Carol J. Volk

Carol J. Volk
City of Seattle · Seattle Public Utilities

PhD

About

49
Publications
54,330
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1,084
Citations
Citations since 2017
11 Research Items
721 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100120

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Full-text available
Invertebrate drift is a key process in riverine ecosystems controlling aquatic invertebrate distribution and availability to fish as prey. However, accurately quantifying drifting invertebrates of all sizes is difficult because the fine-mesh nets required to capture the smallest specimens clog easily, which reduces filtration efficiency and measure...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial and temporal patterns in stream temperature are primary factors determining species composition, diversity and productivity in stream ecosystems. The availability of spatially and temporally continuous estimates of stream temperature would improve the ability of biologists to fully explore the effects of stream temperature on biota. Most st...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we demonstrate the application of a continuous confinement metric across entire river networks. Confinement is a useful metric for characterizing and discriminating valley setting. At the reach scale, valley bottom confinement is measured and quantified as the ratio of the length of channel confined on either bank by a confining marg...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document summarizes the work products that ISEMP and CHaMP produced. Much of this work was done in collaboration with State and Tribal fishery and habitat agency staff and other BPA FWP projects. All of the work was done to support specific tributary habitat monitoring and evaluation objectives under the 2008 Biological Opinion for listed salm...
Article
Full-text available
Beaver are an integral component of hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes within North American stream systems, and their propensity to build dams alters stream and ripar-ian structure and function to the benefit of many aquatic and terrestrial species. Recognizing this, beaver relocation efforts and/or application of structures designed to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Bridge Creek Intensively Monitored Watershed (IMW) project was launched in 2007 as a watershed scale restoration experiment designed to test whether encouraging beaver activity could improve habitat to the benefit of a threatened steelhead population. Currently in its 7th year of post restoration monitoring, the Bridge Creek project offers insi...
Article
Full-text available
Beaver have been referred to as ecosystem engineers because of the large impacts their dam building activities have on the landscape; however, the benefits they may provide to fluvial fish species has been debated. We conducted a watershed-scale experiment to test how increasing beaver dam and colony persistence in a highly degraded incised stream...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report is designed to summarize the lessons learned and policy implications from the implementation of Bonneville Power Administration’s (BPA) Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP; BPA Project 2003-017-00) and the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (CHaMP; BPA Project 2011-006-00) during 2015. ISEMP and CHaMP are addr...
Article
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Although water temperature is important to stream biota, it is difficult to collect in a spatially and temporally continuous fashion. We used remotely-sensed Land Surface Temperature (LST) data to estimate mean daily stream temperature for every confluence-to-confluence reach in the John Day River, OR, USA for a ten year period. Models were built a...
Article
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Degradation of dryland riparian ecosystems has been linked to the lowering of alluvial groundwater tables and reduced floodplain connectivity. Establishing riparian plants in dryland ecosystems with high water-stress and herbivore pressure presents major challenges for restoration practitioners. By planting at sufficient depths to reach lowered wat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of the Pacific Northwest co-evolved with the once ubiquitous American beaver (Castor canadensis). Extirpation of beaver and their associated dams are thought to have had negative impacts on stream function in desert watersheds where high water temperatures, low water levels. And simplified habitat can limit steelhead...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bridge Creek, a tributary to the Lower John Day River, flows through the high-desert of central Oregon and serves as an important spawning and rearing stream for Mid-Columbia Steelhead. Much of Bridge Creek suffers from a high degree of channel incision and features an overall lack of habitat complexity, hydrologic disconnection from groundwater an...
Article
Full-text available
In ecology, as in other research fields, efficient sampling for population estimation often drives sample designs toward unequal probability sampling, such as in stratified sampling. Design based statistical analysis tools are appropriate for seamless integration of sample design into the statistical analysis. However, it is also common and necessa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This combined report for Bonneville Power Administra-tion (BPA) Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP; BPA Project 2003-017) and the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (CHaMP; BPA Project 2011-006) covers Calendar Year (CY) 2014. Here we give an update on ISEMP’s progress and lessons learned as we work toward the end of the...
Article
Full-text available
Digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from ground-based topographic surveys have become ubiquitous in the field of fluvial geomorphology. Their wide application in spatially explicit analysis includes hydraulic modeling, habitat modeling, and morphological sediment budgeting. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the repeatability a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In 2013 the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (Bonneville Power Administration Project 2003-017; ISEMP) made significant progress in translating data and analytical results into clear and useful formats at scales that will help restoration practitioners plan effective habitat improvements. Given that it is impossible to continu...
Article
Full-text available
Biogenic features such as beaver dams, large wood, and live vegetation are essential to the maintenance of complex stream ecosystems, but these features are largely absent from models of how streams change over time. Many streams have incised because of changing climate or land-use practices. Because incised streams provide limited benefits to biot...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, research and management in natural resource science rely on very large datasets compiled from multiple sources. While it is generally good to have more data, utilizing large, complex datasets has introduced challenges in data sharing, especially for collaborating researchers in disparate locations ("distributed research teams"). We su...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Research into, and monitoring of, listed spring Chinook and steelhead and their habitat under the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) advanced the science and knowledge of fish and habitat relation-ships over the course of 2012. In one of the few instances in the field of effectiveness monitoring, ISEMP demonstrated that...
