that attenuates COX-2 in response to cigarette smoke by a mechanism that may involve the miRNA miR-146a. There is no information on the expression of RelB in COPD or if RelB prevents COX-2 expression through miR-146a. RelB, C...
Article
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Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disorder marked by relative resistance to steroids. The IL-17 superfamily, which mediates cross-talk between the adaptive and innate immune systems, has been associated with diminished responses to steroids. Increasing evidence supports elevated IL-17 expression in the lung...
Article
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are acute events of worsened respiratory symptoms and enhanced inflammation partly mediated by NF-κB activation. RelB, an NF-κB family member, suppresses cigarette smoke-induced inflammation but its expression in COPD is unknown. Moreover, there is no information on its association with cli...
Article
Background Infiltration of fibrocytes (FC) in the airway smooth muscle is a feature of asthma but the pathological significance is unknown.Objective We sought to explore if FC modulate the phenotype of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) in asthmatic vs. control subjects.MethodsFC were isolated from CD14+monocytes from asthmatic and normal subjects....
Article
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor implicated in the regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Although activation of the AhR by xenobiotics such as dioxin inhibits the cell cycle and control apoptosis, paradoxically, AhR expression also promotes cell proliferation and survival independent of exogenous l...
Article
Full-text available
Cigarette smoke is associated with chronic and enhanced pulmonary inflammation characterized by increased cytokine production and leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is well-known to mediate toxic effects of man-made environmental contaminants, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of acute cigarette smoke-...
Article
Diseases due to cigarette smoke exposure, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer, are associated with chronic inflammation typified by the increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein. RelB is an NF-κB family member that suppresses cigarette smoke induction of COX-2 through an unknown mechanism. The abili...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disorder marked by relative resistance to steroids. Inflammation and apoptosis have been suggested to be important mechanisms for COPD. IL-17 superfamily has been associated with chronic inflammation and diminished responses to steroids. It is reasonable to consider that IL-17 may play...
Article
Full-text available
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that responds to man-made environmental toxicants, has emerged as an endogenous regulator of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) by a mechanism that is poorly understood. In this study, we first used AhR-deficient (AhR(-/-) ) primary pulmonary cells, together with pharmacological too...
Article
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Structural cell migration plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several diseases, including asthma. Previously, we established that IL-17-induced (CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL3) production promoted airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) migration, and consequently we sought to investigate the molecular mechanism of CXC-induced ASMC migration. Recombin...
Article
Telomeres are DNA-protein structures that protect chromosome ends from degradation.Previous studies suggest that analysis of telomere length is a predictor of disease progression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. This study provides evidence of short telomeres in asthmatics relative to control subjects; tel...
Article
Cigarette smoke is the principal cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disorder characterised by airway inflammation. As epithelial cells are the first line of defense against foreign material, the response of normal epithelial cells to smoke has been extensively studied. However, little is known about how epithelial cells derive...
Article
Full-text available
Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is a hallmark of airway remodeling in severe asthma. Th17-associated cytokines, particularly IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22, have been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. To investigate the in vitro effect of Th17 cytokines on the proliferation and survival of airway smooth muscle cells (ASM...
Article
Airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC) migration is one of the proposed mechanisms underlying the increased airway smooth muscle mass seen in airway remodeling of patients with severe asthma. IL-17-related cytokines are a new subgroup of inflammatory mediators that have been suggested to play a role in regulating smooth muscle function. We hypothesized t...
Article
Asthma affects all age groups and presents itself as a spectrum of severity and symptoms. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) play a pivotal role in asthma pathogenesis. Exhaled levels of mediators associated with ROS positively correlate with asthma severity.(1) Autophagy, the process of cellular waste disposal through lysosomal-dependent pathways, i...
Article
Cigarette smoke is the primary risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Alterations in the balance between apoptosis and proliferation are involved in the etiology of COPD. Fibroblasts and epithelial cells are sensitive to the oxidative properties of cigarette smoke, and whose loss may precipitate the development of COPD. Fibro...
Article
Full-text available
Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an inflammatory lung disorder. COPD is characterized by an increase in CD8(+) T cells within the central and peripheral airways. We hypothesized that the CD8(+) T cells in COPD patients have increased Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression compared to control subj...
Article
Acute lung inflammation can be caused by a variety of respirable agents, including cigarette smoke. Long-term cigarette smoke exposure can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a serious illness that affects >10 million Americans. Cigarette smoke is a known inducer of inflammation and is responsible for approximately 90% of all COPD c...
Article
Fibrosis can occur in any human tissue when the normal wound healing response is amplified. Such amplification results in fibroblast proliferation, myo-fibroblast differentiation, and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Occurrence of these sequelae in organs such as the eye or lung can result in severe consequences to health. Unfortunately,...
Article
Fibrosis can occur in any human tissue when the normal wound healing response is amplified. Such amplification results in fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Occurrence of these sequelae in organs such as the eye or lung can result in severe consequences to health. Unfortunately, m...
Article
Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced in response to oxidative stress and is believed to be a cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory enzyme. It is unknown whether normal or malignant human B-lineage cells express HO-1. 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is an interesting electrophilic lipid mediator able to increase oxidative stress i...
Article
Thyroid eye disease (TED) is a debilitating disorder characterized by the accumulation of adipocytes and hyaluronan (HA). Production of HA by fibroblasts leads to remarkable increases in tissue volume and to the anterior displacement of the eyes. Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), mainly produced by mast cells, promotes orbital fibroblast adipogenesis. T...
Article
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Protective humoral immune responses critically depend on the optimal differentiation of B cells into Ab-secreting cells. Because of the important role of Abs in fighting infections and in successful vaccination, it is imperative to identify mediators that control B cell differentiation. Activation of B cells through TLR9 by CpG-DNA induces plasma c...
Article
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Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key antioxidant enzyme, and overexpression of HO-1 significantly decreases lung inflammation and fibrosis in animal models. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenesi...
Article
Cigarette smoke is the most important environmental risk factor for developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Damage to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) caused by cigarette smoke may underlie the etiology of AMD. This study investigated the molecular and cellular effects of cigarette smoke exposure on human RPE cells. ARPE-19 or primar...
Article
Full-text available
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a multifunctional transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis, immunity and inflammation. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that PPARgamma ligands induce apoptosis in malignant B cells. While malignant B lineage cells such as B cell lymphoma express PPARgamma, its physiologic...
Article
Platelet production is an intricate process that is poorly understood. Recently, we demonstrated that the natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14) prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), augments platelet numbers by increasing platelet release from megakaryocytes through the induction of reactive o...
Article
Fibroblasts are key structural cells that can be damaged by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contains many components capable of eliciting oxidative stress, which may induce heme oxygenase (HO)-1, a cytoprotective enzyme. There are no data on HO-1 expression in primary human lung fibroblasts after cigarette smoke extract (CSE) exposure. We hypothes...
Article
Diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer caused by cigarette smoke affect millions of people worldwide. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that influences responses to certain environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke. However, the physiological function(s) of the AhR is...