Caroline Moser

Caroline Moser
Independent Advisor and Researcher · Self-Employed

Bachelor of Arts, Post Grad. Diploma, DPhil

About

101
Publications
43,628
Reads
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9,418
Citations

Publications

Publications (101)
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes the role of intergenerational processes in increasing or reducing multidimensional inequality in Indio Guayas, a low-income peripheral settlement in Guayaquil, Ecuador. It also examines the importance of family social capital, irrespective of spatial location, as against household social capital in these processes. This longitu...
Article
Full-text available
This article reflects on my contribution as an urban feminist scholar–gender expert practitioner to Gender and Development (GAD) theory and practice in cities of the South in relation to my changing positionality within specific institutional contexts. My journey started in the 1980s with urban gender planning, conceptualised in the Development Pla...
Article
Full-text available
The 2016 Habitat III conference in Quito provides a challenging opportunity to address widespread, persistent urban gender inequalities through the elaboration of a New Urban Agenda (NUA). To achieve the identified radical paradigm shift calls for critical reflection and clarification of the meaning of gender transformation as against gender mainst...
Article
Full-text available
In studies of climate change vulnerability, an important constraint relates to the uncertainty of the climate projections that local governments need to estimate precisely the risks and impacts climate events have on different parts of a city. In addition, the lack of "downscaled", or local, climate information makes it very difficult to compare ho...
Article
Current research on the impacts of the 2007 global economic crisis on international migration takes two different positions. Some studies emphasize the negative impacts while others are more positive. This article argues that these two positions offer simplistic interpretations which fail to take account of the complex micro-level realities that de...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter describes the implementation of a participatory methodology – urban participatory climate change adaptation appraisal (PCCAA) – which included quantification of outcomes amongst the urban poor in Kenya and Nicaragua experiencing climate change. The methodology tested in these two case studies enabled local authorities to recognize vuln...
Article
The importance of women's safety and security in cities throughout the world is now widely recognised. An extensive range of state and civil society institutions currently implement a range of cutting-edge 'good practice' policies, programmes, and projects to address this issue. This article raises two pertinent questions that inform the (re)concep...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides conceptual and methodological guidelines for researchers seeking to undertake an urban participatory climate change adaptation appraisal (PCCAA), illustrated with examples from appraisals in Mombasa (Kenya) and Estelí (Nicaragua). It highlights the importance of hearing local people’s voices regarding incrementally worsening and...
Article
This paper introduces an asset-focused framework whose objective is both analytically to better understand, and operationally to more appropriately address, the different phases of urban climate change (CC) as it impacts on poor urban communities. After an overview of current CC adaptation approaches, it describes the two asset adaptation framework...
Article
Full-text available
This short note reports on the difficulties facing a community leader in Guayaquil, whom the author has known for more than 30 years, in getting and affording treatment for breast cancer. It serves as a reminder that low-income households in low- and middle-income nations face many of the same health risks from non-communicable diseases as higher-i...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article
This chapter examines the gendered nature of asset accumulation between 1978 and 2004 in Indio Guayas, a low-income community on the periphery of the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. In so doing, it emphasizes both the importance of combining quantitative and qualitative intra-household data, as well as taking a longitudinal perspective rather than at a...
Chapter
This chapter outlines a framework of transnational asset accumulation and assesses its relevance for research with Latin American migrants in Europe. The framework differentiates between a transnational asset index as a conceptual approach for the diagnosis of the assets of migrants, and transnational asset accumulation policy as an operational too...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the gendered nature of asset accumulation between 1978 and 2004 in Indio Guayas, a low-income community on the periphery of the city of Guayaquil, Ecuador. In so doing, it emphasizes both the importance of combining quantitative and qualitative intra-household data, as well as taking a longitudinal perspective rather than at a s...
Article
This article discusses the debate on the relationship between the informal sector [IS] and the formal or capitalist sector, and notes that the link between the two argued in terms of the functionality of the IS to capital, is similar to the arguments made in the domestic labour debate, in which it is argued that women's unpaid housework is function...
