Caroline Thaung

Caroline Thaung
University College London | UCL · Institute of Ophthalmology

FRCOphth FRCPath DPhil

About

80
Publications
3,345
Reads
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1,616
Citations
Introduction
Caroline Thaung currently works for Moorfields Eye Hospital at the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London. Caroline does research in Ophthalmology and Pathology. Their most recent publication is 'Detection of extrascleral extension in uveal melanoma with histopathological correlation.'
Additional affiliations
April 2009 - present
Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust
Position
  • Consultant Ophthalmic Pathologist
April 2008 - present
University College London
Position
  • Clinical Senior Research Associate

Publications

Publications (80)
Article
Full-text available
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) was first described over a century ago. Since then, we have learnt much about its clinical manifestations, surgical and non-surgical treatment, microscopic appearance and pathogenesis. Over the past decade, significant advances have been made with respect to our understanding of FECD genetics. This progres...
Article
To evaluate the clinical features of developmental cysts of the orbit. Retrospective study of patients who had excision of cysts between 1992 and 2020. Three hundred and 58 patients (189 male; 53%) with orbital developmental cysts were identified, all being unilateral. Age at surgery varied from birth to 77 years (mean 17, median 18 years) and the...
Article
Piecemeal excision of dermoid cysts carries the risk of implanting epithelial fragments into orbital fat, which is well recognized to continue secreting oily debris, inciting chronic, often granulomatous inflammation. The authors present the clinical and histological details for two patients with persistent lipogranulomatous inflammation for years...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe a novel surgical technique using an ab interno stromal patch to treat corneal perforation and to present the histological findings of the patch after its removal during definitive mushroom keratoplasty. Methods: The endothelium had already been removed with the submerged cornea using backgrounds...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate the clinical presentation, anatomical location, and histological features of congenital conjunctival cysts of the orbit. The location and the histological features of inflammation in these patients were compared with those for 293 orbital dermoid cysts. Patients and methods: Retrospective review of the clinical details, imag...
Article
Aim: To describe the characteristics of patients presenting with congenital orbital cysts containing epithelia of both cutaneous phenotype-that is, epidermis with or without keratin, and at least one dermal structure (sweat gland or pilosebaceous unit)-and conjunctival phenotype (with goblet cells); these cysts with mixed lining are termed "dermo-...
Article
Purpose: Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) usually occurs in patients with loss of bone marrow hematopoietic function, and in a vast majority of cases, it involves the liver, the spleen, or the lymph nodes. We report EMH in the iris of patients enucleated for choroidal melanoma (CM). Methods: We report a series of three patients with CM, two tr...
Article
Background Conjunctival melanoma is the second most common conjunctival malignant tumour after squamous cell carcinoma, usually arising from primary acquired melanosis and less commonly from a conjunctival naevus or de novo. We report four cases of conjunctival melanoma masquerading as ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Methods Four patients (2 fe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To describe the risk factors, management, and outcome of delayed Descemet membrane (DM) detachment after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for keratoconus. Methods: We report 7 eyes from 6 cases and combine these data with 7 previous case reports identified by a search of PubMed. Results: DM detachment occurred at a median of 25 years (ra...
Chapter
Intraocular malignancy may present as an alteration in vision, with a white pupil (hence retinoblastoma screening in children), with a secondarily blind painful eye in advanced disease, or it may be asymptomatic and detected on optometry examination.
Chapter
Extraocular cancers occur at a variety of sites, namely:
Article
Purpose: To report the clinical features, laboratory investigation, and histological findings of an individual with a 14-year history of an idiopathic multifocal vortex epithelial keratopathy. Methods: We describe the clinical appearance, the clinical course, and the response to treatment. We report the results of corneal epithelial culture, lab...
