Caroline Laws Smith

Caroline Laws Smith
University of New Mexico | UNM · Department of Linguistics

PhD

About

48
Publications
33,294
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720
Citations
Introduction
I work on prosody, primarily (but not only) in French. I am becoming more interested in the prosody of second-language speakers, especially how it is perceived.
Additional affiliations
August 1998 - present
University of New Mexico
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
August 1984 - August 1992
Yale University
Field of study
  • Linguistics

Publications

Publications (48)
Article
This study investigates how L1 and L2 speakers of French produce phonetic correlates of French prosodic structure, specifically the properties of Accentual Phrases that are evidenced in dimensions other than f0. The L2 speakers had English L1, with varying levels of proficiency in French. We also examined the same individuals’ productions of senten...
Article
Full-text available
This study tests the influence of acoustic cues and non-acoustic contextual factors on listeners' perception of prominence in three languages whose prominence systems differ in the phonological patterning of prominence and in the association of prominence with information structure-English, French and Spanish. Native speakers of each language perfo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Studies of prosodic structure in French have tended to concentrate on production in order to identify what levels of phrasing speakers differentiate. But what are listeners hearing? The chapter details the examination of some specific structures (dislocations and focused phrases) to see whether listeners’ perceptions align with the prosodic structu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Spoken French makes extensive use of dislocations, where one phrase, usually the subject, is set off from the main clause, and within that clause, a pronoun is used. Previous findings are conflicting about the strength of the prosodic boundary, if any, between the dislocation and the main clause. We compare productions of dislocations in conversati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
RESUME En français, un adjectif post-nominal peut ou non faire partie du même syntagme accentuel (AP) que le nom qui le précède. La nature facultative de l'incorporation de l'adjectif peut donc donner lieu à des différences entre les locuteurs L1 et L2. Les réalisations des AP ont été comparées dans des énoncés lus par huit locutrices L1 et huit lo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous studies [1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11, 19] have shown that words and segments are reduced more when the context consists of more frequent and more predictable words. This study examined these effects as evidenced in the duration and the second formant (F2) of the vowels in monosyllabic CVC words in the Buckeye Corpus [16]. F2 was measured at five tim...
Preprint
Previous work on consonant cluster simplification in English has shown that a consonant surrounded by other consonants is more likely to delete than a consonant adjacent to a vowel. A consequence is that in three-consonant word-final clusters, the penult is most likely to delete. Experimental data also shows more frequent deletion of word-final sto...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately 140 students take Introduction to Phonetics each year at the University of New Mexico. They are diverse in several ways: in age (many are returning to school after years away), in ethnicity (UNM is majority-minority), in major (the course serves Linguistics and Speech & Hearing), and in preparation (there are no prerequisites, but man...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
All spoken languages show rhythmic patterns, which can be described in terms of Metrical Phonology [1, 2]. Recent work in several languages [3, 4, 5] shows that metrically assigned stress levels of the utterance correlate significantly with amount of jaw displacement, with corresponding changes in F1 values. These patterns appear to be independent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The University of New Mexico is unusual among major research universities in having a majority-minority student population. Students in the Introduction to Phonetics course are also diverse in other ways: in age (many are returning to school after years away), in major (the course serves Linguistics and Speech & Hearing), and in preparation (there...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Since Bolinger's [1] discovery that pitch cues accentual prominence in English, a tension has arisen between two strategies: equating accent with pitch excursions and relying on perception for identifying accented words. This paper investigates the relation between prominence judgments from untrained listeners and accentual labels produced by train...
Conference Paper
Prosody conveys information not only about meaning but also about how the speaker feels about that meaning and how they wish to organize it. One difficulty in understanding how these various functions are achieved is that the same phonetic substance conveys multiple types of information. Although fluent language users are successful at extracting t...
Article
Full-text available
Listeners' perception of prosodic structure may differ depending on whether they are instructed to attend to the meaning of a spoken passage, or to the acoustics. Real-time perceptions of prominence and phrasal boundaries were obtained from Rapid Prosody Transcription [Cole et al. (2010)]. Twenty naive French listeners were divided into two groups...
Article
Rapid Prosody Transcription (RPT) was used to investigate listeners' perceptions of prosody in reading by native and nonnative English speakers. RPT offers a language-independent tool to access listeners' holistic understanding of prosody. Listeners hear an audio recording of speech while following along on an orthographic, unpunctuated transcript...
Article
Full-text available
Discusses the realizations of the three stop series in Tlingit, particularly of the non-ejective stops in coda position.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Rapid Prosody Transcription (RPT) was used to investigate listeners' perceptions of prosody in reading by native and non-native English speakers. RPT offers a language-independent tool to access listeners' holistic understanding of prosody. Listeners hear an audio recording of speech while following along on an orthographic, unpunctuated transcript...
Article
Prosodic structure in speech derives from both linguistic structure, particularly syntax, and performance factors such as speech rate. The combination of influences means that predicting the structure of a spontaneous utterance remains a major challenge. One approach has been to survey listeners and take their perceptions as the basis for analysis...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, naïve French listeners' perceptions of prosody are compared to descriptions of prosodic structure in the literature, and to the results obtained in a similar experiment with American listeners (Cole et al. submitted). Untrained participants listened to recorded spontaneous speech, while following along on an unpunctuated transcript....
Article
Full-text available