Article
SUMMARY The form of women's participation in casual work and its implications in terms of their subordination is determined by a complex inter-relationship of economic and non-economic (specifically ideological) factors. This paper uses a case study from Guayaquil, Ecuador, to examine the function and importance of women's work in the survival stra...
Chapter
This chapter applies principal components analysis to panel data from urban Ecuador (collected over 1978-2004) and constructs an asset index to measure asset accumulation. The chosen assets are: physical capital (including housing); financial/productive capital; human capital and social capital (natural capital is not included as this is an urban s...
Article
This scoping study has two principle objectives. It provides a summary of current poverty reduction strategies of US and UK-based international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) with a special emphasis on the underlying frameworks that form the basis of their development interventions. Secondly, the study identifyes the applicability of an ass...
Article
Full-text available
This paper outlines a framework for adaptation to climate change for urban areas in low- and middle-income nations that is pro-poor and that enhances the capacity of low-income households and community organizations to contribute to such adaptation. It begins by describing how urban centres in low- and middle-income countries concentrate a large pr...
Article
Development economists have increasingly advocated using assets to complement income and consumption-based measures of welfare and wealth in developing countries, and thus to extend our understanding of the multi-dimensional character of poverty and the complexity of the processes underlying poverty reduction. The objective of this technical paper...
Article
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This working paper provides a brief introduction to asset-based approaches to poverty reduction in a globalized context. The aim is to show the added value of asset-based approaches, in terms of both better understanding poverty and developing more appropriate long-term poverty reduction solutions. The paper draws on a number of sources, including:...
Article
Despite growing recognition of urban violence being a serious development constraint in Latin America, there is contestation concerning its categorization, underlying causes, costs and consequences, and violence-reduction solutions. This article seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of everyday violence in poor urban commu...
Article
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The Beijing Platform for Action prioritised gender mainstreaming as the mechanism to achieve gender equality. A decade later, policy makers and practitioners are debating whether this has succeeded or failed. This article aims to contribute to this debate by reviewing progress made to date, through a review of gender mainstreaming policies in inter...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, accelerating rates of violence and crime in Latin American cities have transformed the problem of individual criminal pathology into a serious development constraint. The problem is not lim- ited to urban areas—the region is one of the most violent of the world— but it is particularly problematic in urban areas, where the rela...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Article
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Drug and alcohol abuse is identified increasingly in Latin America as a significant source of insecurity. Yet, there has been little research on consump- tion and on the social norms surrounding it. This paper explores the nature of drugs and alcohol consumption among urban poor communities in Colombia and Guatemala, where use is widespread. It als...
Article
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Set within the context of re-conceptualizing poverty to emphasize its multidimensionality, this paper argues for the need to extend existing debates on livelihood security to incorporate notions of physical and personal security, manifest in the form of violence and conflict. In turn, it suggests that research on security should continue its shift...
Article
This article uses the World Bank's conceptual framework to document the nature and scope of social protection policy and practice in Bolivia. It also assesses the manner in which social protection issues have been included in the Bolivian Government's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). This highlights limitations in the existing framework, an...
Article
Latin America is both the world's most urbanized fastest developing regions, where the links between social exclusion, inequality and violence are clearly visible. The banal, ubiquitous nature of drug crime, robbery, gang and intra-family violence destabilizes countries' economies and harms their people and social structures. Encounters with Violen...
Article
Full-text available
"Over the last decade several donors and NGOs (and more recently some developing country governments) have adopted a livelihoods approach to development. More recently, there have also been efforts to approach socio-economic development through the framework of human rights. Drawing on case studies of rights-based approaches to livelihood developme...
