Caroline Gilbert

Caroline Gilbert
École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort | ENVA · UMR 7179, CNRS/MNHN

DVM, PhD, Dipl. AWBM AWSEL

About

75
Publications
24,212
Reads
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1,340
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2013 - January 2017
École Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Full-text available
Heterothermy, or torpor, allows individuals to save energy by active reduction of metabolism and decreased body temperature. Social thermoregulation or huddling allows individuals to minimize energy needs while maintaining a relatively high body temperature. The Garden Dormouse ( Eliomys quercinus ), a highly endangered European rodent, uses both s...
Article
Full-text available
Behavioural evaluation and categorization of dogs in France : history, evolution and prospects. Evaluation comportementale et catégorisation des chiens en France : évolution et perspectives
Article
The moult in southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) represents an especially energetically demanding period during which seals must maintain high skin temperature to facilitate complete replacement of body fur and upper dermis. In this study, heat flux from the body surface was measured on 18 moulting southern elephant seals to estimate metabol...
Poster
Full-text available
Animal protection = legal term for Animal Welfare • Since 2011 animal protection is an official part of VPH (Veterinary Public Health) in France. • Distinction between registered veterinarians and mandated veterinarians • Article L-203-6 of the Rural Code : registered veterinarians must warn official authorities in case of potential harm to people...
Article
Full-text available
Visual communication involves specific signals. These include the different positions of mobile body elements. We analyzed visual configurations in cats that involve ears and the tail. We aimed at deciphering which features of these configurations were the most important in cats’ interactions with other cats and with humans. We observed a total of...
Article
Full-text available
Background & Objectives The effectiveness of a new dietary supplement (derived from fish hydrolysate and melon juice concentrate rich in superoxide dismutase) in reducing fear and stress-related behaviours in pet dogs was examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. Methods 39 dogs were recruited after the owners had filled ou...
Article
While the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most studied and widespread cetacean in captivity, studies assessing its welfare have been developed only recently. Several studies focus on a potential indicator of stress: fecal glucocorti- coid metabolites (FGM) concentration, which is expected to increase when the hypothalamic-pitu- itary...
Article
While the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is the most studied and widespread cetacean in captivity , studies assessing its welfare have been developed only recently. Several studies focus on a potential indicator of stress: fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) concentration, which is expected to increase when the hypothalamic-pituitary-ad...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
Review French and European laws concerning animal slaughthering. History of Law. Focus on the Regulation N°1099/2009 of the European Union. Observations in slaugtherhouses. HACCP.Good Practises Guides. Assesment or risks by Anses (French Food Safety Agency). Behavioural observations in slaughterhouses. Animal Welfare. Sociological qualitative inter...
Technical Report
Advice of the French Food Safety Agency on the risk of dog bites and the relevance of breed specific laws made by a subgroup of the Animal Health and Welfare Committee. An evaluation of risk process : identification of the hazard, evaluation of risk i.e emission X expostion and consequences. Advice given on demand of Department of Agriculture relat...
Article
Le bien-être animal fait référence à un état mental subjectif, positif, lié à la perception que l’animal a de son milieu. Les outils d’évaluation du bien-être animal se doivent ainsi de mesurer et de quantifier objectivement les émotions négatives et positives, ainsi que l’état mental de l’animal. Ces outils et leurs indicateurs, validés et employé...
Poster
Integuments of living organisms, as diverse as skin, hairs, cuticles, can manage the same environmental factors as building envelopes. Their thermal, acoustic, light, humidity and air regulation capacities can be quantified using physical parameters such as hydrometry, thermal conductivity, porosity, etc.
Poster
Full-text available
94 % of European citizens feel concerned by animal welfare and therefore, the animal welfare societal demand has increased significantly. In order to answer to that demand, the French Agriculture and Food Ministry implemented the animal welfare plan 2016-2020 that contains 20 actions. The action 18 reads to “allow access to an impartial definition...
