Caroline Jay

Caroline Jay
The University of Manchester · School of Computer Science

PhD Computer Science, MSc Computer Science, BA(Hons) Psychology

About

174
Publications
37,045
Reads
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1,525
Citations
Citations since 2016
122 Research Items
1066 Citations
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Introduction
My research covers many aspects of HCI, but focuses chiefly on modelling how people perceive and use digital information. In particular, I am interested in determining how we can predict perception of and interaction with applications without prior knowledge of the user's task.

Publications

Publications (174)
Article
Full-text available
Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, which has precipitated much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices....
Chapter
Complex models, such as neural networks (NNs), are comprised of many interrelated components. In order to represent these models, eliciting and characterising the relations between components is essential. Perhaps because of this, diagrams, as “icons of relation”, are a prevalent medium for signifying complex models. Diagrams used to communicate NN...
Article
Background The efforts to contain SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic have been supported by Test, Trace and Isolate (TTI) systems in many settings, including the United Kingdom. Mathematical models of transmission and TTI interventions, used to inform design and policy choices, make assumptions about the public’s behaviour in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biological science produces large amounts of data in a variety of formats, which necessitates the use of computational tools to process, integrate, analyse, and glean insights from the data. Researchers who use computational biology tools range from those who use computers primarily for communication and data lookup, to those who write complex soft...
Preprint
Full-text available
Network comparison is a widely-used tool for analyzing complex systems, with applications in varied domains including comparison of protein interactions or highlighting changes in structure of trade networks. In recent years, a number of network comparison methodologies based on the distribution of graphlets (small connected network subgraphs) have...
Preprint
Full-text available
Testing for infection with SARS-CoV-2 is an important intervention in reducing onwards transmission of COVID-19, particularly when combined with the isolation and contact-tracing of positive cases. Many countries with the capacity to do so have made use of lab-processed Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing targeted at individuals with symptoms a...
Preprint
Hay fever affects people differently and can change over a lifetime, but data is lacking on how environmental factors may influence this. This study is the first to combine atmospheric sensor data with real-time, geo-positioned hay fever symptom reports to examine the relationship between symptom severity and air quality, weather and land use. We s...
Preprint
Objectives: A need for Open Research practices exists, yet there remains a lack of validated questionnaires to assess Open Research practices. The study aimed to develop a brief (<5 minutes), standardised questionnaire to measure Open Research awareness and engagement across UK institutions.Methods: The Brief Open Research Survey (BORS) was develop...
Preprint
Full-text available
In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a rapid response from governments and researchers worldwide. As of May 2022, over 6 million people died as a result of COVID-19 and over 500 million confirmed cases, with many COVID-19 survivors going on to experience long-term effects weeks, months, or years after their illness. Despite this staggering to...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the intuitive value of adopting the Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) principles in both academic and industrial sectors, challenges exist in resourcing, balancing long- versus short-term priorities, and achieving technical implementation. This situation is exacerbated by the unclear mechanisms by which costs and bene...
Article
Physical activity reconstruction is a process whereby self-trackers reflect on their physical activities and goals in an episodic fashion by recalling a series of past experiences and events. Tracking tools often include spatio-temporal cues (i.e. maps and timelines) to provide further context to these physical activity patterns, yet little is know...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, quantifying the impacts of detrimental air quality has become a global priority for researchers and policy makers. At present, the systems and methodologies supporting the collection and manipulation of this data are difficult to access. To support studies quantifying the interplay between common gaseous and particulate pollutants...
Preprint
Full-text available
The efforts to contain SARS-CoV-2 and reduce the impact of COVID-19 have been supported by Test, Trace and Isolate (TTI) systems in many settings, including the United Kingdom. The mathematical models underlying policy decisions about TTI make assumptions about behaviour in the context of a rapidly unfolding and changeable emergency. This study inv...
Article
Full-text available
Software now lies at the heart of scholarly research. Here we argue that as well as being important from a methodological perspective, software should, in many instances, be recognised as an output of research, equivalent to an academic paper. The article discusses the different roles that software may play in research and highlights the relationsh...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing amount of data collected about the environment brings tremendous potential to create digital systems that can predict the impact of intended and unintended changes. With growing interest in the construction of Digital Twins across multiple sectors, combined with rapid changes to where we spend our time and the nature of pollutants we...
