Carol Werner

Carol Werner
University of Utah | UOU · Department of Psychology

About

74
Publications
19,310
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
3,116
Citations

Publications

Publications (74)
Article
Few studies have correlated counts of street users to walkability features or tested for temporal variations in use across the day. Trained observers counted street users for four streets that differed in walkability according to the Irvine-Minnesota audit. From 7 am to 7 pm weekdays, across four 2-hour observation periods, all four streets had sig...
Article
Does street walkability and a new complete street renovation relate to street use and gender composition? We audited two mixed-walkability complete streets ("complete less-urban" and "complete-urban"), one low-walkable street, and one high-walkable street at pre-renovation and twice post-renovation. Complete street users increased, especially for t...
Article
“Appropriation” has been studied as a mechanism by which space is transformed into place. The present research tested two models of appropriation and place attachment among university students (n = 247), one in their university's neighborhood and the other in Paris as a whole. In both models, the relation between time spent in the setting and attac...
Article
Research indicates that people are drawn to green spaces with attractive amenities. This study extends that finding by comparing walking patterns in two neighborhoods with different numbers of parks; parks did not differ in rated attractiveness nor did neighborhoods differ substantially in rated walkability. Adults, aged 32–86 years (n = 90), drew...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Complete streets require evaluation to determine if they encourage active transportation. Methods: Data were collected before and after a street intervention provided new light rail, bike lanes, and better sidewalks in Salt Lake City, Utah. Residents living near (<800 m) and far (≥801-2000 m) from the street were compared, with sensi...
Article
Full-text available
Although bicycling has been related to positive health indicators, few studies examine health-related measures associated with non-competitive community cycling before and after cycling infrastructure improvements. This study examined cycling changes in a neighborhood receiving a bike lane, light rail, and other “complete street” improvements. Part...
Article
Understanding who takes advantage of new transit (public transportation) interventions is important for personal and environmental health. We examine transit ridership for residents living near a new light rail construction as part of “complete street,” pedestrian-friendly improvements. Adult residents (n = 536) completed surveys and wore accelerom...
Article
Full-text available
There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying envir...
Article
We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and...
Article
Objective: The current cross-sectional study tests whether low perceived crime safety is associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity risk and whether less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) accounts for part of this relationship. Method: Adults (n=864) from a relatively low-income and ethnically mixed neighborhood in Salt Lake C...
Article
Full-text available
Obtaining the 'when, where and why' of healthy bouts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) provides insights into natural PA. In Salt Lake City, Utah, adults wore accelerometer and Global Positioning System (GPS) loggers for a week in a cross-sectional study to establish baseline travel and activity patterns near a planned Complete Stree...
Article
It is widely acknowledged that encouraging walking in urban environments should be a major public health goal. This view is supported by many studies in environmental psychology, in particular those designed to identify characteristics of the urban environment that support and encourage healthy walking. This article proposes to translate the Irvine...
Article
Lights left on in empty classrooms can waste considerable electricity and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Interviews prior to the study suggested students did not turn off lights because they did not think of it and were not sure they were allowed to. We visited classes and led brief group discussions to combat these reasons and create a de...
Article
This entry includes the following topics: types of territories; social regulation function; territory and identity; applications of territoriality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Commitment making is commonly regarded as an effective way to promote proenvironmental behaviors. The general idea is that when people commit to a certain behavior, they adhere to their commitment, and this produces long-term behavior change. Although this idea seems promising, the results are mixed. In the current article, the authors investigate...
Article
Guided group discussion (Lewin, 1952; Werner, 2003; Werner & Adams, 2001) was used to persuade groups to replace their toxic home and garden chemicals with nontoxic alternatives. We hypothesized that discussion would allow participants to hear others endorse the new information, and this normative information would facilitate persuasion. Approximat...
Article
Transit-oriented developments are touted as providing a variety of social benefits, but personal benefits to residents are underresearched. The authors surveyed 51 residents before and after a new light rail stop was constructed in their revitalizing Salt Lake City neighborhood. Residents anticipated and then later experienced increased housing and...
Article
Residential satisfaction is a significant topic in environmental psychology yet there is little research on residential satisfaction among elders. This research aims to identify the cognitive structure of residential satisfaction of elderly persons living in their own dwellings and to identify demographic and psychological variables related to this...