Article
We developed a new transcutaneous method for breast cancer detection with dogs: 2 dogs were trained to sniff skin secretion samples on compresses that had been worn overnight by women on their breast, and to recognize a breast cancer sample among 4 samples. During the test, the dogs recognized 90.3% of skin secretion breast cancer samples. This pro...
Article
While endotherms can rely on their insulation to reduce heat loss to adapt to cold environments, renewing of fur during molt impairs insulation while they have to perfuse the periphery to support epidermal tissues. The southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina undertakes an annual catastrophic molt while fasting on land in a wet, windy and cold envir...
Article
Full-text available
Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) are known to move and aggregate while molting, but little is known about their behavior on land during this time. In this study, 60 adult females were monitored (23 with GPS tags) during four molting seasons, between 2012 and 2016 at Kerguelen Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Population surveys were recorded eac...
Article
Full-text available
Feline idiopathic head-and-neck dermatitis—also named feline idiopathic ulcerative dermatitis (IUD)—is considered as a rare skin disease of unknown origin. It is usually associated with a crusted, non-healing, self-induced ulcer occurring most commonly on the dorsal or lateral neck or between the scapula where self-grooming by scratching occurs. Us...
Article
Full-text available
Although temperament has been studied in a wide range of animal species such as primates, dog or a rodents, it has not yet been well documented in birds and in particular in psittacids. Since parrots possess developed communicative and cognitive skills, the study of personality traits is of particular interest. The aim of our study was to develop a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) alternate foraging periods at sea, where they replenish their body fuels, and periods on land where they fast to complete their breeding cycle and moult. Unlike most phocid species, southern elephant seals experience a catastrophic moult where they not only replace their hair but also their epidermis when...
Poster
Full-text available
Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) come ashore to moult, and therefore fast, for a month every year. Moulting involves shedding of the club hair and of cornified epidermis sheets. Elephant seals face two energy expenditures while fasting: skin renewal and heat loss (due to dermal vasodilation and hair loss). Moulting requires proteins for h...
Article
Full-text available
Humans speak to dogs using a special speech register called Pet-Directed Speech (PDS) which is very similar to Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) used by parents when talking to young infants. These two type of speech share prosodic features that are distinct from the typical Adult-Directed Speech (ADS): a high pitched voice and an increased pitch variat...
Article
Full-text available
Unlike most phocid species (Phocidae), Mirounga leonina (southern elephant seals) experience a catastrophic moult where they not only replace their hair but also their epidermis when ashore for approximately 1 month. Few studies have investigated behavioural and physiological adaptations of southern elephant seals during the moult fast, a particula...
Article
In order to improve well-being of dogs during veterinary visits, we aimed to investigate the effect of human social interactions on behavior and physiology during routine examination. Firstly, we assessed the impact of a standardized veterinary examination on behavioral and physiological indicators of stress in dogs. Secondly, we examined whether t...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies focusing on the interspecific communicative interactions between humans and dogs show that owners use a special speech register when addressing their dog. This register, called pet-directed speech (PDS), has prosodic and syntactic features similar to that of infant-directed speech (IDS). While IDS prosody is known to vary according t...
Article
The ontogeny of associated individual differences in behavior and physiology during early postnatal life, and in particular the emergence of such differences among litter siblings, has been hardly explored in mammals under natural conditions. We studied such within-litter differences in behavior in European rabbit pups Oryctolagus cuniculus prior t...
Article
Full-text available
Detecting and predicting how populations respond to environmental variability are crucial challenges for their conservation. Knowledge about the abundance and distribution of the emperor penguin is far from complete despite recent information from satellites. When exploring the locations where emperor penguins breed, it is apparent that their distr...
Chapter
These proceedings contain oral and poster presentations from various experts on animal behaviour and animal welfare in veterinary medicine presented at the conference.
