Caroline Scarles

Caroline Scarles
University of Surrey · School of Hospitality and Tourism Management (SHTM)

About

62
Publications
34,146
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
2,880
Citations
Citations since 2016
41 Research Items
2405 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500

Publications

Publications (62)
Article
Full-text available
The photo album emerged in the late 1800s as place to collect portrait photos of visitors to a home, and was later appropriated by Kodak as a visual chronology of family history. With digital photography, the album has largely been replaced by online repositories of images shared on social media, and the selective printing of photobooks. In this pa...
Article
Full-text available
While there is significant existing research linking travel photography to self-presentation, it is the effects of ‘Instagrammability’ that mobilize significant shifts in the motivations and behaviours of tourists. This paper applies Goffman’s (1956) notion of impression management unfolding as a performance, with both front- and backstage characte...
Article
Full-text available
Nature-based tourism offers the opportunity for tourists to see first-hand both wildlife and the conservation efforts of organisations and individuals to protect habitats and species. Whilst recent studies hint that tourism can prompt visitors to provide philanthropic support for conservation, studies to-date have focused on behavioural intentions...
Chapter
In recent years, travel vlogs are prevalent on social media, they are projected as an important marketing tool to attract tourists to destinations in the post-COVID-19 era. However, the underlying mechanism of how travel vlogs affect prospective tourists’ behaviours remains unclear. To address this gap, this paper discusses the applicability of the...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely understood that nature engagement benefits human wellbeing. Such benefits have been found for real as well as virtual engagements. However, little is known about the role of nature-based videos in social media on wellbeing. With COVID-19 restrictions limiting people’s direct engagement with natural environments, this study critically e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report presents findings from a survey conducted in October 2020, looking back at how people engaged with nature in the UK during the first Covid-19 lockdown in March to May 2020. The survey was carried out as part of a UKRI-funded project by the University of Surrey and Natural England.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a report for a collaborative project "Economic and Social Impacts of Arts in Surrey" conducted by a research team in the School of Hospitality and Tourism Management at the University of Surrey, in partnership with Yvonne Arnaud Theatre, The Lightbox and Watts Gallery – Artists’ Village.
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses the concomitant processes of increasing familiarisation, responsiveness and responsibility that digital technology enables in the realm of tourism. We reflect on the influence of the proliferation of interactive digital platforms and solutions within tourism practice and behaviour through a range of lenses, from user generate...
Thesis
The advancement of technology has revolutionised the tourism industry. However, Destination Management Organisations (DMOs), in general, have yet to undertake holistic technological solutions in addressing their expected roles and responsibilities, particularly with regards to its role in supporting online collaborations. Greater understanding is r...
Article
Traditional notions of the book usually portray it as a physical embodiment of text (either annotated or printed) on pages; ‘it is not a book unless the sheets are bound together’.2 Yet as digital text formats become increasingly commonplace, physical properties of the book remain historically enduring and culturally embedded criteria by which peop...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to extend existing discussions of post-disaster tourism in New Orleans by considering how competing narratives of disaster operate within the tourist experience available in New Orleans. More specifically, we explore how personal reflections and the collective memories of a community are practiced and mobilised as occasions for tou...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile technologies are transforming the ways in which we experience arts and heritage sites, and galleries and museums are facing increased pressure to provide stimulating, alternative technology-based solutions for enriching visitor experiences. Focusing on the opportunities afforded by augmented reality (AR), this paper critiques the role this t...
Article
This research draws on the geographical concept of situated lay-knowledge to highlight how the formation of tourists’ attitudes to travel destinations challenges the theoretical foundation of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). It suggests that situated lay knowledge is dynamic as opposed to static, which is the accepted basis of TPB, and subsequ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Paper and digital media, smartphone apps and travel guides for example, are commonly used together by travellers for reliable and up-to-date information. This paper examines how the a-book, an augmented travel guide with complementary multimedia could enrich travel experiences. Using a tailored app, travellers can access, play, and add their own vi...
Article
Full-text available
