Caroline L Watkins

Caroline L Watkins
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · Faculty of Health and Care

PhD

About

293
Publications
49,768
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
10,338
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2014 - present
Australian Catholic University
Position
  • Professorial Fellow in Stroke Care
January 2014 - present
University of Central Lancashire
Position
  • Director of CLAHRC NWC Capacity Building and Implementation
January 2013 - present
University of Central Lancashire
Position
  • Director of Lancashire Clinical Trials Unit
Education
October 1990 - September 1999
University of Liverpool
Field of study
  • The Effects of Patient’s Expectations on the Rehabilitation Process
September 1986 - August 1990
University of Liverpool
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (293)
Article
Full-text available
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been concerns regarding potential bias in pulse oximetry measurements for people with high levels of skin pigmentation. We systematically reviewed the effects of skin pigmentation on the accuracy of oxygen saturation measurement by pulse oximetry (SpO2) compared with the gold standard SaO2 measu...
Preprint
Introduction Long COVID (LC), the persistent symptoms ≥12 weeks following acute COVID-19, presents major threats to individual and public health across countries, affecting over 1.5 million people in the UK alone. Evidence-based interventions are urgently required and an integrated care pathway (ICP) approach in pragmatic trials, which include inve...
Article
Full-text available
The Global Code of Conduct for Research in Resource-Poor Settings (GCC) aims to stop the export of unethical research practices from higher to lower income settings. Launched in 2018, the GCC was immediately adopted by European Commission funding streams for application in research that is situated in lower and lower-middle income countries. Other...
Article
Background Urinary incontinence affects around half of stroke survivors in the acute phase, and it often presents as a new problem after stroke or, if pre-existing, worsens significantly, adding to the disability and helplessness caused by neurological deficits. New management programmes after stroke are needed to address urinary incontinence early...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Care home residents are often passive and lack active engagement in meaningful activities. The aim of this qualitative study was to co-develop a plan for a meaningful garden space in an urban care home in the north of England, to inform the subsequent building of such a garden space on the care home premises. Methods: Members of staff p...
Article
Background Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are at a relatively higher risk of severe stroke. Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are licensed for the management of T2DM. Cardio- vascular outcome trials (CVOTs) have demonstrated that GLP-1RAs can be safely administered to T2DM patients but have also indicated a trend t...
Article
Full-text available
The management of patients with stroke is often multidisciplinary, involving various specialties and healthcare professionals. Given the common shared risk factors for stroke and cardiovascular disease, input may also be required from the cardiovascular teams, as well as patient caregivers and next-of-kin. Ultimately, the patient is central to all...
Poster
Full-text available
A qualitative study on the perspectives of clinical staff on post-discharge stroke care in India. Our findings revealed that discharge planning was integrated and individualised, however post-discharge management systems could be improved by formal documentation to facilitate a more consistent and comprehensive approach. Task-shifting within MDTs c...
Poster
Full-text available
Strengthening research capacity and capability in India based on the experience with the Global Health Research Group on IMPROVIng Stroke carE in India (IMPROVISE). Lessons learnt on the training of research associates and enhancing their capacity and capabilities in research and career development.
Article
Full-text available
Background Equal, collaborative and therapeutic relationships centred on the person affected by stroke are important for supporting recovery and adjustment. However, realising these relationships in hospital practice is challenging when there is increasing focus on biomedical needs and organisational pressures. Despite a body of evidence advocating...
Poster
Full-text available
Regional variation exists in the discharge planning, staff roles, resources, and services available for post discharge stroke support across India. Moreover, patient and caregiver challenges vary across geographical locations, educational backgrounds, financial status, family, and support networks.
Preprint
Introduction As mortality rates from COVID-19 disease fall, the high prevalence of long-term sequelae (Long COVID) is becoming increasingly widespread, challenging healthcare systems globally. Traditional pathways of care for Long Term Conditions (LTCs) have tended to be managed by disease-specific specialties, an approach that has been ineffective...