Article
Latin American experiences of conflict and building sustainable peace have tended to show a clear neglect of a gender analysis of the impacts of conflict and the peace negotiations that end it, much to the detriment of many women and men affected by and involved in the civil conflicts that have ravaged the region during the last thirty years. What...
Article
While all three WDR 2000|01 themes - opportunity, empowerment and security - are deemed to be of equal importance, security is probably the most strategic instrument for targeted poverty reduction. This paper critically discusses the two innovative frameworks introduced in the report: the twofold typology of risk and vulnerability, and the risk man...
Article
Full-text available
This paper emphasizes the importance of conducting participatory research on violence and describes the range of participatory urban appraisal tools that can be used to do so. This includes tools that can document the perceptions of poorer groups regarding the kinds of violence (economic, social or political), the extent, causes (and the links with...
Article
Identifying what the poor have, rather than what they do not have, focuses on their assets. This paper contributes to the extensive vulnerability/assets literature, by categorizing the assets of the urban poor in terms of an “asset vulnerability framework.” These include both tangible assets, such as labor and human capital, less familiar productiv...
Book
This report presents the main findings of a desk study undertaken for the Social Development Family of the World bank's Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network. The review points to the need for a Bankwide rationale and framework that sets out the fundamental reasons for mainstreaming gender and development into operational pra...
Book
Independently gathered statistics show that violence has escalated steadily since Jamaican independence in 1962. Because of the importance of violence as a contributory factor to urban poverty, this study of urban poverty and violence was undertaken during the preparation phase of the Jamaican Social Investment Fund (JSIF) to contribute to project...
Book
How do poor households respond when incomes decline, jobs are increasingly scarce, and spending on food and services increases? Some households are more vulnerable than others, and not all cope equally well. As governments and donors grapple with the problems of poverty in countries experiencing economic difficulties, understanding how the poor res...
Book
How do poor households respond when incomes decline, jobs are increasingly scarce, and spending on food and services increases? Some households are more vulnerable than others, and not all cope equally well. As governments and donors grapple with the problems of poverty in countries experiencing economic difficulties, understanding how the poor res...
Book
How do poor households respond when incomes decline, jobs are increasingly scarce, and spending on food and services increases? Some households are more vulnerable than others, and not all cope equally well. As governments and donors grapple with the problems of poverty in countries experiencing economic difficulties, understanding how the poor res...
Article
This volume presents the main findings of a comparative study of four poor urban communities in countries experiencing economic difficulties during the late 1980s: Chawama (Zambia), Cisne Dos (Ecuador), Commonwealth (the Philippines), and Angyalfold (Hungary). The study extended a longitudinal community panel study begun in Ecuador by using a socio...
Book
The study analyzed four urban communities in four very different regions: Chawama, in Lusaka, Zambia; Cisne Dos, in Guayaquil, Ecuador; Commonwealth, in Metro Manila, the Philippines; and Angyalfold, in Budapest, Hungary. Although these four case studies revealed interesting contrasts, they also showed important similarities. The findings show that...
Article
The recent shift in focus from “Women in Development” to “Gender and Development” has resulted in changes in the evaluation practices of development agencies. Although most of the indicators used to assess the gender impact of programs and projects still measure implementation progress rather than outcomes, a rich arsenal of techniques is available...
Article
This article provides a brief review of the research agenda on women, gender and urban development over the past three decades, examining the extent to which it has formed a separate agenda as against a part of mainstream research issues. It identifies four "periods' of Third World urban development. In each it highlights a number of important, cle...
Article
Full-text available
The paper describes the differences in the ways that social and economic policy perceive poverty and its underlying causes, and thus differences in how they define it, measure it and institute mechanisms to reduce it. It also highlights the many dimensions of poverty that economic policy ignores and considers the constraints that limit the effectiv...
Article
La presente publicación habla sobre el desarrollo de planificación de género como una tradición planificadora por derecho propio, cuyo objetivo es lograr que la mujer se independice y llegue ha alcanzar la igualdad, la equidad y el empoderamiento en la sociedad.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University of Toronto, Major Report
Article
