Carolyn Baer

Carolyn Baer
University of California, Berkeley | UCB

Doctor of Philosophy

About

14
Publications
743
Reads
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38
Citations
Education
September 2015 - August 2020
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Field of study
  • Developmental Psychology
September 2014 - August 2015
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Developmental and Communication Sciences
September 2010 - April 2014
University of Waterloo
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (14)
Article
Full-text available
In three experiments, two hundred and ninety-seven 4- to 6-year-olds were asked to describe objects to a listener, and their answers were coded for the presence of general and specific facts. In Experiments 1 and 2, the listener's knowledge of the kinds of objects was manipulated. This affected references to specific facts at all ages, but only aff...
Article
We report two experiments investigating how 3- to 5-year-olds learn general knowledge from pretend play—how they learn about kinds of things (e.g., information about dogs) from information about particular individuals in pretend play (a certain dog in a pretend scenario). Children watched pretend-play enactments in which animals showed certain beha...
Article
Full-text available
Strategic collaboration according to the law of comparative advantage involves dividing tasks based on the relative capabilities of group members. Three experiments (N = 405, primarily White and Asian, 45% female, collected 2016–2019 in Canada) examined how this strategy develops in children when dividing cognitive labor. Children divided questions...
Article
Full-text available
The world can be a confusing place, which leads to a significant challenge: how do we figure out what is true? To accomplish this, children possess two relevant skills: reasoning about the likelihood of their own accuracy (metacognitive confidence) and reasoning about the likelihood of others' accuracy (mindreading). Guided by Signal Detection Theo...
Preprint
Strategic collaboration according to the law of comparative advantage involves dividing tasks based on the relative capabilities of group members. Three experiments (N = 405, primarily White and Asian, 45% female) examined how this strategy develops in children when dividing cognitive labor. Children divided questions about numbers between two part...
Preprint
The world can be a confusing place, which leads to a significant challenge: how do we figure out what is true? To accomplish this, children possess two relevant skills: reasoning about the likelihood of their own accuracy (metacognitive confidence) and reasoning about the likelihood of others’ accuracy (mindreading). Guided by Signal Detection Theo...
Article
How does a person make decisions across perceptual boundaries? Here, we test the account that confidence constitutes a common currency for perceptual decisions even in childhood by examining whether confidence can be compared across distinct perceptual dimensions. We conducted a strict test of domain-generality in confidence reasoning by asking 6-...
Article
Full-text available
Why do some children excel in mathematics while others struggle? A large body of work has shown positive correlations between children’s Approximate Number System (ANS) and school-taught symbolic mathematical skills, but the mechanism explaining this link remains unknown. One potential mediator of this relationship might be children’s numerical met...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work has shown that the precision with which children reason about their ANS certainty improves with age: when making simple number discrimination decisions, like deciding whether there are more blue or yellow dots on the screen, older children are better able to differentiate trials that they answered correctly vs. incorrectly. Here, in two...
Preprint
How do we make decisions across perceptual boundaries? Here, we test the account that certainty constitutes a common currency for perceptual decisions even in childhood by examining whether certainty can be compared across distinct perceptual dimensions. We conducted a strict test of domain-generality in perceptual certainty reasoning by asking 6-7...
Preprint
Recent work has shown that the precision with which children reason about their ANS certainty improves with age: when making simple number discrimination decisions, like deciding whether there are more blue or yellow dots on the screen, older children are better able to differentiate trials that they answered correctly vs. incorrectly. Here, in two...
Article
Full-text available
Our minds constantly evaluate the confidence in what we see, think, and remember. Previous work suggests that confidence is a domain-general currency in adulthood, unifying otherwise independent sensory and perceptual representations. Here, we test whether children also possess a domain-general sense of confidence over otherwise independent percept...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
To uncover the key properties of metacognitive representations of certainty/confidence, including (1) how and why they change over time, (2) how broad or specific they are, and (3) what other skills they are related to.