Article
Aims and objectives: To explore healthcare staff's experiences of how dehydration is identified and managed in hospitalised patients after acute stroke, and facilitators and challenges to optimising hydration. Background: Optimal hydration post-stroke reduces the risk of neurological deterioration and other complications. Patients are at risk of...
Poster
Full-text available
A series of reviews were undertaken to collate and compare clinimetric properties of scales created or used for neurological assessment and monitoring after stroke. This poster presents the data on the inter-rater reliability of items used from within a range of scales. It won the National Stroke Nurses Forum (NSNF) Poster Prize.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This mixed-method process evaluation underpinned by normalisation process theory aims to measure fidelity to the intervention, understand the social and structural context in which the intervention is delivered and identify barriers and facilitators to intervention implementation. Setting RETurn to work After stroKE (RETAKE) is a multic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Pulse oximetry was widely used in hospitals and at home to monitor blood oxygen during the COVID-19 pandemic. There have been concerns regarding potential bias in pulse oximetry measurements for people with dark skin. We aimed to assess the effects of skin pigmentation on the accuracy of oxygen saturation measurement by pulse oximetry (S...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to identify key indicator symptoms and patient factors associated with correct out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) dispatch allocation. In previous studies, from 3% to 62% of OHCAs are not recognised by Emergency Medical Service call handlers, resulting in delayed arrival at scene. Methods: Retrospective,...
Poster
Full-text available
Description: ePoster abstract, as presented at UK Stroke Forum 2021 (UKSF2021); Presenter: Jo C. Weldon, Preston, United Kingdom; Authors: Josephine M. Gibson, Preston, United Kingdom; Jo C. Weldon, Preston, United Kingdom; Amitava Banerjee, London, United Kingdom; Umesh Chauhan, Preston, United Kingdom; Rachel Georgiou, Preston, United Kingdom; Mi...
Article
Full-text available
Background To successfully reduce the negative impacts of stroke, high-quality health and care practices are needed across the entire stroke care pathway. These practices are not always shared across organisations. Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) offer a unique opportunity for key stakeholders from different organisations to share, learn...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stroke can affect people's ability to swallow, resulting in passage of some food and drink into the airway. This can cause choking, chest infection, malnutrition and dehydration, reduced rehabilitation, increased risk of anxiety and depression, longer hospital stay, increased likelihood of discharge to a care home, and increased risk o...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To examine current practice, perceptions of healthcare professionals and factors affecting provision for oral care post-stroke in the UK and Australia. Background Poor oral care has negative health consequences for people post-stroke. Little is known about oral care practice in hospital for people post-stroke and factors affecting provision i...
Article
Supplementary Table 9, column 'Edoxaban', row 'eGFR category', '95 mL/min' (page 15). The cell should be coloured green instead of yellow. It should also read "60 mg"instead of "60 mg (use with caution in 'supranormal' renal function)."In the above-indicated cell, a footnote has also been added to state: "Edoxaban should be used in patients with hi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Stroke is the second most common cause of adult death in Africa. This study reports the demographics, stroke types, stroke care and hospital outcomes for stroke in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Methods: A prospective observational register recorded all patients 18 years and over with stroke between May 2019 and April 2020. Stroke was defi...
Article
Objective Uncertainty exists over the prognostic significance of low arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) in acute stroke. We aimed to determine the strength of association of SaO2 and adverse outcomes among participants of the international Head Positioning in acute Stroke Trial (HeadPoST). Methods Post-hoc analyzes of HeadPoST, a pragmatic cluster-...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The burden of stroke is increasing in India; stroke is now the fourth leading cause of death and the fifth leading cause of disability. Previous research suggests that the incidence of stroke in India ranges between 105 and 152/100,000 people per year. However, there is a paucity of available data and a lack of uniform methods across pu...
Article
Background The role of stroke nurses in patient selection and administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for acute ischaemic stroke is evolving. Objectives To compare differences in stroke nurses' practices related to rt-PA administration in Australia and the United Kingdom (UK) and to examine whether these differences infl...
Article
Full-text available
Background Secondary prevention medication after stroke reduces risk of recurrence, but adherence is often poor. Stroke survivors’, carers’ and nurses’ perspectives of early post-stroke medication adherence are unexplored. Aim The aim of this study was to explore stroke survivors’, carers’ and nurses’ views and experiences about adhering to medica...