Article
We assessed environmental and perceptual correlates of walking and walkability for fifth graders from three communities attending two schools: A new urban/LEED-ND pilot community, mixed, and standard suburban community. Irvine-Minnesota Inventory (IMI) walkability audits showed that new urban blocks provided more traffic safety, pleasurability, cri...
Article
The roles of community design and parent and child perceptions of walkability to school are tested for associations with walking in three communities: a walkable new urbanist community, a mixed community (standard suburban community where the walk to school traversed part of the new urbanist community), and less walkable standard suburban community...
Article
Full-text available
Technical experts often find they need to include critical information from local residents to address environmental issues. To access this information while simultaneously educating participants, we used a participatory process called mediated modeling. Mediated modeling provides a structured framework for enabling diverse stakeholders to use syst...
Article
The primary purpose of the study was to address the claim that people are more likely to walk to a transit stop if they live on a “walkable” block. An additional purpose was to evaluate the Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI) as an environmental audit tool. The IMI was used to measure walkability features of 19 blocks in a revitalizing neighborhood. W...
Article
Full-text available
We set forth an argument for the integration of social science research with natural science and engineering research in major research infrastructure investments addressing water science. A program of integrated observation of water resources offers great opportunities to address several environmental “grand challenges” identified by the National...
Article
Two experiments examined clinical validation's ability to increase examination of a persuasive message and increase long-term recycling. In Experiment 1, validating (acknowledging) recycling's inconvenience decreased criticism of the persuasive message, supporting validation's ability to reduce reactance and open the reader to new ideas. Validation...
Article
Problem: Transit-oriented development has been shown to be socially desirable for a variety of reasons, but little is known about the benefits it provides to individual residents.Purpose: We used a natural experiment to better understand the value of convenient transit access to individuals.Methods: We queried 51 residents of a revitalizing, mixed-...
Article
Accelerometer output feedback might enable assessment of recall biases for moderate bouts by obese and nonobese individuals; accelerometry might also help residents recall destinations for moderate-intensity walking bouts. Adult residents' 1-week accelerometer-measured physical activity and obesity status were measured before and after a new rail s...
Article
Kurt Lewin and others have showed that group discussion effectively changed attitudes and behaviors compared to individually targeted messages. This study examines the roles of normative and informational social influence in this effect. High school students heard a message about replacing toxic products with nontoxic alternatives; classes were ran...
Article
The natural intervention of a new light-rail stop in a neighborhood is examined for relationships with ridership and moderate-activity bouts. At Time 1, surveys and 1-week accelerometer readings assess transit use and moderate- activity bouts. One year later (Time 2), after the opening of a new light-rail stop, measures were repeated. During the su...
Article
Full-text available
Guided walks near a light rail stop in downtown Salt Lake City, Utah, were examined using a 2 (gender) × 3 (route walkability: low- mixed-, or high- walkability features) design. Trained raters confirmed that more walkable segments had more traffic, environmental, and social safety; pleasing aes- thetics; natural features; pedestrian amenities; and...
Article
An archival analysis of records from 206 criminal cases was used to evaluate the impact of personal and situational factors on jury verdicts. In particular, we evaluated whether repeated jury service produced bias in jurors that was sufficient to affect jury decisions. A variety of case characteristics and indices of prior jury experience was exami...
Article
Two field experiments compared the persuasive impact of communications delivered face-to-face, by telephone, or by letter. In both studies, letters did not differ from faccto-face contacts but telephone calls were less effective. In the second experiment, personalness interacted with communication medium such that addressing subjects by name reduce...
Article
Inmates and correctional officers in a Lwnty jail made attributions of responsibility and predicted each other's attributions in response to four hypothetical stimulus incidents varying in severity of the inmate's intentional misbehavior and the severity of the officer's intentional retribution. When the misbehavior and retribution were moderate, s...
Article
U.S. communities are becoming increasingly automobile dependent, with car use embedded in U.S. policies, practices, and preferences. To encourage transit use, transit systems too will require supporting policies, practices, and preferences. Light rail is currently enjoying some supportive policies, but research is just beginning to explore how psyc...
Article
An education and behavior change program was developed to reduce citizens’ use and waste of toxic household products. The program was informed by a transactional world view and has the following key principles: embed individuals’ change in their social groups (in this case, a carefully designed group discussion); use persuasive messages about behav...