Preprint
Many disciplines are facing a “reproducibility crisis”, ushering in much discussion about how to improve research integrity, reproducibility, and transparency. A unified effort across all sectors, levels, and stages of the research ecosystem is needed to coordinate goals and reforms that focus on open and transparent research practices, while promo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding variability in clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 community infections is key in management of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here we bring together four large and diverse datasets deriving from routine testing, a population-representative household survey and participatory mobile surveillance in the United Kingdom and use cutting-edge u...
Article
Full-text available
The first quarter of 2020 heralded the beginning of an uncertain future for museums and galleries as the COVID-19 pandemic hit and the only means to stay ‘open’ was to turn towards the digital. In this paper, we investigate how the physical closure of museum buildings due to lockdown restrictions caused shockwaves within their digital strategies an...
Article
Full-text available
The findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable (FAIR) principles for scientific data management and stewardship aim to facilitate data reuse at scale by both humans and machines. Research and development (R&D) in the pharmaceutical industry is becoming increasingly data driven, but managing its data assets according to FAIR principles remains co...
Chapter
Diagrams are often used in scholarly communication. We analyse a corpus of diagrams found in scholarly computational linguistics conference proceedings (ACL 2017), and find inclusion of a system diagram to be correlated with higher numbers of citations after three years. Inclusion of more than three diagrams in this 8-page limit conference was foun...
Chapter
We utilise VisDNA as a tool for understanding neural network system architecture diagrams. Through examples from scholarly proceedings, we find that the application of the framework to this ecological and complex domain is effective for reflecting on these diagrams. We argue for additional vocabulary to describe semiotic variability and internal in...
Chapter
This paper examines diagrams describing neural network systems in academic conference proceedings. Many aspects of scholarly communication are controlled, particularly with relation to text and formatting, but often diagrams are not centrally curated beyond a peer review. Using a corpus-based approach, we argue that the heterogeneous diagrammatic n...
Preprint
Full-text available
Media is evolving from traditional linear narratives to personalised experiences, where control over information (or how it is presented) is given to individual audience members. Measuring and understanding audience engagement with this media is important in at least two ways: (1) a post-hoc understanding of how engaged audiences are with the conte...
Chapter
Full-text available
Museums contain vast amounts of information and knowledge, providing a vital source of engagement for diverse audiences. As society becomes ever more digital, museums are moving towards making their collections available online to the public. However, just providing a searchable interface to the entirety of the collection could be a barrier to succ...
Chapter
Electrocardiograms (ECGs), which capture the electrical activity of the human heart, are widely used in clinical practice, and notoriously difficult to interpret. Whilst there have been attempts to automate their interpretation for several decades, human reading of the data presented visually remains the ‘gold standard’. We demonstrate how a visual...
Article
Full-text available
Relapse prevention (RP) - helping people to develop relevant coping skills in high-risk situations that challenge abstinence - is an important part of alcohol use disorder treatment. Recreating personalised, high-risk situations can be challenging in clinical contexts. Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) has the potential to offer immersive exposure to r...
Chapter
Research software – specialist software used to support or undertake research – is of huge importance to researchers. It contributes to significant advances in the wider world and requires collaboration between people with diverse skills and backgrounds. Analysis of recent survey data provides evidence for a lack of diversity in the Research Softwa...
Article
Stereotypes are hugely influential in human-human interactions but have received little attention in human-computer interaction. The associations held for everyday technological devices and the ways these devices are stereotyped have the potential to influence interactions, and may be beneficial to designers in improving the congruency between a de...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual Reality Therapy (VRT) has been shown to be effective in treating anxiety disorders and phobias, but has not yet been widely tested for Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) and it is not known whether health care practitioners working with SUDs would use VRT if it were available. We report the results of an interview study exploring practitioners’...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the first quarter of 2020, the doors of museums around the world shut and their operations at physical sites were reduced in line with necessary security measures. This heralded the beginning of an uncertain future for museums and galleries as the COVID-19 pandemic hit and the only means to stay ‘open’ was to turn towards the digital. In this pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diagrams are often used in scholarly communication. We analyse a corpus of diagrams found in scholarly computational linguistics conference proceedings (ACL 2017), and find inclusion of a system diagram to be correlated with higher numbers of citations after 3 years. Inclusion of over three diagrams in this 8-page limit conference was found to corr...
