Caroline Smith

Caroline Smith
Western Sydney University · National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM)

PhD, MSc, LicAc, BSc (Hons)

About

248
Publications
83,513
Reads
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9,497
Citations
Citations since 2016
123 Research Items
5361 Citations
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Publications

Publications (248)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that is highly prevalent in women of Indian ethnicity. Clinical practice guidelines do not adequately consider ethnic–cultural differences in the diagnosing and care of women with PCOS. This study aimed to understand co-morbidities, key concerns, quality of life (QoL), and diag...
Article
Objective Menstrual cycle-related conditions, such as dysmenorrhea and heavy bleeding, are common amongst those under 25 years. Despite having significant impact on work, education, and social activities, most do not seek medical advice, preferring to self-manage their symptoms. We aimed to determine if access to a web-based resource was a feasible...
Article
Full-text available
Background Acupuncture is a popular treatment for women’s health. Several trials and meta-analysis have been published in recent years on key women’s health conditions but it is unclear if this has led to any changes in clinical practice or referrals from other health professionals. The aim of this survey was to explore if, how, and why, aspects of...
Article
Background Pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) are recommended for treatment of urinary incontinence with less evidence available about the effect on female sexual function (FSF) and childbirth. Aim To investigate the effect of antenatal PFME on FSF during pregnancy and the first three months following birth as a primary outcome, and on labour an...
Article
Full-text available
Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) causes non-cyclical pelvic pain, period pain, fatigue and other painful symptoms. Current medical and surgical management strategies are often not sufficient to manage these symptoms and may lead to uptake of other therapies. Aims To determine the prevalence of allied health (AH) and complementary therapy (CM)...
Preprint
Full-text available
Menstrual cycle-related conditions, such as dysmenorrhea and heavy bleeding, are common amongst those under 25. Despite having significant impact on work, education, and social activities, most do not seek medical advice, preferring to self-manage their symptoms. We aimed to determine if access to a web-based resource could improve health literacy,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: Menstrual cycle-related conditions, such as dysmenorrhea and heavy bleeding, are common amongst those under 25 years. Despite having significant impact on work, education, and social activities, most do not seek medical advice, preferring to self-manage their symptoms. We aimed to determine if access to a web-based resource could improve...
Article
Full-text available
Infant regurgitation is common during infancy and can cause substantial parental distress. Regurgitation can lead to parental perception that their infant is in pain. Parents often present in general practitioner surgeries, community baby clinics and accident and emergency departments which can lead to financial burden on parents and the health car...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) causes non-cyclical pelvic pain, period pain, fatigue and other painful symptoms. Current medical and surgical management strategies are often not sufficient to manage these symptoms and may lead to uptake of other therapies. Aims To determine the prevalence of allied health (AH) and complementary therapy (CM) u...
Article
Full-text available
Background More than 80% of the African population depend on traditional medicine as a primary healthcare. Although the African migrant community is increasing in Australia, there is no research documenting if and how African migrant communities have maintained or changed their use of traditional health practices after migration. This study aims to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Acupuncture is growing in popularity as a treatment option for women’s health worldwide with reported increasing usage in the last ten years. A significant number of clinical trials and meta-analysis are now published on aspects of women’s health treatment with acupuncture. The aim of this survey was to explore if, how and why, aspects o...
Article
Background There is a need for evidence-based guidance on complementary medicines and therapies (CMT) use during pregnancy due to high prevalence of use and lack of guidance on the balance of benefit and harms. Aim Evaluate the extent to which current clinical practice guidelines relevant to Australian healthcare professionals make clear and unamb...
Article
Full-text available
Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) in women is persistent, intermittent cyclical and non-cyclical lower abdominal pain, lasting for more than 6 months. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a popular treatment option for women’s health conditions, but little is known about how treatment for CPP is delivered by TCM practitioners. The aim of this s...
Article
Objective: To determine the acceptability and feasibility of acupuncture for the treatment of endometriosis-related chronic pelvic pain. Design: A prospective, randomized controlled feasibility study. Setting: Outpatient setting in Sydney, Australia. Subjects: Participants who were aged 18-45 years, had a confirmed laparoscopic diagnosis of endomet...