Article
We propose an approach to service–learning in which projects are designed so as to empower undergraduate students and community members. When student service scholars take away control from citizens, they can undermine citizens’ perceptions of competency; when faculty reduce students’ choice and responsibility, they can undermine students’ efficacy...
Article
We describe an education and behavior change program with a multi-level approach. The program goal is to change how people think about, use, store, and dispose of toxic household chemicals. We assume that changing long-standing behaviors is difficult, requires interventions at multiple points in the individual/group/society/physical environmental s...
Article
This paper proposes that recycling researchers should pay attention to both attitudes towards recycling and the processes involved in recycling (recyclers' phenomenal experiences and organizing strategies). As predicted by Sansone and colleagues' model of how people induce themselves to engage in necessary but boring tasks, people who had reasons t...
Article
Two studies supported the hypothesis that signs designed to create a new polystyrene schema would be more effective than signs that did not address patrons' existing schemata. Schema-sensitive signs would (a) clearly define different types of polystyrene, (b) teach how clean polystyrene needed to be, and (c) keep contaminants out of the recycling b...
Article
In the present study, a theoretical model relates privacy regulation to place attachment in the home. According to this model, the home setting may either facilitate or inhibit privacy regulation with family. When regulation is facilitated, family functioning and feelings of control should be enhanced, promoting attachments to the home. Questionnai...
Article
ABSTRACT: Precycling, or purchasing wisely to reduce waste, is the EPA-preferred way to conserve resources and extend landfill life. A 3-month campaign of radio, television, and in-store advertising was effective at teaching the concept of precycling. After the campaign, telephone interviews indicated that 16% of the sample could correctly define t...
Article
Although privacy needs may be universal, the exact mechanisms used to regulate privacy can vary considerably from culture to culture. Consequently, when individuals relocate across cultures, privacy regulation with new neighbours may involve an incongruity between previously-learned privacy mechanisms and those prescribed by the new culture of resi...
Article
This project was designed to help local agencies select the least effortful but most impactful method of inducing residents to participate in a free curbside recycling program. It also provided an opportunity to study attitude change. Results indicated that residents making a written commitment were more likely to participate (and to participate mo...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies examined the impact of legibility on compliance with smoking regulations. Waiting areas at a large airport were viewed as behavior settings (R. G. Barker, 1968) in which smoking rules could be communicated more clearly by applying K. Lynch's (1960) notions of legibility. Study I identified 3 types of areas: clearly no smoking, clearly...
Article
Three studies examined the impact of legibility on compliance with smoking regulations. Waiting areas at a large airport were viewed as behavior settings (R. G. Barker, 1968) in which smoking rules could be communicated more clearly by applying K. Lynch's (1960) notions of legibility. Study I identified 3 types of areas: clearly no smoking, clearly...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theory and research indicate that people are more likely to attempt interpersonal control when that behavior is supported by contextual cues. Related work suggests that individuals feel most comfortable with their behavior when contextual cues are congruent and their behavior is congruent with these clear cues. These hypotheses were tested i...
Article
This article calls for more research that embeds dyadic relationships in their physical, social and temporal contexts. We use ethnographic accounts of courtship, wedding and placemaking practices in two different societies and find that: (1) social and environmental rituals often make salient the couple members' relationship to one another and thei...
Article
Full-text available
Laboratory experiments suggest that individuals are reluctant to ask others to leave them alone unless aspects of the situation support their doing so and that some modes of making the request are more comfortable than others. The present study produced similar findings and also extended our understanding of privacy processes. Some 42 school admini...
Article
Full-text available
This article overviews a program of research that has explored the implications of a transactional worldview for research on personal relationships. In particular, the present article emphasizes the role of the physical environment in relationships. It briefly describes our theoretical perspective and delineates the methods by which we study person...
Article
There is substantial evidence that people have difficulty asking someone to leave in order to obtain solitude. This study evaluated the hypotheses that (a) people regulate privacy to the extent that they feel supported by the social and physical environments, (b) people who reject an intruder will cite situational pressures that legitimize their be...
Article
Previous research suggests that U.S. residents may use holiday decorations on their home's exterior to communicate friendliness and cohesiveness with neighbors. In the present research, we examine whether strangers (naive raters) can accurately identify the more friendly residents, and what aspects of the homes' exteriors contribute to their impres...