Article
OBJECTIVE To define a frailty-related phenotype—a clinical syndrome associated with the aging process in humans—in aged dogs and to investigate its association with time to death. ANIMALS 116 aged guide dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs underwent a clinical geriatric assessment (CGA) and were followed to either time of death or the study cutoff date. A 5-compo...
Article
Social thermoregulation is a cooperative strategy in which animals actively aggregate to benefit from the warmth of conspecifics in response to low ambient temperatures. Emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri, use this behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction during the Antarctic winter. An emperor penguin colony consists of a dynamic mo...
Article
Full-text available
Social thermoregulation is a cooperative strategy in which animals actively aggregate to benefit from the warmth of conspecifics in response to low ambient temperatures. Emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri, use this behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction during the Antarctic winter. An emperor penguin colony consists of a dynamic mo...
Poster
Full-text available
Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) alternate foraging periods at sea, where they replenish their body fuels, and periods on land where they fast to complete their breeding cycle and moult. Unlike most phocid species, Southern elephant seals experience a catastrophic moult where they not only replace their hair but also their epidermis when...
Article
Introduction Le vieillissement chronologique (l’âge d’un individu) doit être distingué du vieillissement biologique [1]. La « fragilité » chez un individu est caractérisée par une diminution des réserves physiologiques et une augmentation de la vulnérabilité aux événements défavorables (survenue de maladies, décès…), résultant de la dérégulation de...
Poster
Full-text available
Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) alternate foraging periods at sea, where they replenish their body fuels, and periods on land where they fast to complete their breeding cycle and moult. Unlike most phocid species, Southern elephant seals experience a catastrophic moult where they not only replace their hair but also their epidermis when...
Article
Full-text available
By transposing research data from wolves to dogs, it is commonly hypothesized that dogs would live in a group called "family-pack" in which humans should behave as dominants. However, comparing the definition of the hierarchy of dominance/subordination to observations of domestic and feral dogs and to inter-specific relationships, this concept cann...
Article
By transposing research data from wolves to dogs, it is commonly hypothesized that dogs would live in a group called "family-pack" in which humans should behave as dominants. However, comparing the definition of the hierarchy of dominance/subordination to observations of domestic and feral dogs and to inter-specific relationships, this concept cann...
Article
Full-text available
In birds, courtship is generally short relative to the whole breeding cycle. Emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri), however, are an exception as their courtship period is much longer (ca. 6 weeks) than the courtship of other penguin species. This strategy may appear surprising, as it is especially costly to fast and endure drastic climatic condit...
Article
Full-text available
The 18 penguin species are exclusively and widely distributed in the Southern hemisphere, from the Equator to the Antarctic continent, and are thus submitted to various ecological constraints in their reproductive strategy. This results in a high variability in all aspects of the breeding biology of the different species. Although penguins appear p...
Article
Full-text available
Emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri are able to survive the harsh Antarctic climate because of specialized anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations for minimizing heat loss. Heat transfer theory predicts that metabolic heat loss in this species will mostly depend on radiative and convective cooling. To examine this, thermal imaging o...
Article
Full-text available
Ageing is known to induce profound effects on physiological functions but only a few studies have focused on its behavioural alterations. Orb-webs of spiders, however, provide an easily analysable structure, the result of complex sequences of stereotypical behaviours that are particularly relevant to the study of ageing processes. We chose the orb...
Article
Full-text available
Within their litter, young altricial mammals compete for energy (constraining growth and survival) but cooperate for warmth. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which huddling in altricial infants influences individual heat production and loss, while providing public warmth. Although considered as a textbook example, it is surpri...
Article
Full-text available
Continuous growth, associated with a steady parental food supply, is a general pattern in offspring development. So that young chicks can acquire their locomotor independence, this period is usually marked by a fast maturation of muscles, during which different myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms are expressed. However, parental food provisioning ma...
Article
Infrared thermography (IRT) is a technique that determines surface temperature based on physical laws of radiative transfer. Thermal imaging cameras have been used since the 1960s to determine the surface temperature patterns of a wide range of birds and mammals and how species regulate their surface temperature in response to different environment...