Article
Background: Endometriosis causes deleterious effects on the lives of sufferers across multiple domains impacting quality of life. Commonly utilized pharmaceutical interventions offer suboptimal efficacy in addition to potentially intolerable side effects for many women. There is some evidence for dietary therapies reducing endometriosis symptoms, b...
Article
Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a common physical disability that is managed with a variety of strategies. One non-invasive intervention for people living with CP is a type of video self-modelling (VSM) referred to as positive self-review (PSR). PSR involves watching a video of oneself performing only the best examples of a desired task; this technique has...
Article
Full-text available
Background Endometriosis is the presence of tissue similar to that of the endometrium outside the uterine cavity and is the most common cause of chronic pelvic pain. Current non-surgical treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, oral contraceptive pills and hormonal treatments have limited effectiveness, and the side effect profile is b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The international clinical practice guidelines for PCOS emphasize diet and exercise as first-line management of clinical signs and symptoms. This study aimed to describe the patterns, perceptions and experiences of lifestyle interventions for women in the community with PCOS. Method: An electronic survey of 493 members of two PCOS co...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Surveys of acupuncture practitioners worldwide have shown an increase in the use of acupuncture to treat women's health conditions over the last ten years. Published studies have explored the effectiveness of acupuncture for various conditions such as period pain, fertility, and labor induction. However, it is unclear what role, if any...
Article
Study Objective To explore key aspects of menstrual health literacy and menstrual management in young women at school or in tertiary education. Design Cross-sectional online survey. Setting Australia-wide. Participants A total of 4202 adolescent and young women (13-25 years of age; median age 17 years), having reached menarche, living in Austral...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects a significant number of women worldwide. Internationally, people with endometriosis report significant negative impact across many areas of their life. We aimed to use an online survey using the EndoCost tool to determine if there was any difference in the impact of CPP in those with vs. those without a confirmed d...
Article
Full-text available
Infertility treatments such as in-vitro fertilization (IVF) are stressful and challenging to mental health and well-being. The use of alternative therapies adjunct to IVF treatment, such as acupuncture, is common and women hope to improve their chance of pregnancy and live birth. While many women engage in acupuncture adjunct to IVF in Australia, f...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Rates of medical interventions in normal labour and birth are increasing. This prospective meta-analysis (PMA) proposes to assess whether the addition of a comprehensive multicomponent birth preparation programme reduces caesarean section (CS) in nulliparous women compared with standard hospital care. Additionally, do participant cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) affects a significant number of women worldwide. Internationally, people with endometriosis report significant negative impact across many areas of their life. We aimed to use an online survey using the EndoCost tool to determine if there was any difference in the impact of CPP in those with vs. those without a confirmed d...
Article
Introduction and hypothesisThe current data on the effectiveness of antenatal pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME) on childbirth outcomes are limited. Therefore, in this study the effect of antenatal PFMEs on labour and birth outcomes was assessed by undertaking a meta-analysis.Methods Databases were systematically searched from 1988 until June 201...
Article
Study Objective To explore the prevalence and impact of dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain and menstrual symptoms on young women at school or in tertiary education. Design and setting: Cross-sectional online survey in Australia. Participants 4202 adolescent and young women (13-25 years; median age 17 years), having reached menarche, living in Australia an...
Article
Background: Antenatal depression is common and associated with adverse consequences for mothers, babies, and future generations. Limitations with conventional approaches has resulted in additional therapies being considered. This study examined the feasibility and effectiveness of acupuncture for improving mental health. Methods: Fifty-seven pregna...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent women's health condition with reproductive, metabolic, and psychological manifestations. Weight loss can improve these symptoms and is a key goal; however, many women find this difficult to achieve. Acupuncture is a Chinese medical treatment that involves insertion of very fine metal need...
Article
Full-text available
Issue addressed Lifestyle modification plays a key role in weight management and chronic disease prevention in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women with PCOS experience challenges in adopting and maintaining healthy lifestyle behaviours, which may be related to health literacy. The aims of this study were to explore the health literacy needs of...