Article
Purpose The context of implementation plays an important role in the delivery of optimal treatments in stroke recovery and rehabilitation. Considering that stroke systems of care vary widely across the globe, the goal of the present paper is to compare healthcare providers’ priority of key areas in translating stroke research to clinical practice a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Around 25% of patients who had a stroke do not present with typical ‘face, arm, speech’ symptoms at onset, and are challenging for emergency medical services (EMS) to identify. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the characteristics of acute stroke presentations associated with inaccurate EMS identification (false negatives...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on delivery of social support services. This might be expected to particularly affect older adults and people living with dementia (PLWD), and to reduce their well-being. Aims To explore how social support service use by older adults, carers and PLWD, and their mental well-being changed over...
Article
Background Thickened fluids are a recognised intervention strategy in use for people with dysphagia. However, their bacterial profile has not previously been examined. Aims To identify bacteria and changes in bacterial profiles in a range of water sources and thickener preparations over a 5-day period. Methods Nine experiments were performed usin...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introductory programming courses attract students from diverse backgrounds in terms of ability, motivation and experience. This paper introduces two technological tools, Thonny and Runestone Academy, that can be used to enhance introductory courses. These tools enable instructors to track the progress of individual students. This allows for the ear...
Article
Background We applied Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques, early after stroke, to facilitate psychological adjustment to life post-stroke. In our trial, MI-plus-usual-care increased the likelihood of normal mood at 3-months post-stroke, compared to usual-care alone. Whilst appropriate training, manuals, and supervision may increase adherence...
Preprint
Full-text available
AimsTo examine current practice, perceptions of healthcare professionals and factors affecting provision for oral care post-stroke in the UK and Australia.Background Poor oral care has negative health consequences for people post-stroke. Little is known about oral care practice in hospital for people post-stroke and factors affecting provision in d...
Article
Full-text available
Background Return to work (RTW) is achieved by less than 50% of stroke survivors. The rising incidence of stroke among younger people, the UK economic forecast, and clinical drivers highlight the need for stroke survivors to receive support with RTW. However, evidence for this type of support is lacking. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) will...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Access to acute stroke unit (ASU) care is known to vary worldwide. We aimed to quantify regional variations in the various components of ASU care. Method Secondary analysis of the Head Positioning in acute Stroke Trial (HeadPoST), an international, multicentre, cluster crossover trial of head-up versus head-down positioning in 11,093 acu...
Article
Background: Psychoeducation can provide information and support to cope with the physical and emotional effects of a health condition. This scoping review aimed to identify the evidence regarding psychoeducational interventions for people after a Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) and minor stroke. Methods: This review was conducted in accordance wit...
Article
Stroke mortality and morbidity is expected to rise. Despite considerable recent advances within acute ischemic stroke treatment, scope remains for development of widely applicable neuroprotective agents. Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), originally licensed for the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, have demonstrated pre-cl...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of this national survey was to explore the impact of COVID-19 public health measures on access to social support services and the effects of closures of services on the mental well-being of older people and those affected by dementia. Methods: A UK-wide online and telephone survey was conducted with older adults, people with...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: As uncertainties exist over underlying causes, we aimed to define the characteristics and prognostic significance of low blood pressure (BP) early after the onset of acute stroke. Methods: Post hoc analyzes of the international Head Positioning in acute Stroke Trial (HeadPoST), a pragmatic cluster-crossover randomized trial of lying f...
Article
Background: Nurses, midwives and allied health professionals are integral to research, yet rarely engage simultaneously in research and clinical practice. Clinical academic internships offer a route for accessing academic research training. Aim: To determine facilitators and barriers to nurses' participation and engagement in research internship...
Article
2020 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS)
Article
Aims: A plethora of mobile health applications (m-health apps) to support healthcare are available for both patients and healthcare professionals (HCPs) but content and quality vary considerably and few have undergone formal assessment. The aim is to systematically review the literature on m-health apps for managing atrial fibrillation (AF) that e...
