Caroline P. Hoyniak

Caroline P. Hoyniak
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Department of Psychiatry

Doctor of Philosophy

About

33
Publications
3,433
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
679
Citations
Citations since 2016
31 Research Items
508 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100120140
Introduction
My research focuses on exploring how sleep problems in early childhood affect early neurodevelopment and the development of psychopathology.
Education
August 2018 - August 2019
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology Internship
August 2013 - September 2019
Indiana University Bloomington
Field of study
  • Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences

Publications

Publications (33)
Article
Family processes during the pre-bedtime period likely have a crucial influence on toddler sleep, but relatively little previous research has focused on family process in this context. The current study examined several aspects of family process during the pre-bedtime period, including the use of bedtime routines, the qualities of the child’s home s...
Article
Research suggests that arousal during the transition to sleep—presleep arousal—is associated with sleep disturbances. Although a robust literature has examined the role of presleep arousal in conferring risk for sleep disturbances in adults, substantially less research has examined the developmental origins of presleep arousal in early childhood. T...
Article
Full-text available
There is a close relationship between sleep and depression, and certain maladaptive outcomes of sleep problems may only be apparent in individuals with heightened levels of depression. In a sample enriched for preschool depression, we examined how sleep and depression in early childhood interact to predict later trajectories of gray matter volume....
Article
The physical home environment is thought to play a crucial role in facilitating healthy sleep in young children. However, relatively little is known about how various features of the physical home environment are associated with sleep in early childhood, and some of the recommendations clinicians make for improving child sleep environments are base...
Article
Temper tantrums are sudden, overt negative emotional displays that are disproportionate to the eliciting event. Research supports that severe temper tantrums during the preschool period are associated with preschool psychopathology, but few studies have identified which characteristics of preschool tantrums are predictive of distal psychopathologic...
Article
Suicidal thoughts and behaviors in youth are an escalating and immediate public health concern. To better understand youth suicidal thoughts and behaviors, it is important to identify risk factors in early childhood that predict the later emergence of youth suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Research with adults and adolescents has identified sleep d...
Article
Background Sensory over-responsivity (SOR) is recognized as a common feature of autism spectrum disorder. Yet SOR is also common among typically developing children, where it is associated with elevated psychiatric symptoms. The clinical significance and neurocognitive bases of SOR in these children remains poorly understood and actively debated....
Preprint
Prenatal exposure to adversity profoundly impacts offspring development. Well-documented disparities in sleep and circadian health are known to be related, and exposure to disrupted maternal sleep and circadian rhythms during pregnancy may have an effect on offspring neurodevelopment. The current study explored the association between maternal slee...
Article
Objective: To test whether childhood picky eating (PE)-a behavior previously linked to many forms of psychopathology-is specifically associated with symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: We investigated the relationship between PE and symptoms of several forms of psychopathology in two separate observational samples: a sample...
Article
Negative affect is associated with both high stress and poor sleep, but questions remain about the direction of these associations across time and interactions between stress and sleep, especially in early childhood. The present study examined sleep deficits, family stress, and observed negative affect in a sample of toddlers at 30, 36, and 42 mont...
Article
Full-text available
While substantial research supports the role of parent–child interactions on the emergence of psychiatric symptoms, few studies have explored biological mechanisms for this association. The current study explored behavioral and neural parent–child synchronization during frustration and play as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors...
Article
Inhibitory control has been widely studied in association with social and academic adjustment. However, prior studies have generally overlooked the potential heterotypic continuity of inhibitory control and how this could affect assessment and understanding of its development. In the present study, we systematically considered heterotypic continuit...
Article
Full-text available
In school-aged children, adolescents, and adults, more than 72% of individuals diagnosed with major depression report co-occurring sleep problems, but little is known about sleep problems in the context of preschool-onset major depressive disorder (PO-MDD). The current study examined the prevalence of various sleep problems in a sample of young chi...
Article
Callous–unemotional (CU) behaviors (i.e., low concern and active disregard for others) uniquely predict severe conduct problems and substance use when present by late childhood. Less is known about the predictive utility of CU behaviors displayed in early childhood, when morality is developing and interventions may be more effective. Children aged...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits-characterized by low empathy, prosociality, and guilt-predict severe and persistent conduct problems. Although some interventions for conduct problems have been less effective in children with high levels of CU traits, studies have not examined whether CU traits interfere with treatment for other childhoo...