On-line accommodation to an interlocutor is often cited as an explanation for phonetic variation. Prosodic evidence for speakers' accommodation was investigated in a task that was expected to favor modification: giving directions to a non-native interlocutor, compared to the same task with a native interlocutor. Ten native speakers of French were r...
Article
Although a speech style known as foreigner talk has been described, speech addressed to a reasonably fluent non‐native interlocutor may show little or no accommodation by native speakers. This issue is of interest in understanding whether on‐line modifications to speech are an important contributor to phonetic variation. Ten native speakers of Pari...
Article
Cross-language prosodic differences are well-known at the phrasal level and below, and a few studies have shown language-dependent differences in speakers' prosody over a discourse or text [Fon (2002), Smith and Hogan (2003)]. For comparison with the patterns found in production, this study examines listeners' preferences in text-level prosody. Pre...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on discourse-level prosody by examining durational patterns that relate to the type of topic transition between sentences, that is, the relation between the topic of one sentence and the topic of the next. The study compares these patterns in texts read aloud in English and French. The topic organization of each text was analyzed...
Article
Full-text available
The linguistic structure of an utterance is known to affect the durational prosody of sounds, words and phrases. There has been increasing interest in how discourse-level organization affects prosody, in part because modeling discourse-level effects could improve the comprehensibility of longer passages of synthesized text. The approach taken here...
Article
Full-text available
Fagyal and Moisset (1999) suggested that vowel devoicing in standard French occurs most often in phrase-final high vowels. An experiment testing the effect of both immediate segmental context and sentence-level contextual factors was conducted to further identify the linguistic features involved. Six French speakers were recorded reading test sente...
Article
Previous work [Smith and Hogan (2001), (2002)] has shown that the organization of topics in a text affects durational patterning when the text is read aloud. Comparable texts in English, French, and Japanese were selected, and native speakers of each language were recorded reading them aloud. For all three texts, the transition in topic from each s...
Article
With topic labeling providing an analysis of the text's organization, the experiment reported here investigated the relation between the structure of the text and the durational patterns produced when it was read aloud. Durations were chosen for study in part because much previous work has concentrated on F0. In addition, acoustic durations in Engl...
Article
Prosodic boundaries are marked in speech by modifications to dimensions such as F0, duration, and segmental quality. The experiment reported here tests the hypothesis that modifications at the end of a prosodic domain may be amplified or attenuated depending on the type of sentence (statement or question). The prosodic modifications investigated he...
Article
Lengthening at the end of a prosodic domain is a robust pattern in English, with larger domains characterized by greater amounts of lengthening. Here we investigate whether this pattern extends above the sentence. Is there more sentence‐final lengthening at the end of a paragraph than at the end of a paragraph‐internal sentence? Ten recordings were...
Article
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
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As stated in its Foreword, the Handbook is a s manualthe information needed for getting to grips with the IPA’ (p. viii). Nonetheless, it provides much more information and discussion about transcription than the previous official source of information about the IPA, the 1949 PrinciplesoftheInternationalPhoneticAssociation. The decision to produce...
Article
Voiced fricatives are often taken as an example of sound that is ‘difficult’ to produce. It might therefore be expected that speakers would choose to simplify them. In English, the most common simplification is devoicing, especially for voiced sibilants. The nature of this process was examined in productions of /z/ and /s/ by four speakers of Ameri...
Article
It is well known that voiced stops in English tend not to be fully voiced. For many American speakers, voiced fricatives may also have little or no voicing. In what phonological contexts do speakers devoice underlying /z/? Previous research [T. Veatch, Ling. Soc. Am. mtg., 69 (1989)] emphasized the influence of the following segment. The present st...
Article
The following description of French is based on the speech of a young Parisian female speaker. Varieties of French have almost identical inventories; the main differences are to be found in the maintenance or loss of certain contrasts.
Article
A quantitative characterization of articulatory movements, using the parameter values of a linear second-order dynamical system, was developed in order to compare classes of movements, in particular, classes defined by linguistic factors such as syllable position, stress, and vowel quality. Movements of the lower lip in utterances such as ['bibebib...
Article
In a model of articulatory movement, based on a dynamical systems approach, parameter values derived from actual articulatory data are being used. One way of obtaining these values relies on the program NEWPAR, which has been developed to analyze articulatory movement in order to extract dynamic parameters such as frequency that will serve as coeff...
Article
Two opposing explanations of the timing of consonants and vowels are that (1) they are timed relative to each other, or (2) vowels are produced in a continuous rhythm with consonants superimposed on them [Fowler, J. Exp. Psychol. 112, 386–412 (1983)]. Languages with different temporal properties, such as Japanese, a mora‐timed language, and Italian...
Article
Vowel‐to‐vowel coarticulation across consonants can be seen as evidence of overlap between the articulatory gestures of the vowels. Further evidence for the organization of the gestures can be found in contextual variation in the durations of the vowels. This acoustic study of Japanese examines the effects of geminate consonants on the durations an...
Article
Full-text available
Warning: large file. This is my dissertation. Much shorter version is a chapter in LabPhon 4 volume (1995 Arvaniti & Connell eds.)
Article
Full-text available
Six native speakers of metropolitan French were recorded reading sets of statements and questions for an acoustic study of durational patterning. In order to maximize comparability, ten sets of sentences were created in which the sentences in each set were as similar as possible except for varying sentence type. Each set included a statement and a...
Article
Full-text available
The method of parameter identification using nonlinear least-squares curve fitting is discussed in this note. Mter the algorithm (a multidimensional Newton's method) is described in general, some of our particular experiences in fitting damped sinusoids to simulated data are discussed. We find that it is possible to identify parameters for fitting...

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