Article
Background: A transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and minor stroke are medical emergencies and often a warning sign of future strokes if remain untreated. Few studies have investigated the long-term psychosocial effects of TIA and minor stroke. Secondary prevention and medical management are often the primary focus with limited access offered for furt...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although the Head Positioning in acute Stroke Trial (HeadPoST) showed no effect of the flat head position (FP; vs sitting up head position (SUP)) on functional outcome, we hypothesised that it could still offer benefits if commenced early in those with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) of at least moderate severity. Methods Subgroup analysis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Return to work (RTW) is achieved by less than 50% of stroke survivors. The rising incidence of stroke among younger people, the UK economic forecast, and clinical drivers highlight the need for stroke survivors to receive support with RTW. However, evidence for this type of support is lacking. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) will...
Article
Background In many areas, new regional community-based services have been established to provide holistic care to patients with high physical, mental and social needs. Older people represent a group with multimorbidity and high healthcare needs that may benefit from holistic care, although uncertainty remains whether such an approach is effective....
Article
Background and Purpose— Identifying the etiology of acute ischemic stroke is essential for effective secondary prevention. However, in at least one third of ischemic strokes, existing investigative protocols fail to determine the underlying cause. Establishing etiology is complicated by variation in clinical practice, often reflecting preferences o...
Article
Background Thickened fluids are a recognised intervention strategy in use for people with dysphagia. However, their bacterial profile has not previously been examined. Aims To identify bacteria and changes in bacterial profiles in a range of water sources and thickener preparations over a 5-day period. Methods Nine experiments were performed usin...
Article
Background An indwelling urinary catheter (IUC) is often inserted to manage bladder dysfunction, but its impact on prognosis is uncertain. We aimed to determine the association of IUC use on clinical outcomes after acute stroke in the international, multi-center, cluster crossover, Head Positioning in Acute Stroke Trial (HeadPoST). Methods Data we...
Article
Introduction: Globally, the use of telestroke programmes for acute care is expanding. Currently, a standardised set of variables for enabling reliable international comparisons of telestroke programmes does not exist. The aim of the study was to establish a consensus-based, minimum dataset for acute telestroke to enable the reliable comparison of...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Identifying the aetiology of ischaemic stroke is essential in order to initiate appropriate and timely secondary prevention measures to reduce the risk of recurrence. For the majority of ischaemic strokes, the aetiology can be readily identified, but in at least 30% of cases,...
Poster
Introduction: Patients with AF are at up to 6 times greater risk of stroke than those without.However, management of AF remains sub-optimal. Long-term oral anticoagulation with Warfarin is an effective treatment for reducing stroke risk in AF but its variable pharmacokinetic profile and narrow therapeutic range mean routine monitoring is required....
Poster
Full-text available
Introduction: Adequate hydration post-stroke reduces the risk of neurological deterioration and complications such as infection, constipation, delirium and venous thromboembolism. Many people are at risk of dehydration in the acute stages of stroke, particularly the 50 % with swallowing problems. This study aimed to explore staff experiences of how...
Article
Moving research evidence to practice can take years, if not decades, which denies stroke patients and families from receiving the best care. We present the results of an international consensus process prioritizing what research evidence to implement into stroke rehabilitation practice to have maximal impact. An international 10-member Knowledge Tr...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite simpler regimens than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), adherence (taking drugs as prescribed) and persistence (continuation of drugs) to direct oral anticoagulants are suboptimal, yet understudied in electronic health records (EHRs). Objective We investigated (1) time trends at indi...
Article
Moving research evidence to practice can take years, if not decades, which denies stroke patients and families from receiving the best care. We present the results of an international consensus process prioritizing what research evidence to implement into stroke rehabilitation practice to have maximal impact. An international 10-member Knowledge Tr...
Article
Abstract: BACKGROUND:New and innovative approaches are needed to overcome the barriers to engaging people in physical and leisure activity after stroke. Outdoor cycling, including the use of adapted or electric bicycles, may be one approach. However, perceptions of stroke survivors on this topic have not yet been explored. PURPOSE:To explore a samp...