Carol A. Wallace

Carol A. Wallace
University of Central Lancashire | UCLAN · International Institute of Nutritional Sciences and Applied Food Safety Studies (IINSAFSS)

Doctor of Philosophy

About

90
Publications
16,061
Reads
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Introduction
Carol A. Wallace currently works at the International Institute of Nutritional Sciences and Applied Food Safety Studies (IINSAFSS), University of Central Lancashire. Current projects and interests include Evaluating and Predicting Maturity of Food Safety Culture in Food Manufacturing; Effectiveness of HACCP-based Food Safety Management Systems; Factors involved in Foodborne Disease Outbreaks and Cultural Factors in Food Safety and Integrity.
Additional affiliations
August 2004 - present
University of Central Lancashire
Position
  • Professor of Food Safety Management Systems

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Food supply chains are highly complex and involve numerous actors who influence food safety and the integrity of products and processes, both at individual points in the supply chain and more holistically throughout the chain as a whole. Provenance can relate to a particular source or origin of a food and its individual ingredients, and/or relate t...
Article
Background Global food safety incidents are frequently reported and are on the rise. Although the increase in number of food safety incidents is impacted by improved surveillance and reporting systems and increased awareness from consumers, nevertheless the increase in food safety issues is a threat to public health and the economic costs of countr...
Article
Background The topic of food safety culture and climate is growing attention from industry, researchers, standards owners and certification bodies. Authors use the terms food safety culture and climate, however, there are no unified definitions to provide clarity on the meaning of these terms. Scope and approach The objective of this study is to a...
Article
The aim of this paper is to review the development of food safety management systems (FSMS) from their origins in the 1950s to the present. The food safety challenges in modern food supply systems are explored and it is argued that there is a need for a more holistic thinking approach to food safety management. The narrative review highlights that...
Article
The EFSA BIOHAZ panel published a scientific opinion proposing a new approach in food safety management, adapted to the needs of small retail businesses such as grocery, butcher, bakery, fishmonger and ice cream shops. The opinion is aiming at a more hands-on development and maintenance of their food safety management system, based on prerequisite...
Article
Purpose Provenance and ethical standards reflect foods that traceable and are supportive of the environment, sustainability and justice in the food supply chain. The purpose of this study is to understand higher education consumers’ food choices and to examine the predictors of purchasing intention of food with provenance and ethical standards. D...
Article
Purpose Food businesses provide halal food to cater to the dietary requirements of Muslims, especially in communities with a growing number of the ethnic minority and at public institutions such as higher education establishments. A large and growing body of literature has investigated the purchasing and consumption behaviour of halal food there a...
Article
The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach...
Article
The purpose of the research was firstly, to analyze existing culture evaluation systems for commonalities and differences in research quality, applied validation strategies, and content. Secondly, to suggest a simple structure of food safety cultural dimensions to help unify the culture evaluation field. To achieve these goals, a comparison of eigh...
Chapter
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is recognized as a key part of food safety management practice in the global food industry and can be applied at any stage of the food supply chain. This chapter considers how HACCP fits within the food safety management system (FSMS) framework and discusses accepted approaches to application of HA...
Article
Muslims follow the religion of Islam and the food they eat should be Halal, meaning lawful or permissible. Muslims are allowed to eat halal and wholesome food that has been provided for them. However, some of the main prohibitions are swine flesh, blood, carrion, animals not slaughtered according to Islamic laws and alcoholic drinks. At present Hal...
Book
Foodborne Diseases: Case Studies of Outbreaks in the Agri-Food Industries defines the context of foodborne disease across a range of food sectors. It provides insight into the causes and management of outbreaks along with practical lessons about foodborne disease prevention strategies relevant to stakeholders throughout the food supply chain. Indiv...
Article
Organizational culture is defined by dimensions and characteristics that can be used to measure food safety culture in food manufacturing through a food safety maturity model. Maturity models from quality, health care, and information technology have been used since early 1970 and this work presents a novel food safety culture maturity model with f...
Book
Readers of this accessible book now in a revised and updated new edition are taken on a conceptual journey which passes every milestone and important feature of the HACCP landscape at a pace which is comfortable and productive. The information and ideas contained in the book will enable food industry managers and executives to take their new-found...
