Carol Mary Turley

Carol Mary Turley
Plymouth Marine Laboratory | PML · Sea and Society

BSc, PhD

About

137
Publications
80,064
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9,563
Citations
Citations since 2017
10 Research Items
2924 Citations
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Publications

Publications (137)
Article
Full-text available
As the human population and demand for food grow¹, the ocean will be called on to provide increasing amounts of seafood. Although fisheries reforms and advances in offshore aquaculture (hereafter ‘mariculture’) could increase production², the true future of seafood depends on human responses to climate change³. Here we investigated whether coordina...
Article
Full-text available
Key messages • The ocean has greatly slowed the rate of climate change. But at a cost: the ocean has also warmed, acidified and lost oxygen, whilst circulation patterns are changing, and sea levels are rising. The continuation of these changes not only threatens marine ecosystems, but also the future ability of the ocean to indirectly support all l...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities are changing the Arctic environment at an unprecedented rate resulting in rapid warming, freshening, sea ice retreat and ocean acidification of the Arctic Ocean. Trace gases such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) play important roles in both the atmospheric reactivity and radiative budget of the Arctic and thus have a high p...
Chapter
Full-text available
Oceans have the capacity to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) because CO2 dissolves and reacts in seawater to form bicarbonate (HCO3⁻) and protons (H⁺). About a quarter to a third of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels, cement manufacturing, and land use changes has been absorbed by the oceans. Over thous...
Article
This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Rep...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews recent scientific progress, relating to four major systems that could exhibit threshold behaviour: ice sheets, the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), tropical forests and ecosystem responses to ocean acidification. The focus is on advances since the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Rep...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ocean acidification (OA) and climate change are both influenced by increasing carbon dioxide concentrations coming from the atmosphere. However, the distinction between OA and climate change, is that OA is an alteration of the chemistry of seawater, therefore not a direct climatic process. The ocean is the largest natural reservoir of dissolved car...
Chapter
The ocean has absorbed about 30% of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources. This has resulted in the measurable alteration of ocean carbonate chemistry. Ocean pH has already decreased by a global average of 0.1, and unmitigated CO2 emissions will cause ocean pH to decrease by as much as 0.4 by the year 2100 and 0.77 by 2300....
Article
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Ambitious response needed on climate front Letter to the Times – 16 th Dec 2015 Sir, The agreement reached in Paris shows there is now impressive global ambition to tackle climate change – with tough challenges ahead (Britain facing steeper emissions cuts; Dec 14). Further policy action is urgently required to transform ambition into reality. Unfor...
Article
The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems-and the goods and services they provide-for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The curr...
Chapter
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The Region comprises three sub-regions (FAO Statistical Areas) with very different characteristics. The South Pacific includes the vast and virtually unpopulated Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic. It has the world’s largest fisheries off Peru and Chile and some of the world’s best managed fisheries in Australia and New Zealand. The Region ha...
Article
The global nature of ocean acidification transcends habitats, ecosystems, regions, and science disciplines. The science community has recognized that the biggest challenge in proceeding to the next stage in understanding the mechanisms by which past, current, and future OA conditions impact ecosystems and the societies that depend on them goes beyo...
Article
Full-text available
The global nature of ocean acidification (OA) transcends habitats, ecosystems, regions, and science disciplines. The scientific community recognizes that the biggest challenge in 'improving understanding of how changing OA conditions affect ecosystems, and associated consequences for human society, requires integration of experimental, observationa...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ocean acidification is a change in seawater chemistry caused by the absorption of excess atmospheric CO2 by the ocean. A high-CO2 ocean is predicted to have effects on marine organisms, including species upon which the economies of coastal communities depend. This could be through direct impacts on commercial species like shellfish, or indirectly v...
Book
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Marine and coastal biodiversity – ecosystems, species and genetic material – provide enormous benefits for human well-being. Hundreds of millions of people rely directly on marine biodiversity for their livelihoods. Oceans are critical to many important global geo-chemical processes, such as climate regulation and carbon cycling. Ocean ecosystems p...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report summarises the key new literature on the main large-scale systems that may feature abrupt and/or irreversible changes (specifically, ice sheets, Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), tropical forests, carbon stored in terrestrial permafrost or below the ocean in permafrost or as methane hydrates, or the...
Book
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Your awareness can make a difference What the ocean will experience this century without urgent and substantial reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. How is the biggest ecosystem on Earth faring? Contains 96% of the living spaCe on earth l has 80% of earth's living organisms l Covers 71% of the earth l almost half of the oxygen we breathe is produ...
Technical Report
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Ocean Acidification: International Policy and Governance Options. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. iv + 52pp. ISBN: 978-2-8317-1665-7 http://www.iucn.org/about/work/programmes/marine/?16064/ocean-acidification-policy-guidance
Book
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T his document presents the highlights of the Frequently Asked Questions about Ocean Acidification (2010, 2012; www.whoi.edu/OCB-OA/FAQs), a detailed summary of the state of ocean acidification research and understanding. The FAQs and this fact sheet are intended to aid scientists, science communicators, and science policy advisors asked to comment...
Article
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Executive summary During the course of this century the resilience of many ecosystems (their ability to adapt naturally) is likely to be exceeded by an unprecedented combination of change in climate, associated disturbances (e.g., flooding, drought, wildfire, insects, ocean acidification) and in other global change drivers (especially land-use ch...
Conference Paper