Social media users are increasingly harming destination brands through their posts. This paper examines how to counter brand co-destruction in social media through the application of storytelling practices. Based on a netnography of TripAdvisor and Facebook, combined with a case study of the Danish destination management organization (DMO) VisitDen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the rise of digital photography, physical photos remain significant. They constitute a set of ‘integrative practices’ for social living (Schatzki, 1996) by enabling the sharing of experiences with others through their physicality (i.e. displaying, gifting) to maintain social bonds, particularly in family contexts (Rose, 2016a, p. 18). In fa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report explores the adoption of augmented reality solutions (Smartify) in the context of arts and heritage. It provides insight into the ways in which AR solutions can enrich visitor experiences and the opportunities and challenges of operationalising AR in an organisational context with particular focus on the role of voluteers and digital am...
Article
Full-text available
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been linked with numerous organizational advantages, including recruitment, retention, productivity, and morale, which relate specifically to employees. However, despite specific benefits of CSR relating to employees and their importance as a stakeholder group, it is noteworthy that a lack of attention has...
Article
Full-text available
The dynamic organisational processes in businesses dilute the boundaries between the individual, organisational, and societal drivers of corporate philanthropy. This creates a complex framework in which charitable project selection occurs. Using the example of European tour operators, this study investigates the mechanisms through which companies i...
Article
Full-text available
Digital Collaboration: A Solution for Destinations This research aims to explore the elements of next-generation digital collaborative platforms for Destination Management Organisations (DMO) from the perspective of both businesses and visitors, allowing a more comprehensive understanding of digital platforms. The research is conducted in partnersh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an augmented book platform which links physical and virtual content in a system which comprises authoring tools, instrumented paper books and digital assets in a new type of interaction. Here, we focus on the first of two planned demonstrators, an augmented travel guide which responds to user interaction by presenting relevant digital co...
Article
This paper advances an ethic of care for sustainable tourism. The study develops an original business care model that captures the dynamic interrelationships between care, responsibility and trust in corporate philanthropy. The model provides a novel perspective on how responsible business practices are formed across distance by shedding light on t...
Article
Full-text available
A large part of the global population is now connected in online social networks in social media where they share experiences and stories and consequently influence each other's perceptions and buying behaviour. This poses a distinct challenge for destination management organisations, who must cope with a new reality where destination brands are in...
Article
Full-text available
This study shifts the focus from building individual capacities to understanding the relational acts through which empowerment and education acquire their value and meaning. Conceptually, the paper employs social cognitive theory to explore the interplay between social learning, relational agency, and culture. This interplay builds the foundation f...
Article
The aim of this paper is to understand the complexity of travel motivations to sacred places. Using ethnographic techniques within the Greek Orthodox context, we argue that while motivations are institutionally constructed, they are fragile, dynamic and progressive; being embedded within everyday performances of religion. This calls into question t...
Article
Full-text available
The current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. The absence of behavioural and near-term technological solutions to aviation's environmental impacts underscores the importance of policy levers as a means of curbing carbon emissions. Where past work has used qualitative methods to sketch p...
Chapter
Full-text available
This research proposes a framework of intergenerational learning (IGL) that supports child-to-parent influence in the context of heritage learning using augmented reality (AR) and serious game applications. Positioning children as the behavioural catalysts in the learning process, the framework is developed based on several considerations and requi...
Article
Holidaying is an important leisure pursuit and, for a growing minority, air travel is the default mode for holiday mobility. However, the current trend of increasing demand for air travel runs contrary to climate-related sustainability goals. Efforts to motivate reductions in consumption of holiday air travel must contend with the embeddedness of f...
Article
This study explores the way in which consumers interpret and process the marketing and communication of sustainable forms of tourism in destinations, in order to inform policy makers about the appropriateness of different types of sustainability messages. Through a thematic analysis of focus group data, we explore the ways in which consumers engage...
Article
The aim of this paper is to decipher ways of experiencing religiousness through tourist performances, intersecting textual approaches with the essential embodiment and materiality of the tourist world. Exploring the diversity of religious tourists’ practices within the Greek Orthodox context, two dimensions underpinning religious tourist experience...
Article