Conference Paper
Background/Question/Methods Identifying crucial freshwater juvenile habitat is a key component in the restoration plans for several endangered salmonid species in the Pacific Northwest. In 2011, the Columbia Habitat Monitoring Program (CHaMP) was implemented in several basins to measure a wide variety of habitat characteristics. At the same time,...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change will likely have profound effects on cold-water species of freshwater fishes. As temperatures rise, cold-water fish distributions may shift and contract in response. Predicting the effects of projected stream warming in stream networks is complicated by the generally poor correlation between water temperature and air temperature. Spa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Project (ISEMP) was created nearly 10 years ago to systematically answer questions such as “what is the best way to measure stream habitat?” and “what is the best way to measure salmonid populations?”. These questions are related to the management that underpins the proposed tributary habitat-based, off -site...
Article
Increasingly, geoscientists and biologists are monitoring the natural environment with total station and terrestrial laser scanning surveys. Due to the remote nature of many of the sites monitored (e.g., streams, rivers, glaciers, etc.) the surveys are often done in unprojected, Cartesian, local, assumed coordinate systems. However, without the sur...
Conference Paper
The 2004 and 2008 Biological Opinions (BiOps) on the Federal Columbia River Power System identified offsite mitigation actions, largely in the form of habitat restoration, as a means to offset mortality imposed by the FCRPS on anadromous salmonids. For the past seven years the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) has colle...
Article
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Organism growth and reproduction are often limited by nutrient availability in freshwater ecosystems where, in some cases, food webs are primarily supported by allochthonous organic matter. Therefore, we hypothesized that the composition of riparian vegetation would influence the variability of N, P, and fatty acid content of in-stream consumers. S...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The 2009 fiscal year was a busy one for the BPA’s ISEMP. Over the past year the ISEMP has begun analyzing some of the vast amounts of data that have been collected over the past 5 years, expanded its monitoring efforts into new subbasins and river systems as part of BPA’s Fast Track proposal, fully imple-mented its monitoring program in the Salmon...
Conference Paper
We review the initial results of a long-term restoration and monitoring project to restore the lower 32 km of Bridge Creek, an incised and degraded tributary to the John Day River in eastern Oregon, USA. The goal of the project is to cause a detectable population-level benefit to the anadromous steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that use this sy...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP – BPA project #2003-0017) has been created as a cost effective means of developing protocols and new technologies, novel indicators, sample designs, tools and skills for analysis, data management and communication, and restoration experiments that support the development of a region-...
Article
Full-text available
The extent and type of vegetation within watersheds are critical factors influencing stream water chemistry, specifically nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations. As stream productivity can be limited by nutrient supply, nutrient subsidies from red alder, a nitrogen fixing species prevalent in the Pacific Northwest of North America and other tempera...
Article
Volk Consulting. Carol Volk will present an introduction to managing and understanding data. She will cover the following topics: 1. What is data? 2. Where is all the data? 3. What do we do with it? 4. Is it useful? As examples, she reviews two case studies: the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) John Day water quality p...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The most straightforward approach to developing a regional-scale monitoring and evaluation program would be to increase standardization among status and trend monitoring programs. However, the diversity of species and their habitat, as well as the overwhelming uncertainty surrounding indicators, metrics, and data interpretation methods, requires th...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The ISEMP has been initiated in three pilot subbasins, the Wenatchee/Entiat, John Day, and Salmon, and is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Fish and Wildlife Program to support the development of a region-wide FRME. To balance replicating our experimental approaches with the goal of developing monitoring and evaluation tools that...
Article
Full-text available
Debris flows are mass movements of sediment, wood and water down stream channels that profoundly impact streams and adjacent riparian areas and are a major erosion process in many steep mountainous terrains. Their impact on aquatic ecosystems, however, is poorly understood. In this report, we descrihe the ecological effects of a debris flow on a he...
Article
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Four proteins with wall extension activity on grass cell walls were purified from maize (Zea mays) pollen by conventional column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Each is a basic glycoprotein (isoelectric point = 9.1-9.5) of approximately 28 kD and was identified by immunoblot analysis as an isoform of Zea m 1, the major gr...
Article
Full-text available
One result of clear-cut logging in the Pacific Northwest is that many watersheds are now dominated by riparian stands of red alder Alnus rubra (Bong). This species colonizes disturbed areas quickly and can limit the establishment of coniferous forest species. In the Northwest, inputs of nutrients from decaying salmon carcasses have been reduced wit...
Article
Full-text available
In-stream water temperatures are regulated by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic environmental variables dictated by the natural and anthropogenic state of a fluvial stream system. To evaluate how landscape scale processes relate to in-stream conditions, this study applies an integrated remote sensing and GIS-based approach to compare in situ mea...
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Washington, 2004 Ecological concern for riparian environments has increased in recent years as human population growth, water rights, and land use practices have reduced aquatic habitat and pressured biological communities. My study of streams dominated by nitrogen-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) and old-growth c...

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Projects

Projects (5)
Project
The Bridge Creek IMW is a watershed scale restoration experiment designed to test the effectiveness of beaver dam analog (BDA) structures in accelerating the recovery trajectory of incised stream channels, assist beaver in building more persistent dams, and to determine if this improve steelhead habitat and ultimately steelhead production.