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Assessing the potential biological and socio-economic consequences resulting from climate change (CC) and ocean acidification (OA) impacts on marine ecosystems is necessary for the sustainable utilisation and management of the oceans’ resources and services. This requires interdisciplinary collaborations between experimental biologists, oceanograph...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, eco...
Article
The aim of this chapter is to summarize key information on ocean acidification-the term used to describe the perturbation to the ocean carbonate system directly caused by ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. This chapter describes the cause and the changes to ocean carbonate chemistry that occur with the a...
Article
Full-text available
Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H(+) concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued uncons...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and subsequent uptake by the ocean are changing seawater chemistry, a process known as ocean acidification. Research indicates that as ocean acidification continues, reflecting increasing CO2 emissions, it is likely that although some species will be tolerant it will impact many marine organisms and pro...
Article
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The dynamics of aquatic systems are known to facilitate the formation of aggregates of nutrient-rich particulate matter which provide suitable substrate for microbial colonization. Although bacteria-aggregate associations often result in the degradation of Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in aquatic systems, little is known about their contribution...
Chapter
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The levels of evidence, agreement and confidence of the consequences of ocean acidification are estimated on 15 key issues. The effects on the past, present and future carbonate chemistry are known with a high degree of certainty. Most biological and ecological effects are much less certain although there is no doubt that calcification, primary pro...
Chapter
Human development, inspiration, invention, and aspiration have resulted in a rapidly growing population, with each generation aspiring to greater wealth and well-being, so having greater needs than the previous generation. Amongst the resulting negative impacts are over-exploitation of planetary resources and the build-up of gases in the atmosphere...
Article
The ocean helps moderate climate change thanks to its considerable capacity to store CO2, through the combined actions of ocean physics, chemistry, and biology. This storage capacity limits the amount of human-released CO2 remaining in the atmosphere. As CO2 reacts with seawater, it generates dramatic changes in carbonate chemistry, including decre...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The world’s oceans are an enormous reservoir of carbon, greater than that on land or in the atmosphere. The fluxes between,these reservoirs are relatively rapid such that the oceans,have taken up around 48% of anthropogenic,CO2 released ,to the ,atmosphere. Elevated CO2 can ,potentially affect many ,processes ,in marine biogeochemistry,and...
Article
Full-text available
The carbonate chemistry of the world’s oceans, including their pH, has been remarkably constant for hundreds of thousands of years (Pearson and Palmer, 2000), with typical surface ocean variations between ice ages and warm phases of no more than 0.2 pH units ([Sanyal et al., 1995], [Honisch and Hemming, 2005] and [Foster, 2008]). However, since the...
Article
Ocean acidification is the term adopted to describe the process of change in ocean carbonate chemistry - decreasing seawater pH and carbonate ions and increasing bicarbonate ions. Ocean acidification is caused by ocean uptake of man-made CO2, it is happening now, it is measurable and it will continue as more CO2 is emitted. Already ocean acidity ha...
Article
Oceans have the capacity to absorb large amounts of Carbon dioxide (CO2) because CO2 dissolves and reacts in seawater to form bicarbonate (HCO3-) and protons (H+). About a quarter to a third of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels, cement manufacturing, and land use changes has been absorbed by the oceans. Over thous...
Article
Full-text available
The observed variation in the calcification responses of coccolithophores to changes in carbonate chemistry paints a highly incoherent picture, particularly for the most commonly cultured "species", Emiliania huxleyi. The disparity between magnitude and potentially even sign of the calcification change under simulated end-of-century ocean surface c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Evidence from experiments and observations indicate that ocean acidification is a serious threat to many marine organisms which may have implications to the food webs and ecosystems but these are difficult to predict especially as studies of potential adaptation have not been carried out. Also of less certainty are the scale and direction of impact...
Article
Full-text available
The variation in pH-dependent calcification responses of coccolithophores paint a highly incoherent picture, particularly for the most commonly cultured "species", Emiliania huxleyi. The disparity between magnitude and even sign of the calcification change at higher CO2 (lower pH), raises challenges to quantifying future carbon cycle changes and fe...
Article
Full-text available
In addition to the predicted rise in temperature, a recognised consequence of increased atmospheric CO2 is ocean acidification. The response of marine organisms to the stresses associated with acidification is still not understood, and a number of recent experiments have addressed this problem. The starting point for many of these studies has been...
Article
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We present the first reported measurements of volatile iodocarbon production by biogenic marine aggregates. Iodomethane (CH₃I), iodoethane (C₂H₅I), 2- iodopropane (CH₃CHICH₃), and 1-iodopropane (CH₃CH₂CH₂I) concentrations were determined in incubations of aggregates formed by concentrating the >53 µm fraction of the plankton during a field campaign...
Article
We present the first reported measurements of volatile iodocarbon production by biogenic marine aggregates. Iodomethane (CH3I), iodoethane (C2H5I), 2- iodopropane (CH3CHICH3), and 1-iodopropane (CH3CH2CH2I) concentrations were determined in incubations of aggregates formed by concentrating the .53 mm fraction of the plankton during a field campaign...
Article
Over the last ∼200 years, since the start of the industrial revolution, the increase in the burning of fossil fuels, cement manufacturing and changes to land use has increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations from ∼280 to 385 ppm. These are the highest levels experienced on Earth for at least the last 800,000 years, possibly for the past 10's of mill...
Article
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Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 34 (2007): L18608, doi:10.1029/2006GL027288.
Article
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A series of shipboard experiments using the radiotracer Cd-109 investigated the role of phytoplankton and bacteria in the uptake of dissolved Cd in the English Channel and Celtic Sea. The results demonstrate that Cd uptake is related to rates of primary production and bacterial numbers. Statistical analysis of plankton species abundance infer that...