This chapter contributes to the ongoing debate concerning the extent to which structural adjustment programmes SAPs have differentially disadvantaged members of low-income households on the basis of gender. The objective is also to show policy makers the importance of ensuring that current research methodology shifts from the household as the unit...
Chapter
The lack of consensus as to the underlying causes of poverty in Latin American cities has been reflected in the different conceptual approaches to Third World economic development. Social policy to alleviate poverty, therefore, has not been formulated in a vacuum, but has been determined within specific political and ideological frameworks reflecti...
Article
The book is divided into two parts, reflecting stages in the gender planning process. Part 1, focusing on the conceptual rationale for gender planning in the Third World, examines feminist theories and WID/GAD debates in terms of their relevance for gender planning. The chapters cover: assumptions related to family structure and division of labour...
Article
This article describes the methodology used to examine the social dimensions of debt, recession and structural adjustment policies in terms of their impact on low income urban households in Guayaquil, Ecuador. It argues that rapid appraisal is appropriate to urban areas, and that with prior preparation questionnaire surveys and life history techniq...
Article
This article examines a UNICEF/Ministry of Health primary health care programme in Ecuador from a community perspective. It contributes to the debate concerning the way in which the relative ‘success˚s or ‘failure˚s of participatory projects is measured. It argues for evaluators to distinguish between the perceptions of the different actors involve...
Article
The document aims to compare and constrast the experience of community participation in urban projects designed and implemented by a diversity of organizations and project agencies, such as international donors, national governments and NGOs. The review highlights how far the size, type and structure of implementing agencies is a determinant of bot...
Article
Recognition of the important role that women play in Third World development has not necessarily been translated into planning practice. This paper describes the development of gender planning, which in identifying that women and men play different roles in Third World society and therefore often have different needs, provides both the conceptual f...
Article
Provides a review of important recent studies on the informal sector. As a position paper for the United Nations Centre for Regional Development, for its research project on the role of the informal sector in the development of small and intermediate cities, its purpose is two-fold: 1) to provide relevant information on recent informal sector studi...
Article
The persistence of long-term poverty among sectors of the urban and rural population in less-developed countries (LDCs), as well as in the so-called developed world, has resulted in the formulation of a diversity of interpretations by theoreticians and policy-makers seeking to comprehend the life of the poor, and for political, economic, and moral...
Article
This paper provides a critical review of the informal sector debate in recent studies of Third World poverty and employment. The use of the informal sector concept in the ILO World Employment Programme studies at country, city and sector level is discussed and definitional confusions in different conceptualizations are identified. Recognition of th...
Article
Full-text available
The Brookings Institution, anfelton@fdic.gov I. Objectives This paper is concerned with long-term poverty and socioeconomic mobility dynamics, and examines the relationship between household asset accumulation and poverty reduction. It summarizes the results from a research project that examines how poor households in a low-income community in Guay...
Article
The importance of women's safety and security in cities throughout the world - both within the household as well as outside in public spaces - is now widely recognised. An extensive range of state and civil society institutions are currently implementing a range of cutting edge 'good practice' policies, programmes and projects to rigorously address...
Article
Este libro examina el rol de la mujer en relación a los asentamientos humanos y viviendas del Tercer Mundo: América Central, y del Sur, Africa y Asia. Analiza los relatos de mujeres al respecto así como el papel central que el bajo vivienda y servicios de infraestructura -agua, electricidad y alcantarillado-, juega en sus vidas y el hecho de que es...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Sussex, 1975. Includes bibliographical references. Microfiche.

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Project (1)
Project
The main objective of the project is to implement the Asset Planning for Climate Change Adaptation (APCCA) framework by identifying adaptive strategies that can help to reduce vulnerability and increase resilience to the impacts of climate change in urban poor neighborhoods of Tegucigalpa. The consultancy will identify ways by which national entities together with local communities, can jointly address some of the challenges that severe and extreme weather events represent to the wellbeing of the urban poor. These results could be used to replicate adaptation strategies in other vulnerable neighborhoods that share the same features.