Article
Coaches consider various competencies (e.g. conditioning, nutrition, skills and tactics), when planning sessions, though rarely the impact of menstruation on the efficacy of training and competition performance for athletes. Given the impact menstrual symptoms can have on athletes, the management strategies that athletes may use to minimise any pot...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The international clinical practice guidelines for PCOS emphasize diet and exercise as first-line management of clinical signs and symptoms. This study aimed to describe the patterns, perceptions and experiences of lifestyle interventions for women in the community with PCOS. Method An electronic survey of 493 members of two PCOS consume...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The international clinical practice guidelines for PCOS emphasize diet and exercise as first-line management of clinical signs and symptoms. This study aimed to describe the patterns, perceptions and experiences of lifestyle interventions for women in the community with self-reported PCOS. Method An electronic survey of 493 members of tw...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common condition in women of reproductive age. A previous app-based study undertaken by our group demonstrated that a smartphone app supporting self-acupressure introduced by a health care professional can reduce menstrual pain.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Traditional medicine serves as a form of primary health care for more than 80% of African populations. Currently, there is no research documenting if and how African migrant communities engage with their traditional health practices and beliefs after they resettle in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine African migra...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common condition in women of reproductive age. A previous app-based study undertaken by our group demonstrated that a smartphone app supporting self-acupressure introduced by a health care professional can reduce menstrual pain. Objective: This study aims to evaluate whether a specific smartphone app is effecti...
Article
Background: Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined evidence about the use of acupuncture and acupressure for pain management in labour. This is an update of a review last publishe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Complementary and alternative medicine and therapies (CAM) are widely used by parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is a gap in our understanding of how and why parents of children with ASD make decisions about CAM treatment, and how "evidence" influences their decision-making. The aim of this study wa...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Peripheral neurotoxicity caused by oxaliplatin (OXA) chemotherapy is the main limitation preventing continuation of chemotherapy in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of external use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) on the incidence of cumulative OXA-induced peripheral neurotox...
Article
Objective: This study sought to determine the prevalence, tolerability, and self-reported effectiveness of cannabis in women with endometriosis. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between October and December 2017. Recruitment targeted women with endometriosis through social media postings from endometriosis advocacy groups....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Lifestyle modification targeting weight management is the first-line treatment for women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) regardless of presenting symptoms. Women with PCOS are more likely to gain more weight compared with women without PCOS, which may be related to barriers in engaging in lifestyle modification. The aim of this s...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Endometriosis has a significant cost of illness burden in Europe, UK and the USA, with the majority of costs coming from reductions in productivity. However, information is scarce on if there is a differing impact between endometriosis and other causes of chronic pelvic pain, and if there are modifiable factors, such as pain severity,...
Preprint
Background Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) are common during infancy and can cause substantial discomfort in infants, parental distress and financial burden on parents and the health care system. Effective treatment regimens, however, remain elusive. Probiotics given to women during pregnancy and lactati...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Depression is commonly treated with anti-depressant medication and/or psychological interventions. Patients with depression are common users of complementary therapies, such as acupuncture, either as a replacement for, or adjunct to, their conventional treatments. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effectiveness of a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Dysmenorrhea (period pain) is common and affects around three quarters of all young women under the age of 25. The majority of young women, for a variety of reasons, think of period pain as 'normal' and something to be managed or endured. This normalisation of pain often is reinforced by family and friends and results in young women...
Article
Introduction: Dysmenorrhea (period pain) and associated symptoms are very common in young women <25 years. This time corresponds with a significant stage in adolescents and young women's academic lives at both school and in higher education. Dysmenorrhea may cause absenteeism from class or result in reduced classroom concentration and performance....
Preprint
BACKGROUND Primary dysmenorrhea is a common condition in women of reproductive age. A previous app-based study undertaken by our group demonstrated that a smartphone app supporting self-acupressure introduced by a healthcare professional can reduce menstrual pain. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to evaluate whether a specific smartphone a...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Primary dysmenorrhea is a common condition in women of reproductive age. A previous app-based study undertaken by our group demonstrated that a smartphone app supporting self-acupressure introduced by a health care professional can reduce menstrual pain. Objective: This study aims to evaluate whether a specific smartphone app is effe...
Article
Full-text available
Background National policies seek to involve older Australian’s in decisions regarding their care; however, research has found varying levels of decision self-efficacy and health literacy skills. An increasing number of older Australians use complementary medicine (CM). We examined the effectiveness of a CM educational intervention delivered using...
Article
This was a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of acupuncture as an adjunct to embryo transfer compared with controls to improve reproductive outcomes. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy. Twenty trials and 5130 women were included in the review. The meta-analysis found increased pregnancies...