Chapter
This section is broken down into a number of parts: preparation for the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan development, applying the principles (the HACCP study), implementation of the HACCP plan and maintenance of the HACCP system. It uses a case study to illustrate how a fictional medium-sized manufacturing company might set abou...
Chapter
An effective hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system is planned, studied, implemented, verified and maintained in a logical systematic way. The HACCP study itself is essentially made up of the first five of the seven principles. The HACCP principles are logical and it is an easy-to-understand concept. In order to be effectively de...
Chapter
The hazard analysis and critical control point system (HACCP) concept is a systematic approach to food safety management based on recognised principles that aim at identifying the hazards that are likely to occur at any stage in the food supply chain and put into place controls that will prevent them from happening. It is a structured, logical tech...
Chapter
Despite precautions taken to ensure food safety, it can happen that contaminated products reach the market and/or consumers. A swift and responsible management of incidents is important to protect consumers and minimize damage to the reputation of the company. While incidents should be prevented, when they occur they should be analyzed and the fund...
Chapter
Despite precautions taken to ensure food safety, contaminated products may reach the market and/or consumers. Over and above a swift management of incidents, the management is responsible for ensuring that incidents are thoroughly and objectively investigated and that appropriate corrective actions are taken to prevent their recurrence. To this end...
Article
Excessive or high salt or sodium intake is known to cause hypertension and other diseases. Within the United Kingdom voluntary targets for salt reduction have been set and laid out in the Secretary of State responsibility deal. This review considers the options available to food manufacturers to enable them to reduce salt and the potential food saf...
Article
HACCP is a key element of modern food safety management practice such that design, implementation, control and management of HACCP systems are crucial to the production of safe food products. Whilst it is widely accepted that food companies should apply HACCP, understanding of the factors impacting successful HACCP application is limited and this k...
Article
Two decades have gone by since HACCP was internationally recognized as the reference method for food safety assurance, and today its application in the food industry is mandatory in many countries. Since its introduction, the use of HACCP and its benefits have created much debate. Many, in particular small businesses or primary food industry, have...
Chapter
In the previous chapters we have looked at the theory and practicalities of applying HACCP principles as a cornerstone of food safety management systems within food businesses. This chapter aims to develop this further using input from companies operating in different parts of the food supply chain to illustrate real examples and experiences of HAC...
Chapter
When the decision is taken to use HACCP within a company, there is often the inclination to charge ahead and start doing something without taking the time to consider the best approach for your company. It is important to have sufficient knowledge before getting started, i.e., to understand both the theory of HACCP and the practicalities of impleme...
Article
Fresh fruits and vegetables are an essential part of the world populations' diet, contributing essential vitamins and minerals, and they are often eaten raw or minimally processed. Fruits and vegetables grown using conventional agricultural methods are at risk from microbiological contamination and foodborne illness relating to the consumption of p...
Book
HACCP: A Practical Approach, 3rd edition has been updated to include the current best practice and new developments in HACCP application since the last edition was published in 1998. This book is intended to be a compendium of up-to-date thinking and best practice approaches to the development, implementation, and maintenance of HACCP programs for...
Chapter
Having understood how to design safety into product formulations and process environments, we are ready to look at how to carry out the HACCP study. In this chapter we will be identifying and analyzing the potential hazards associated with products during processing and exploring the options for their control. In doing this, we will be looking at a...
Chapter
Whenever a company is designing a new food product it is important to ask if it is possible to manufacture it safely. Effective HACCP Systems will manage and control identified food safety issues on an ongoing basis but what they cannot do is make safe a fundamentally unsafe product. The most effective way to ensure safe food is to design out the l...
Chapter
HACCP is the well-known acronym for the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system. It has been frequently written about and talked about at conferences and within companies over the last 50 years but is still often misunderstood and poorly applied in real situations.
Chapter
This chapter is designed to give you a clearer understanding of different types of hazards and their significance in foods, along with the mechanisms that can be used for their control. This is not intended to be a complete source of information on all possible hazards; however, it will provide a valuable grounding to HACCP team members and can be...
Chapter
Now that we have seen how to apply HACCP principles to develop a HACCP plan, the next step is to implement it in your operation so that you have everyday control of food safety hazards in practice. You have made a commitment to use the HACCP system in order to effectively control all safety issues, and unless the HACCP plan is properly implemented,...