Article
We report a 61-year-old female who presented to our service with recent growth of a thickened, pigmented, sub-conjunctival lesion within an area of ocular melanocytosis in her left eye. Lamellar sclerectomy was performed. Histopathological assessment revealed a localized melanocytic proliferation with features of blue nevus arising within the area...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To survey clinical indications for enucleations received within a single specialist ophthalmic pathology department over a 21-year period. Methods: Cases were identified from the departmental records and categorised by indication type as well as by year. Results: Over time, there has been a decreasing trend in eyes removed for end-sta...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: We previously found a dominant mutation, Rwhs, causing white spots on the retina accompanied by retinal folds. Here we identify the mutant gene to be Tmem98. In humans, mutations in the orthologous gene cause nanophthalmos. We modeled these mutations in mice and characterized the mutant eye phenotypes of these and Rwhs. Methods: The Rwh...
Preprint
PURPOSE: We previously found a dominant mutation, Rwhs, causing white spots on the retina accompanied by retinal folds. Here we identify the mutant gene to be Tmem98. In humans, mutations in the orthologous gene cause nanophthalmos. We modelled these mutations in mice and characterised the mutant eye phenotypes of these and Rwhs. METHODS: The Rwhs...
Chapter
This chapter provides an introduction to tumors of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. Here, the term “tumor” is used in its broadest sense as a mass. An overview is given on the utility and limitations of classification systems in general. A suggested framework for tumors of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium is presented so that the...
Article
Aims To prospectively evaluate the changes in corneal leucocyte density with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) following transplantation and to determine if leucocyte density post-transplant is an indicator of graft rejection risk. Methods IVCM imaging of cornea pre-transplant and post-transplant at 1 week, 1, 3 and 12 months. The changes in leuc...
Article
This report concerns a 49-year-old female with cutaneous malignant melanoma and systemic metastases. These resolved following combination immunotherapy with ipilimumab and nivolumab. She subsequently experienced unilateral floaters, an increase in iris pigmentation and pigmentary glaucoma. The eye progressively lost vision and became painful due to...
Article
Full-text available
Once an eye with retinoblastoma is excised, accurate histopathological staging is essential in order to determine whether the child can leave the hospital completely cured, or may need chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Article
This report concerns a 49-year-old female with cutaneous malignant melanoma and systemic metastases. These resolved following combination immunotherapy with ipilimumab and nivolumab. She subsequently experienced unilateral floaters, an increase in iris pigmentation and pigmentary glaucoma. The eye progressively lost vision and became painful due to...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To characterize the immune cells present in different forms of feline anterior uveitis. Samples: Eyes were obtained from 49 cats diagnosed with chronic idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic anterior uveitis, 7 cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), and 9 cats euthanized for nonocular disease. Methods: H&E sections were scored on the...
Article
Full-text available
In a large family of Czech origin, we mapped a locus for an autosomal-dominant corneal endothelial dystrophy, posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 4 (PPCD4), to 8q22.3-q24.12. Whole-genome sequencing identified a unique variant (c.20+544G>T) in this locus, within an intronic regulatory region of GRHL2. Targeted sequencing identified the same va...
Article
Medical education has evolved considerably from didactic and lecture-based to self-directed, especially with the rise of online platforms. While large organisations may commission or create entire customised courses for online learning, the individual teacher has a more modest and immediately accessible tool with which to disseminate information to...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between the ophthalmologist and ophthalmic pathologist is particularly important in orbital disease, as diagnosis is heavily dependent on correlation with clinical context. If the patient has previously had treatment to the orbit or an adjacent area, whether for the same or a different condition, tissue changes may occur which affe...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy. Extrascleral extension (ESE) is rare, but associated with an increased rate of orbital recurrence and an overall poor prognosis. Clinical studies show low rates when compared with histological studies. Due to the prognostic importance of ESE, we sought to compare our clinica...
Article
Full-text available
Once an eye with retinoblastoma is excised, accurate histopathological staging is essential in order to determine whether the child can leave the hospital completely cured, or may need chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
Article
Purpose To report on cases of late extraocular relapse of previously resected iris melanoma, without concurrent intraocular recurrence. Design Retrospective case series. Methods A retrospective chart review of 4 patients diagnosed with late subconjunctival relapse of previously resected iris melanoma. Results Three females and one male underwent...