Previous research on tourist food consumption acknowledges that food-related personality traits, including neophilic and neophobic tendencies, can impede or encourage tourists to try novel food at a destination. However, the travel motivation literature advocates that tourists tend to be in a general condition of seeking novel experiences, includin...
Article
The use of actor-network thinking is increasingly evident in tourism research. ANT offers the researcher a practical, fieldwork-based orientation, emphasising detailed description of relationships between actors in practice. However, questions which arise for the researcher in using ANT are seldom confronted in the literature. This paper contribute...
Article
Full-text available
Debates surrounding the human impact on climate change have, in recent years, proliferated in political, academic, and public rhetoric. Such debates have also played out in the context of tourism research (e.g. extent to which anthropogenic climate change exists; public understanding in relation to climate change and tourism). Taking these debates...
Article
Full-text available
This paper suggests that phenomenological studies of tourism mobilities can be informed by non-representational approaches. We extend recent developments in sensory tourism research and non-representational works to argue that methods upon which tourism researchers have long relied require ‘pushing’ or merging in previously underutilised ways that...
Chapter
This chapter explores the relationship between the visual and tourism as it has emerged through history. Beginning with the ocularcentric tendencies of the Grand Tour, the chapter works through the emergence of photography to the opportunities afforded to the visual in the virtual environments of the 21st century. Tourism and the visual are inheren...
Article
Despite references to photography as a tool for consuming and constructing the tourist experience, little attention has been afforded to the effects of such practice. In this paper I therefore seek to unpack the ethics of the seemingly fleeting relationships between tourists and host communities that emerge during photographic encounters. Focusing...
Article
This paper unpacks the interplays of agency that emerge as locals are photographed by tourists. It explores the larger forces that constrain photographic performances within dominant western mythologies of the exotic Other. In unpacking the seemingly fleeting moments of photographic encounters, it contends tourist photography does not merely perpet...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to explore the process of developing a model for applied dissertations in taught postgraduate tourism programmes. Findings suggest that applied dissertations afford students the opportunity to engage in learning through and for work. Secondly, as learning demands the direct incorporation of external agents and knowledge, ap...
Article
This paper presents visual autoethnography as a method for exploring the embodied performances of tourists’ experiences. As a fusion of visual elicitation and autoethnographic encounter, visual autoethnography mobilises spaces of understanding; transcending limitations of verbal discourse and opening spaces for mutual appreciation and reflection. T...
Article
If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations ab...
Article
This study examines the factors influencing consumption of local food and beverages in destinations. The study used grounded theory to obtain insight into the local food experiences though interviews with 20 individuals and used these data to propose a model of local food consumption. The model constitutes three categories: ‘motivational factors’ (...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to renegotiate the role of visuals and visual practice within the tourist experience. Embracing recent developments in tourist studies, I seek to move from understanding tourism as a series of predetermined, linear, and static stages through which we pass to be a tourist. In doing so, I explore the ways in which visuals, in particu...
Article
Full-text available
Using the example of the Scottish Tourist Board ([STB] now VisitScotland), this article outlines three spaces of mediation involved in the discursive transformation of material landscapes into brochure images. STB marketing personnel occupy the first space of mediation. Market research provides specialist knowledge of consumer expectations and key...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
On 23 March 2020, the UK went into lockdown in response to the Covid-19 threat. As a result, many people’s engagement with natural environments will have changed substantively, something which is likely to have had significant impact on their wellbeing. We aim to understand these changes in nature engagement and wellbeing in the UK before, during and after lockdown and help understand what Government and Statutory Bodies can do to ameliorate the impact of Covid-19 on wellbeing now and as part of the Green Recovery from Covid-19.
Archived project
Recognising the central role of arts in improving community welfare and economic benefits, this report aims to provide a unique overview about the social and economic impacts of arts in Surrey. The research brings together three leading arts organisations in Surrey as the research partners, namely: Yvonne Arnaud Theatre, The Lightbox and Watts Gallery – Artists’ Village, therefore enabling insights beyond individual arts organisations.
Project
This project is investigating how ordinary paper documents can be connected to the web through image recognition and/or embedded electronics sensing what page is open and where people are pointing. It is creating augmented travel books and photobooks that interact with content on a smartphone or TV nearby. It is a £1.2m project funded by the Digital Economy programme in the UK and is running for 30 months from 1st November 2017.