Chapter
This is not a book that claims to describe the detail of prerequisite programs (PRPs) but we do need to look at the essential role of PRPs in the context of supporting HACCP for effective food safety management. It is important to understand that hazard analysis must consider how hazards are managed (by CCPs or PRPs) and that there is a need to und...
Article
The multidisciplinary HACCP team is a firmly embedded part of the HACCP system and it is a generally held belief that the outcome of this team approach will be a stronger food safety system than could be developed by individuals working alone. HACCP team members are normally selected for their operational skills and expertise rather than HACCP know...
Book
The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system is still recognised internationally as the most effective way to produce safe food throughout the supply chain, but a HACCP system cannot operate in a vacuum. It requires prerequisite programmes to be in place and it can be highly affected by, or dependent upon, other major consideratio...
Chapter
The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) system is still recognised internationally as the most effective way to produce safe food throughout the supply chain, but a HACCP system cannot operate in a vacuum. It requires prerequisite programmes to be in place and it can be highly affected by, or dependent upon, other major consideratio...
Chapter
IntroductionSafe Design Food Safety HazardsIntrinsic FactorsFood Processing TechnologiesFood Packaging IssuesPrerequisite Good Manufacturing Practice Programmes Prerequisite Programmes – The EssentialsValidation and Verification of Prerequisite ProgrammesHACCP, the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System Developing a HACCP SystemImplement...
Article
Purpose – Assessment of HACCP systems is a key element in assuring the effective management of food safety. However, there is no accepted approach or common methodology available to HACCP practitioners, auditors or regulatory bodies. This paper seeks to examine this situation Design/methodology/approach – This paper reviews previous approaches to H...
Article
Purpose – HACCP training is acknowledged as a key requirement for the development of effective HACCP systems. However, there are few measures of the standards of training being offered or of the effectiveness of learning that takes place and no agreed methods to measure HACCP knowledge following training. Sets out to investigate this issue. Design/...
Article
The 4th International Meeting of the Noordwijk Food Safety Forum in March 2001 concluded with a workshop on 17th March 2001. The workshop’s aim was to consider ways of building upon the WHO’s 1995 Report on the training aspects of HACCP. It reviewed the report, the principal features of training design and examined the practical aspects of standard...
Article
Formal pre-requisite programmes are increasingly and successfully used to support the implementation of HACCP in food processing. However, in many areas there is a lack of understanding of the pre-requisites concept, and even a fear in some sectors that pre-requisites might dilute the strength of HACCP, making it a less effective food safety contro...
Chapter
Topics covered: Hazard types and their significance Microbiological Chemical Physical Understanding Control Points
Chapter
Topics covered: Starting the HACCP Plan Product descriptions Process Flow Diagrams Hazard Analysis and Control Measures CCP Identification HACCP Control Charts
Chapter
Topics covered: HACCP Verification Overview HACCP Audit Techniques Data Review and Analysis HACCP Maintenance—Managing Change
Chapter
1 Welcome trainees to the course, and ask them to write their names on the name plates provided. 2 If trainees are not known to one another, a useful “icebreaker” might be to ask them to introduce one another to the group, as this can help to build a rapport early in the program (a suggested approach is detailed below). 3 Once introductions are com...
Chapter
Topics covered: What is HACCP? HACCP History HACCP Principles Benefits and Limitations of HACCP
Chapter
Topics covered: Personnel and training Prerequisite programs and assessment of current status HACCP system structure options Project planning techniques
Chapter
Topics covered: Can the product be made safely? Intrinsic control factors Raw materials assessment Process technologies Shelf-life considerations Product safety assessment tool
Chapter
Topics covered: Implementation approaches Training requirements Resources—Equipment and facilities Process capability assessment Monitoring and recordkeeping
Chapter
Topics covered: HACCP and International Trade Codex and Other Relevant Committees Legislative Requirements HACCP Certification
Chapter
Topics covered: Management system requirements HACCP and International Quality Management Standards Good Laboratory Practice Systems Health and Safety Systems
Book
8.2 HACCP Verification Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 . . . . . . . . 8.3 HACCP Audit Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Data Review and Analysis ................................. 259 8.5 HACCP Maintenance-Managing Change. . . ... .. .. .. . . . .. . . . . 262 Module 9: Linki...
Chapter
Now that we have seen how to put together a HACCP Plan, the next step is to implement it in your operation. You have made a commitment to use the HACCP Plan is properly implemented, its real benefits will not be realized. This is a viral stage and yet the relief at having completed the studies can sometimes mean that businesses see the documentatio...