Article
Uveal melanoma (UM), involving the iris, choroid and ciliary body, is the commonest intraocular tumor in adults. Half of patients develop metastasis with a high mortality despite currently available systemic therapies including immune checkpoint blockade. Studies show that while CTLA4 antagonism has a modest effect in UM, PD1/PDL1 blockade is large...
Article
Purpose: To report a case of solitary iris plasmacytoma successfully treated with ruthenium plaque radiotherapy. Methods: A 44-year-old white woman presented with pain in the right eye and raised intraocular pressure. Her medical history included breast cancer treated 11 years earlier with lumpectomy, lymph node clearance, chemotherapy, and radi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The majority of anterior corneal dystrophies are caused by dominant mutations in TGFBI (transforming growth factor β-induced) collectively known as the epithelial-stromal TGFBI dystrophies. Most cases of epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD) are thought to result from a degenerative (nongenetic) process; however, a minority of cas...
Article
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Background: Medulloepithelioma is a rare congenital neoplasm derived from precursors of the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium of the ciliary body. The average patient age at clinical presentation is 3.8 years. Case presentation: We present the case of a 78-year-old male with progressive lens subluxation and ocular hypertension who was found to hav...
Article
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A woman in her 20s who was in her first trimester of pregnancy and asymptomatic was referred to the ocular oncology clinic owing to an incidental finding of a suspicious choroidal lesion in the left eye. What would you do next?
Article
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Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy 1 (CHED1) and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 1 (PPCD1) are autosomal-dominant corneal endothelial dystrophies that have been genetically mapped to overlapping loci on the short arm of chromosome 20. We combined genetic and genomic approaches to identify the cause of disease in extensive pedigree...
Article
Purpose: To assess the clinical usefulness of chorioretinal biopsy in establishing a definitive diagnosis in intra-ocular lymphomas. Design: Retrospective, non-comparative, consecutive diagnostic case series. Methods: • Setting: Moorfields Eye Hospital, City Road, London, United Kingdom. • Patients: Twenty-nine consecutive patients presenting...
Article
Anterior chamber seeding following intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy is rarely reported. To describe clinicopathologic observations in eyes in which intraophthalmic artery chemotherapy for retinoblastoma failed and to report anterior chamber involvement. A retrospective case series of 12 enucleated eyes (11 patients) with retinoblastoma refractor...
Article
Uveal melanoma, involving the iris, choroid and ciliary body, is the commonest intraocular tumor in adults. Approximately half of these patients will develop metastasis with a high mortality despite currently available systemic therapies including immune checkpoint blockade. The urea cycle enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1), responsible f...
Article
Paraneoplastic ocular inflammation can be associated with the autoantibody against collapsin response-mediator protein-5 (anti-CRMP-5). We describe the clinical and histological features of 2 rare cases of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) presenting with intraocular inflammation: the first was anti-CRMP-5 positive and the second preceded the auto-a...
Chapter
Tumor classification is important as it creates a common terminology that allows clinicians and researchers to accurately communicate, thus facilitating diagnosis by helping the clinician to include all conditions that are relevant in a differential diagnosis. Classification allows us to draw historical, international, or multicenter clinical and b...
Article
Full-text available
Mutations in the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor LMX1B cause nail-patella syndrome, an autosomal dominant pleiotrophic human disorder in which nail, patella and elbow dysplasia is associated with other skeletal abnormalities and variably nephropathy and glaucoma. It is thought to be a haploinsufficient disorder. Studies in the mouse have shown...
Article
Aims: To report a rare case of isolated diffuse episcleral neurofibroma and to discuss possible differential diagnoses. Case report: A 37 year old Caucasian female was found to have an epibulbar tumour arising from the superior aspect of her left eye. Clinical examination revealed a 12 mm × 8 mm "salmon pink" coloured lesion. Results: A biopsy...