Article
The present study examined individual differences in the development of sustained attention across toddlerhood, as well as how these individual differences related to the development of language and sleep. Toddlers (N = 314; 54% male) were assessed at 30, 36, and 42 months using multiple measures of attention, a standardized language assessment, an...
Article
There is increasing interest in the relation between screen use and sleep problems in early childhood. In a sample of 30-month-old children, this study used observational measures of screen use during the hour or so leading up to bedtime, parent reports of screen use during the child's bedtime routine, and actigraphic measures of toddler sleep to c...
Article
Full-text available
Parent-child synchrony—parent-child interaction patterns characterized by contingent social responding, mutual responsivity, and co-regulation—has been robustly associated with adaptive child outcomes. Synchrony has been investigated in both behavioral and biological frameworks. While it has been demonstrated that adversity can influence behavioral...
Chapter
What is the role of sleep in children's behavioral, emotional, and cognitive regulation? This chapter considers theoretical and conceptual links between sleep and self-regulation, with special attention to sleep and self-regulation in early childhood. We selectively review the growing body of research on associations between sleep and self-regulati...
Article
Background: Sleep is thought to be important for behavioral and cognitive development. However, much of the prior research on sleep’s role in behavioral/cognitive development has relied upon self-report measures and cross-sectional designs. Methods: The current study examined how early childhood sleep, measured actigraphically, was developmentally...
Article
There has been an unprecedented increase in the number of research studies employing event-related potential (ERP) techniques to examine dynamic and rapidly occurring neural processes with children during the preschool and early childhood years. Despite this, there has been relatively little discussion of the methodological and procedural differenc...
Article
The N2 event-related potential component is a well-studied neurophysiological index of response inhibition that is considered to be a biomarker of externalizing psychopathology. The literature on the N2 elicited in childhood has been inconsistent, though, with different studies yielding different findings regarding the association between the N2 an...
Chapter
Social competencies, such as smiling at the right time, understanding what “no” means, or clearly expressing one’s needs, develop over time. How this happens is of great importance from multiple perspectives. Qualities of development are crucial in human society, both for individuals and for individuals’ social groups. Social development research a...
Article
The present study considered multiple aspects of sleep in a community sample of young children (at ages 30, 36, and 42 months) and their mothers, using both diaries and actigraphy. Through principal components analysis, 17 of 20 commonly used actigraphy variables were reduced to four main components whose variables formed composites of: Activity, n...
Article
Full-text available
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by deficits in guilt/empathy, shallow affect, and the callous and manipulative use of others. Individuals showing CU traits have increased risk for behavior problems and reduced responses to displays of distress in others. To explore how deficits in emotion-processing are associated with CU traits,...
Article
Background Externalizing problems, including aggression and conduct problems, are thought to involve impaired attentional capacities. Previous research suggests that the P3 event‐related potential (ERP) component is an index of attentional processing, and diminished P3 amplitudes to infrequent stimuli have been shown to be associated with externali...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the association between effortful control and a well-studied neural index of self-regulation, the N2 event-related potential (ERP) component, in toddlers. Participants included 107 toddlers (44 girls) assessed at 30, 36 and 42 months of age. Participants completed a Go/NoGo task while electroencephalography data were reco...
Article
Full-text available
Despite a robust literature examining the association between sleep problems and cognitive abilities in childhood, little is known about this association in toddlerhood, a period of rapid cognitive development. The present study examined the association between various sleep problems, using actigraphy, and performance on a standardized test of cogn...
Article
Objective: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are characterized by a lack of guilt and empathy, and low responsiveness to distress and fear in others. Children with CU traits are at-risk for engaging in early and persistent conduct problems. Individuals showing CU traits have been shown to have reduced neural responses to others' distress (e.g., fear...
Article
Research suggests that the NoGo N2 event-related potential component elicited in children during Go/NoGo and Continuous Performance tasks indexes response inhibition capacities. This meta-analysis examined what is known about the N2 component's amplitude/latency values, developmental trajectory, and the differences between amplitudes in Go and NoGo...
Article
Full-text available
The current study used event-related potentials to examine a candidate process through which sleep difficulties affect attentional processing in toddlers. Fifteen toddlers participated in an auditory Oddball task while neurophysiological data were collected. Sleep deficits were assessed using actigraphs, and attention was examined with a sustained...

Network

Cited By