Chapter
This chapter is designed to give you a clearer understanding of different types of hazards and their significance in foods. We will explore the mechanisms that can be used for their control and expand on the concept of Critical Control Points. This information is intended for reading before you get going and, although not a complete source of infor...
Chapter
Manufacturers and caterers must consider many other requirements alongside HACCP in order to assure both the safety and quality of the food produced. These requirements make up the HACCP support network discussed in Chapter 3. Some of the prerequisite or support elements, such as Good Manufacturing Practices and Supplier Quality Assurance have been...
Chapter
One of the first questions that will be asked within your organization is, ‘Why use HACCP?’ It is important to answer this question so that all personnel have: the same understanding of the motives behind the introduction of the system; commitment to developing an effective system.
Chapter
When designing a new food product it is important to ask if it is possible to manufacture it safely. Effective HACCP Systems will manage and control food safety issues on an ongoing basis but what they cannot do is make safe a fundamentally unsafe product.
Chapter
When the decision is taken to use HACCP within a company, there is often the inclination to charge ahead and start doing something without taking the time to consider the best approach for the company.
Chapter
HACCP is an abbreviation for the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system. It is frequently written about and talked about at conferences and within companies, but is also often misunderstood and poorly applied in real situations. The HACCP concept has been around in the food industry for some time, yet it continues to be debated rigorousl...
Chapter
Having completed the HACCP Study and ensured that the CCPs are being monitored, many people breath a sigh of relief and congratulate themselves that they are using HACCP to manage food safety. Be careful! The HACCP Study was completed at a point in time and if it is to remain as effective as it was on the day it was written it MUST BE MAINTAINED. L...
Chapter
It is often thought that there is little in common between HACCP and other types of Quality Management System (QMS). This chapter will take quite a different view, going so far as to suggest that without the support of systems such as ISO 9000 and laboratory accreditation, the HACCP System will not be as effective as it should be.
Chapter
Effective HACCP Systems will manage and control food safety issues on an ongoing basis but what they cannot do is make a fundamentally unsafe product safe. It is essential that food safety is designed into a product at the development stage and this should be the responsibility of Product Development and the HACCP Team working together. Possibly yo...
Chapter
This chapter is designed to give you a clearer understanding of different types of hazards and their significance in foods. We will explore the mechanisms which can be used for their control and introduce the concept of critical control points. This information is intended for reading before you get going and will give a valuable grounding to the H...
Chapter
Before you get too far down the road, you need to consider the level of expertise you have in your organization. In this chapter we will look at how to plan the implementation of the HACCP Principles. This includes an indication of how to plan the project, the types and numbers of people needed, along with what they should be capable of achieving.
Chapter
One of the first questions that will be asked within your organization is, ‘Why use HACCP?’ It is important to answer this so that all personnel have • the same understanding of the motives behind the introduction of the system; • commitment to developing an effective system.
Chapter
HACCP was originally developed as a technique for the identification and control of food safety hazards and most companies will still want to use it to focus primarily on safety. However, the techniques that you have learned in this book can also be applied to other areas of production, as we will discuss in this chapter. Now that you have learnt t...
Chapter
Now that we have seen how to put together a HACCP Plan, the next step is to implement the HACCP Plan in your operation. You have made a commitment to implement the formal HACCP System in order to effectively control all safety issues. In order to do this properly you must ensure that sufficient resources are available, so that the identified CCPs a...
Chapter
HACCP is an abbreviation for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point and has become a buzz word in recent years. It is frequently heard and talked about at conferences and within companies, but is also often misunderstood and poorly applied in real situations. The HACCP concept has been around in the food industry for some time but only recently has...
Article
Traducción de: HACCP. A Practical Approach La obra aborda la aplicación de una herramienta de control de calidad para la industria alimentaria. El sistema es llamado HACCP por sus sigla en inglés (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points), es decir análisis de peligros y puntos de control críticos. Mayormente tiene que ver en gran parte con la segur...
Article
Traducción de: HACCP La obra aborda la aplicación de una herramienta de control de calidad para la industria alimentaria. El sistema es llamado HACCP por sus sigla en inglés (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points), es decir análisis de peligros y puntos de control críticos. Mayormente tiene que ver en gran parte con la seguridad de los alimentos.

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