Article
PurposeTo describe a severe phenotype of Meesmann's epithelial corneal dystrophy (MECD) and to determine the underlying molecular cause.Methods We identified a 30-member family affected by MECD and examined 11 of the 14 affected individuals. Excised corneal tissue from one affected individual was examined histologically. We used PCR and direct sequ...
Article
Insertional mutagenesis following gene therapy with gammaretroviral vectors can cause the development of lymphoproliferation in children with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. In experimental studies, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have also been reported to increase susceptibility to carcinogenesis. The possibility of v...
Article
To describe the history and clinical presentation of a case of primary epibulbar molluscum contagiosum in multiple myeloma, after penetrating keratoplasty. A 70-year-old man, with previously diagnosed multiple myeloma and atopic dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis, presented 6 months after right penetrating keratoplasty with white multilobular nodu...
Article
Sarcoidosis is an increasingly well-recognised complication of interferon therapy for hepatitis C infection, primarily manifesting with cutaneous or pulmonary involvement. However, we present an unusual case of sarcoid-related dacryoadenitis in a 67-year-old Caucasian lady following such treatment. The literature relating to ophthalmic presentation...
Article
Mya Thaung graduated with MBBS from the University of Rangoon (Yangon), Burma (Myanmar) in 1956. He moved to the UK in 1961 for postgraduate training in anaesthesia and became a British …
Article
Phakomatous choristoma is a rare lesion, first reported in 19711 with a further 18 cases reported to date. Previously reported cases have not been identified preoperatively, nor associated with ocular abnormalities except as a secondary effect.2,,3 We report here a case which was suspected on clinical examination, and which is associated with other...
Article
Full-text available
Dilp1 is a semi-dominant mouse mutation that causes dilated pupils when heterozygous and is lethal when homozygous. We report here that it is caused by a point mutation that introduces a stop codon close to the start of the coding sequence of the paired-like homeobox transcription factor Phox2b. Mice carrying a targeted allele of Phox2b also have d...
Article
Full-text available
To identify the locus responsible for rge (retinopathy globe enlarged) in chickens and further characterise the rge phenotype. A colony of chickens carrying the rge mutation was rederived from a single heterozygous animal of the original line. The eyes of blind, heterozygous and normal birds were subjected to ophthalmic, morphometric and histopatho...
Article
Full-text available
To identify the locus responsible for the blind mutation rdd (retinal dysplasia and degeneration) in chickens and to further characterise the rdd phenotype. The eyes of blind and sighted birds were subjected to ophthalmic, morphometric and histopathological examination to confirm and extend published observations. Electroretinography was used to de...
Article
We have generated a large number of potential eye and vision mutants by a mouse mutagenesis programme and sought to develop a rapid method for testing vision. This experiment assesses whether the visual tracking drum can differentiate between mice with and without retinal degeneration. The population of mice tested had a proportion with retinal deg...
Article
Full-text available
We have carried out a genome-wide screen for novel N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations that give rise to eye and vision abnormalities in the mouse and have identified 25 inherited phenotypes that affect all parts of the eye. A combination of genetic mapping, complementation and molecular analysis revealed that 14 of these are mutations in genes...
Article
Full-text available
The Del(13)Svea36H deletion was recovered from a radiation mutagenesis experiment and represents a valuable resource for investigating gene content and function at this region of mouse Chromosome (Chr) 13 and human Chr 6p21.3-23 and 6p25. In this paper we examine the physical extent of chromosome loss and construct an integrated genetic and radiati...
Article
Full-text available
In Opj, an inherited cataract in mice, opacity is associated with a mutation in Crygs, the gene for γS-crystallin, the first mutation to be associated with this gene. A single base change causes replacement of Phe-9, a key hydrophobic residue in the core of the N-terminal domain, by serine. Despite this highly non-conservative change, mutant protei...