Carolina O. Dufour

Carolina O. Dufour
Princeton University | PU · Department of Geosciences, Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

PhD

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29
Publications
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997
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Publications

Publications (29)
Article
This study investigates the occurrence of the Weddell Sea Polynya under an idealized climate change scenario by evaluating simulations from climate models of different ocean resolutions. The GFDL-CM2.6 climate model, with roughly 3.8 km horizontal ocean grid spacing in the high latitudes, forms aWeddell Sea Polynya at similar time and duration unde...
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Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced and released to the atmosphere by human activities, has been accumulating in the oceans for two centuries and will continue to do so well beyond the end of this century if emissions are not curbed. One direct consequence of CO2 buildup in the ocean is the acidification of seawater. Calcite, a mineral secreted by many...
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We document the configuration and emergent simulation features from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) OM4.0 ocean/sea ice model. OM4 serves as the ocean/sea ice component for the GFDL climate and Earth system models. It is also used for climate science research and is contributing to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version...
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The storage of anomalous heat and carbon in the Southern Ocean in response to increasing greenhouse gases greatly mitigates atmospheric warming and exerts a large impact on the marine ecosystem. However, the mechanisms driving the ocean storage patterns are uncertain. Here using recent hydrographic observations, we compare for the first time the sp...
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Horizontal transport at the boundaries of the subtropical gyres plays a crucial role in providing the nutrients that fuel gyre primary productivity, the heat that helps restratify the surface mixed layer, and the dissolved inorganic carbon that influences air-sea carbon exchange. Mesoscale eddies may be an important component of these horizontal tr...
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We identify Lagrangian coherent vortices in a global mesoscale eddy-permitting ocean model using the rotation-based method of Haller et al. (2016). We present an analysis of the acute sensitivity of the identification results to varying the method's free parameters, and develop physically justified parameter choices that allow for systematic vortex...
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The original version of this Article contained errors in Fig. 6. In panel a, the grey highlights obscured the curves for CESM, CM2.6 and SOSE, and the labels indicating SWIR, KP, MR, PAR, and DP were inadvertently omitted. These have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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Ocean warming near the Antarctic ice shelves has critical implications for future ice sheet mass loss and global sea level rise. A global climate model with an eddying ocean is used to quantify the mechanisms contributing to ocean warming on the Antarctic continental shelf in an idealized 2xCO2 experiment. The results indicate that relatively large...
Article
This study uses Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to examine the reconstruction of biogeochemical variables in the Southern Ocean from an array of autonomous profiling floats. In these OSSEs, designed to be relevant to the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observation and Modeling (SOCCOM) project, the simulated floats move with ocean...
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Upwelling of global deep waters to the sea surface in the Southern Ocean closes the global overturning circulation and is fundamentally important for oceanic uptake of carbon and heat, nutrient resupply for sustaining oceanic biological production, and the melt rate of ice shelves. However, the exact pathways and role of topography in Southern Ocea...
Article
The Weddell Sea polynya is a large opening in the open-ocean sea ice cover associated with intense deep convection in the ocean. A necessary condition to form and maintain a polynya is the presence of a strong subsurface heat reservoir. This study investigates the processes that control the stratification and hence the buildup of the subsurface hea...
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Earth System Models increasingly include ocean biogeochemistry models in order to predict changes in ocean carbon storage, hypoxia, and biological productivity under climate change. However, state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemical models include many advected tracers, that significantly increase the computational resources required, forcing a trade-o...
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This study examines the role of processes transporting tracers across the Polar Front (PF) in the depth interval between the surface and major topographic sills, which this study refers to as the PF core. A preindustrial control simulation of an eddying climate model coupled to a biogeochemical model [GFDL Climate Model, version 2.6 (CM2.6)- simpli...
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The authors characterize impacts on heat in the ocean climate system from transient ocean mesoscale eddies. Their tool is a suite of centennial-scale 1990 radiatively forced numerical climate simulations from three GFDL coupled models comprising the Climate Model, version 2.0–Ocean (CM2-O), model suite. CM2-O models differ in their ocean resolution...
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The Southern Ocean is critically important to the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Up to half of the excess CO2 currently in the ocean entered through the Southern Ocean. That uptake helps to maintain the global carbon balance and buffers transient climate change from fossil fuel emissions. However, the future evolution of the uptake is uncerta...
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The influence of wind forcing on variability of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is investigated using a series of eddy-permitting ocean–sea ice models. At interannual and decadal time scales the ACC transport is sensitive to both the mean strength of westerly winds along the ACC circumpolar path, consistent with zonal momentum balance theor...
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[1] The current positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) is thought to reduce the growth rate of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink because enhanced wind-driven upwelling of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) increases outgassing of natural CO2. However, no study to date has quantified the potentially large role of mesoscale eddies in compensating...
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The overturning circulation of the Southern Ocean has been investigated using eddying coupled ocean–sea ice models. The circulation is diagnosed in both density–latitude coordinates and in depth–density coordinates. Depth–density coordinates follow streamlines where the Antarctic Circumpolar Current is equivalent baro-tropic, capture the descent of...
Article
Meridional heat transport (MHT) in the Southern Ocean (SO) and its components are analyzed with two eddy-permittingclimate models. The two models present a consistent picture of the MHT response to projected twenty-first-century changes in SO winds. In agreement with a recent analysis based on an ocean data synthesis product, much of the MHT in the...
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To refine understanding of how Southern Ocean responds to recent intensification of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), a regional ocean model at two eddy-permitting resolutions was forced with two synthetic interannual forcings. The first forcing corresponds to homogeneously intensified winds, while the second concerns their poleward intensification,...
Article
To refine the understanding of how the Southern Ocean responds to recent intensification of the southern annular mode (SAM), a regional ocean model at two eddy-permitting resolutions was forced with two synthetic interannual forcings. The first forcing corresponds to homogeneously intensified winds, while the second concerns their poleward intensif...
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The subsurface variability of potential temperature and salinity south of Australia along 130°E is studied over a 25-yr period (1980–2004). The study is done with fields provided by a global eddy-permitting model of the DRAKKAR project forced by atmospheric reanalysis. The analysis performed by C. Sun and D. R. Watts with in situ hydrographic data...
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The Overturning Circulation of the Southern Ocean has been investigated using a state of the art, eddy resolving ocean-sea ice model. The overturning circulation at con-stant depth and latitude reveals a 'Deacon Cell', a wind-driven meridional cell which acts to flux light surface waters Northward and downward and dense deep waters Southward and up...

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Projects (2)
Project
http://soccom.princeton.edu/ SOCCOM’s mission is to drive a transformative shift in the scientific and public understanding of the role of the vast Southern Ocean in climate change and biogeochemistry. The goals of the program are to: - Extend sparse Southern Ocean biogeochemical observations by deploying a robotic observing system composed of ~200 autonomous floats that will provide nearly continuous coverage in time and horizontal space over the entire Southern Ocean, as well as vertical coverage deep into the water column. - Using this observational data, analyze and improve a new generation of high resolution earth system models to both increase our understanding of the Southern Ocean’s current workings and make better projections of the future trajectory of the Earth’s climate and biogeochemistry. - Educate a new generation of ocean scientists trained in both ocean observation and simulation, and develop a sophisticated outreach effort to disseminate results to the broadest possible community.