Preprint
Full-text available
This short paper examines diagrams describing neural network systems in academic conference proceedings. Many aspects of scholarly communication are controlled, particularly with relation to text and formatting, but often diagrams are not centrally curated beyond a peer review. Using a corpus-based approach, we argue that the heterogeneous diagramm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Complex systems, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems , are comprised of many interrelated components. In order to represent these systems, demonstrating the relations between components is essential. Perhaps because of this, diagrams, as "icons of relation", are a prevalent medium for signifying complex systems. Diagrams used to communicat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research software -- specialist software used to support or undertake research -- is of huge importance to researchers. It contributes to significant advances in the wider world and requires collaboration between people with diverse skills and backgrounds. Analysis of recent survey data provides evidence for a lack of diversity in the Research Soft...
Article
Torsade de points (TdP), a life-threatening arrhythmia that can increase the risk of sudden cardiac death, is associated with drug-induced QT-interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram (ECG). While many modern ECG machines provide automated measurements of the QT-interval, these automated QT values are usually correct only for a noise-free norm...
Article
Full-text available
Many self-trackers lose interest in, disengage from and ultimately withdraw from tracking. Reasons for this include poor motivation, unmet expectations and difficulty in attaining daily goals. To support users in reflecting on their goals more realistically, we developed FitReflect, an app that moderates physical activity goals by factoring in user...
Preprint
Full-text available
Software now lies at the heart of scholarly research. Here we argue that as well as being important from a methodological perspective, software should, in many instances, be recognised as an output of research, equivalent to an academic paper. The article discusses the different roles that software may play in research and highlights the relationsh...
Article
Full-text available
Background : Software is now ubiquitous within research. In addition to the general challenges common to all software development projects, research software must also represent, manipulate, and provide data for complex theoretical constructs. Ensuring this process of theory-software translation is robust is essential to maintaining the integrity o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Time-series forecasting methods have often been used to mitigate some of the challenges associated with deploying chemical transport models at high resolution for use at local scales. In this study we deploy and evaluate Facebook’s Prophet model v0.6 in predicting hourly concentrations of Nitrogen Dioxide [NO2] over a 2 year period [2018–2019] acro...
Article
Full-text available
Drug-induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS), characterized by a prolongation of the QT-interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG), is a serious adverse drug reaction that can cause the life-threatening arrhythmia Torsade de Points (TdP). Self-monitoring for diLQTS could therefore save lives, but detecting it on the ECG is difficult, particularly at high an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Twelve artificial intelligence system experts are interviewed about their use of diagrams. 1. Differences in interpretation, preference and use of scholarly system diagrams are discovered. 2. Priorities and problems that scholarly system diagram users encounter are identified. 3. Guidelines for neural network system diagrams are proposed. Abstr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Self-trackers reflect on their personal data to understand their behaviour and plan accordingly. Often, this reflection involves uncertainty, which can affect decision-making. To better understand the role of uncertainty, we conducted an interview study to comprehend how uncertainty influences reflection and the resulting actions. Our findings sugg...
Research
Full-text available
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive condition of the lungs. With the rise of "big data" and data science, there are increasing opportunities for improving the management of such chronic conditions. This potential can only be exploited if we actively involve patients in research and development processes. On 21 st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Drug-induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS), characterized by a prolongation of the QT-interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG), is a serious adverse drug reaction that can cause the life-threatening arrhythmia Torsade de Points (TdP). Self-monitoring for diLQTS could therefore save lives, but detecting it on the ECG is difficult, particularly at high an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Gaps exist between developers, commissioners, and end users in terms of the perceived desirability of different features and functionalities of mobile apps. Objective: The objective of this study was to co-design a prototype mobile app for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We present lessons learned and recommend...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People with lung cancer often wait for several months before presenting symptoms to health services. Some patients report seeking information online to help them appraise symptoms. No research has evaluated whether websites about lung cancer present information in an optimal manner to encourage help-seeking. Objective: To evaluate the...