Article
Background: Clinical guidelines recommend outpatient care for the majority of people with an eating disorder. The optimal use of inpatient treatment or combination of inpatient and partial hospital care is disputed and practice varies widely. Objectives: To assess the effects of treatment setting (inpatient, partial hospitalisation, or outpatien...
Article
Full-text available
Background Menstrual pain is very common amongst young women. Despite the significant impact that menstrual pain has on academic attendance and performance, social activities and quality of life, most young women do not seek medical treatment but prefer to use self-care; commonly OTC analgesic medications and rest. Many women do not get significant...
Article
Full-text available
Background Endometriosis has a significant negative impact on the lives of women, and current medical treatments often do not give sufficient pain relief or have intolerable side effects for many women. The majority of women with primary dysmenorrhea use self-management strategies (including self-care techniques or lifestyle choices) to help manage...
Article
Background Bikram yoga may enhance health outcomes in healthy adults and those at risk for chronic disease, however, challenges remain in achieving optimal adherence to this practice. This study investigated factors influencing adherence to a 16-week Bikram yoga intervention in stressed and sedentary adults. Methods Experimental group participants...
Article
Introduction: Studies have shown in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment to have a significant impact on women's quality of life. In addition, anxiety is experienced during IVF treatment and prior to knowing the outcome from a treatment cycle. Although support services are available at many IVF clinics, the uptake of these opportunities may not be...
Article
Objectives: to investigate whether complementary medicine (CAM) use is associated with health literacy levels and decision self-efficacy. Design: a cross-sectional survey was distributed to men and women aged 65 years and older who participated in a randomised control trial (N = 153) in Sydney, Australia. Results: One hundred and fifty-three people...
Article
Background Depression and anxiety are common during the antenatal and postnatal period, and are known to have a significant impact on the woman and her unborn infant. Pregnant women state a preference for non-pharmacological treatment options, and use complementary medicines and therapies to manage these symptoms. We examined the effectiveness and...
Article
Background: Acupuncture has a history of traditional use in China for women's health conditions including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but its effectiveness for this condition remains unclear. This review examined the available evidence supporting the use of acupuncture or acupressure to treat PMS. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and s...
Article
Importance: Acupuncture is widely used by women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), although the evidence for efficacy is conflicting. Objective: To determine the efficacy of acupuncture compared with a sham acupuncture control performed during IVF on live births. Design, setting, and participants: A single-blind, parallel-group randomize...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour, and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined the evidence currently available on manual methods, including massage and reflexology, for pain management in labour. This revi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour and this may contribute to the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined currently available evidence on the use of relaxation therapies for pain management in labour. This is an update of a review first pu...
Article
Background: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To assess whether the multitherapy antenatal education ‘CTLB’ (Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth) Study programme leads to net cost savings. Design Cost analysis of the CTLB Study, using analysis of outcomes and hospital funding data. Methods We take a payer perspective and use Australian Refined Diagnosis-Related Group (AR-D...
Book
Full-text available
For many mothers in Australia, worries about pregnancy, birth and parenthood have become a source of considerable anxiety. Although apprehension and heightened concern are normal responses to change, raised expectations, contradictory information, the increased surveillance of mental health issues and a fragmented health system may contribute to th...
Article
Full-text available
Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, reproductive endocrinopathy associated with serious short and long term health risks. Many women with PCOS use ingestible complementary medicines. This systematic review examined the effect on menstrual regulation and adverse effects from randomised controlled trials. Methods Randomised contr...
Article
Background: Research indicates some women experiencing depression during pregnancy are dissatisfied with conventional depression treatments due to incomplete effectiveness, dislike of side effects, unsatisfactory experiences with providers and concerns regarding in-utero and breastfeeding safety. Consequently, many explore alternative options incl...
Article
Background: This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction. The use of complementary therapies is increasing. Women may look to complementary therapies during pregnancy and childbirth to be used alongside conventional medical practice. Acupuncture involves the insertion of very fine needles into specific po...
Article
Full-text available
Background Older Australians are high consumers of complementary and alternative medicines (CM). To help older people to take an active role in their health, we will develop and evaluate a novel educational intervention to support decision self-efficacy, and improve health literacy skills. Methods The primary hypothesis is that participants receivi...