Article
The present paper introduces a transactional framework for studying the temporal aspects of computer-mediated interaction. The transactional world view is an approach to understanding phenomena which proposes that events are best viewed as holistic unities. From this perspective, persons, environments, and temporal qualities are inseparable and mut...
Article
Our study of "Christmas Street" (Oxley et al., 1986) was an illustration of the kind of research that might be undertaken within a transactional worldview. In the present article, we review some central philosophical principles of that worldview, how they differ from assumptions and principles of other worldviews, and how these principles influence...
Article
The home is the setting for the development and maintenance of a variety of interpersonal relationships. As such it provides an ideal setting in which to contemplate temporal and physical factors that are important in the formation and progress of relationships. This paper briefly reviews a framework of temporal qualities of homes, and illustrates...
Article
A transactional approach to research was illustrated through an analysis of social networks on a street. Patterns of interrelationships among multiple dimensions of networks were identified in summer and at Christmas. The assessment revealed relative continuity in social relationships, but change in the way in which social, affective, and environme...
Article
Altman's territoriality theory was used as a framework for examining neighborhood attachment. We hypothesized that attachment would be manifested in interrelated patterns of neighboring behaviors, attitudes indicating that the block was a secondary territory, and individual and communal displays of holiday decorations. Design features of cul-de-sac...
Article
Past research suggests that Type A (coronary prone) Ss have a higher need for control than Type B (noncoronary prone) Ss, and empirical evidence documents their greater reactivity to control loss. The present study investigated the case of control decisions and examined the hypothesis that Type A's would be less willing than Type B's to relinquish...
Chapter
Full-text available
There are many ways of studying homes, each focusing on a different aspect, such as physical qualities, satisfaction, use patterns, and phenomenological experiences. Our thesis is that, central to any of these aspects of homes, and therefore integral to the distinction between house and home,are the temporal qualities of linear and cyclical time an...
Book
The present volume in the series focuses on homes, residences, and dwellings. Although many fields have had a long-standing interest in different aspects of home environments, the topic has recently come to the forefront in the interdisciplinary environment and behavior field. Researchers and theorists from many disciplines have begun to meet regul...
Article
This study examines the hypothesis that the motivational state of psychological reactance can undermine effective control relinquishment. Subjects were asked to make control relinquishment decisions regarding an upcoming task after either performing adequately or inadequately on a prior task. Subjects also received feedback indicating that a partne...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that the concept of control is central to understanding spatial regulation. Similarly, control motivation appears to underlie the individual difference variable of Type A behavior. Based on this commonality it was hypothesized that Type A behavior would mediate spatial claims in response to situational threat. Results con...
Article
Many training issues face social psychology programs whose students desire internship and practicum experiences in nonacademic settings. Two programs are described whose faculties have devised very different solutions to such common problems as locating internships and supervising interns. Loyola University of Chicago and the University of Utah may...
Article
Full-text available
Forty male and forty female subjects were led to anticipate an interaction in which they were to take control, or were to avoid being controlled by another. Both interpersonal distances and personal spaces were greater when subjects were avoiding another''s control attempts. Thus, both distance and space expand reactively in response to a threat to...
Article
193 players were observed to assess the extent to which nonutilitarian touching might serve territorial functions. Study 1 indicated that spontaneous touching occurred frequently, and may have been used to establish territory. Study 2 indicated that a lengthy touch was used by intruded Ss. In Study 3 a confederate's touching of the machine effectiv...
Article
Responses to attitude and activity preference surveys were compared for the degrees of real and perceived similarity within male (n = 13) and female (n = 11) friendship pairs. Activity preference similarity was substantially greater than attitudinal similarity, in fact: friends' attitudinal similarity was no greater than strangers'; individuals wer...
Article
In an impression formation study, single-dwelling college students were judged by their peers to be less socially desirable/active but more personally organized than students sharing an apartment (p
Article
Stereotypes of persons who live alone were explored using a standard impression formation format. One hundred fifteen college students rated the personal characteristics and sociability of fictional peers described as living either alone or with roommates. Variance analysis for subject and target sex and target living status indicated that single d...
Article
An Expectancy Theory analysis was used to explain patterns of migration in Iran. Fifty-four Iranian males and females were interviewed about their perception of the probability of attaining certain life outcomes in an urban or rural environment, and the importance of each outcome. The subjects were divided into three samples: migrants to the capita...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Project (1)