Article
Full-text available
Software developers use version control systems for collaborative coding. These systems are integrated into several software development platforms (including GitLab and GitHub) which support additional software engineering functionalities. Using these platforms in an educational context allows students to gain skills relevant to industry, whilst pr...
Article
Abstract—Building software that can support the huge growth in data and computation required by modern research needs individuals with increasingly specialist skill sets that take time to develop and maintain. The Research Software Engineering movement, which started in the UK and has been built up over recent years, aims to recognise and support t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Building software that can support the huge growth in data and computation required by modern research needs individuals with increasingly specialist skill sets that take time to develop and maintain. The Research Software Engineering movement, which started in the UK and has been built up over recent years, aims to recognise and support these indi...
Preprint
Full-text available
We utilise Richards-Engelhardt framework as a tool for understanding Natural Language Processing systems diagrams. Through four examples from scholarly proceedings, we find that the application of the framework to this ecological and complex domain is effective for reflecting on these diagrams. We argue for vocabulary to describe multiple-codings,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Theory-Software Translation Workshop, held in New Orleans in February 2019, explored in depth the process of both instantiating theory in software - for example, implementing a mathematical model in code as part of a simulation - and using the outputs of software - such as the behavior of a simulation - to advance knowledge. As computation with...
Article
Full-text available
Background/Aims This article aims to improve the understanding of the applied cognitive processes when interpreting electrocardiograms in clinical practice. It will do this by examining the self-reported approach practitioners take to interpret any barriers they encounter. Methods This was a qualitative study in which medical practitioners, who rou...
Article
Objective: To understand how visualization of biomarker data is used for decision making in clinical trials, and identify problems with and suggest improvements to this process. Methods: We carried out semi-structured interviews with 18 professionals involved in various aspects of developing or using visualizations of biomarker data for decision...
Article
Background: Gaps exist between developers, commissioners, and end users in terms of the perceived desirability of different features and functionalities of mobile apps. Objective: The objective of this study was to co-design a prototype mobile app for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We present lessons learned and recomm...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Gaps exist between developers, commissioners, and end users in terms of the perceived desirability of different features and functionalities of mobile apps. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to co-design a prototype mobile app for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We present lessons learned and recommenda...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the impact of the presentation of a patient’s clinical history on subsequent visual appraisal and interpretation accuracy of electrocardiograms (ECGs). Healthcare-practitioners (N = 31) skilled in 12-lead ECG interpretation took part in a repeated-measures experiment with counterbalancing viewing 9 ECGs on a computer screen in two separa...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the role that lived experience plays in the human capacity to reason about uncertainty. Previous research shows that people are more likely to provide accurate responses in Bayesian tasks when the data are presented in natural frequencies, the problem in question describes a familiar event, and the values of the data are in line...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To characterise the use of an electronic medication safety dashboard by exploring and contrasting interactions from primary users (i.e. pharmacists) who were leading the intervention and secondary users (i.e. non-pharmacist staff) who used the dashboard to engage in safe prescribing practices. Materials and methods: We conducted a 10-...
Chapter
To ensure that you are conducting research to the highest scientific standards, data collection and analysis procedures should be robust, well-described, and open to scrutiny. In principle, this may sound straightforward; in practice, it is very hard to achieve. Here we examine what it means, and what it involves, for Web accessibility researchers...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents preliminary results of a study designed to quantify users' engagement levels with interactive media content, through self-reported measures and interaction data. The broad hypothesis of the study is that interaction data can be used to predict the level of engagement felt by the user. The challenge addressed in this work is to e...
Article
Full-text available
This paper uses the accepted submissions from the Workshop on Sustainable Software for Science: Practice and Experiences (WSSSPE5.1) held in Manchester, UK in September 2017 and the speed blogs written during the event to examine the state of research software. It presents a schematic of the space, then examines coverage in terms of topics, actors,...
Preprint
Full-text available
To bridge the digital skills gap, we need to train more people in Software Engineering techniques. This paper reports on a project exploring the way students solve tasks using collaborative development platforms and version control systems, such as GitLab, to find patterns and evaluation metrics that can be used to improve the course content and re...