Article
The changes in the hemolymph proteome of mygalomorph Brachypelma albopilosa females were examined for the first time in relation to their developmental stage (subadult and adult period). Seven distinct subunits of hemocyanin (a, b, c, d, e, f, and g chains), as well as actin were clearly identified and their sequence partly characterized using a co...
Article
Huddling can be defined as “an active and close aggregation of animals”. It is a cooperative group behaviour, permitting individuals involved in social thermoregulation to minimize heat loss and thereby lower their energy expenditure, and possibly allowing them to reallocate the saved energy to other functions such as growth or reproduction. Huddli...
Article
Full-text available
During moderate calorie restriction (CR) the heterotherm Microcebus murinus is able to maintain a stable energy balance whatever the season, even if only wintering animals enter into torpor. To understand its energy saving strategies to respond to food shortages, we assessed protein and energy metabolisms associated with wintering torpor expression...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the extent to which the increase in torpor expression in the grey mouse lemur, due to graded food restriction, is modulated by a trade-off between a whole body sparing of polyunsaturated dietary fatty acids and the related oxidative stress generated during daily torpor. We measured changes in torpor frequency, total energy e...
Article
Full-text available
As emperor penguins have no breeding territories, a key issue for both members of a pair is not to be separated until the egg is laid and transferred to the male. Both birds remain silent after mating and thereby reduce the risk of having the pair bond broken by unpaired birds. However, silence prevents finding each other if the pair is separated....
Article
Full-text available
Potential implications of gut hormones in body mass and torpor and behavioral pattern changes induced by an incremental (40 and 80%) calorie restriction (CR) in long-days (LD, summer) and short-days (SD, winter) were investigated in gray mouse lemurs. Only 80% food-deprived LD and SD animals showed a continuous mass loss resulting in a 10 and 15% m...
Article
Full-text available
The extent to which seasonal plasticity in torpor displayed by one of the smallest Malagasy primates (Microcebus murinus) will help survival in the context of ongoing global change-induced chronic food shortage, is unknown. Body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity were measured by telemetry in short- (SD, winter-acclimated) and long-days (LD, s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the energy savings of male emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri linked to their huddling behaviour, the key factor that allows them to assume their incubating task while undergoing a long fast. Drawing on new studies by our team, this review examines the energetic benefits accrued from huddling and estimates the respective...
Article
Full-text available
The foraging distributions of 20 breeding emperor penguins were investigated at Pointe Géologie, Terre Adélie, Antarctica by using satellite telemetry in 2005 and 2006 during early and late winter, as well as during late spring and summer, corresponding to incubation, early chick-brooding, late chick-rearing and the adult pre-moult period, respecti...
Data
The foraging distributions of 20 breeding emperor penguins were investigated at Pointe Géologie, Terre Adélie, Antarctica by using satellite telemetry in 2005 and 2006 during early and late winter, as well as during late spring and summer, corresponding to incubation, early chick-brooding, late chick-rearing and the adult pre-moult period, respecti...
Article
Huddling allows emperor penguins to conserve energy and survive their long winter fast while facing harsh climatic conditions. Here we report the Wrst investigation into the eVects of changes in wind speed and ambient temperature on diVerent components of penguin huddling behaviour. We attached light and temperature recorders to male emperor pengui...
Article
Full-text available
Huddling is considered as a social strategy to reduce thermal stress and promote growth in newborn altricial mammals. So far, the role of huddling on the allocation of saved energy has not been quantified nor have the related impacts on body temperature rhythms. To determine the energy partitioning of rabbit pups either raised alone or in groups of...
Article
Huddling is the key energy-saving mechanism for emperor penguins to endure their 4-mo incubation fast during the Antarctic winter, but the underlying physiological mechanisms of this energy saving have remained elusive. The question is whether their deep body (core) temperature may drop in association with energy sparing, taking into account that s...