Carol Macdonald

Carol Macdonald

PhD

About

44
Publications
9,293
Reads
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535
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
201 Citations
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Introduction
Carol is an independent consultant/researcher affiliated to The Joint Centre of Disaster Research, Massey University. She has a diverse background in teaching, research, project management and service improvement across range of sectors. In the past six years this has been almost exclusively in the health and disability sector.

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
The principles of disaster risk reduction includes understanding of disaster risk in all dimensions including meaningful inclusion of marginalised populations. This research sought to hear and record the voices of big bodied people to answer the question “What are the experiences, perceptions and preparedness for disasters of big bodied people and/...
Article
Hotel-based Managed Isolation and Quarantine (MIQ) is a key public health intervention in Aotearoa New Zealand's (NZ) COVID-19 border control strategy for returning citizens and permanent residents. We aimed to investigate the experience of transiting through MIQ in NZ, to inform future refinements of this type of system. A qualitative thematic ana...
Article
Full-text available
Responding to emergencies requires many different individuals and organisations to work well together under extraordinary circumstances. Unfortunately, the management of animal welfare in emergencies remains largely disconnected from emergency management overall. This is due predominately to professional silos and a failure to understand the import...
Article
Due to their circumstances and resources before, during and following disaster events, some people have higher risk of harm in disaster requiring specific disaster planning considerations. The prevalence of big bodied people (BBP) is increasing in many countries and BBP are potentially at higher risk in disasters in direct relation to their size, s...
Chapter
In any disaster, people most impacted are often those with the least resources prior to the event. In low�income countries people affected by emergencies often suffer from malnourishment, stress, fatigue and other ailments including injuries and infections. These conditions, coupled with unsanitary living conditions, including substandard sanitat...
Article
Full-text available
Physical distancing (also commonly known as social distancing) is an important non-pharmaceutical strategy to minimise the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus. A range of restrictions to promote physical distancing form a key part of the Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) all-of-government response to the global COVID-19 pandemic. The effectiveness of...
Article
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: Mass masking is emerging as a key non-pharmaceutical intervention for reducing community spread of COVID-19. However, although hand washing, social distancing and bubble living have been widely adopted by the ‘team of 5 million’, mass masking has not been socialised to the general population. AIM: To identify factors associated with f...
Article
BACKGROUND: People have been left behind in disasters in direct association with their size, shape and weight (Gray & MacDonald, 2016) and experience difficulties taking protective action (McBride et al, 2019). However, little research has been conducted to understand disaster risks and preparedness actions from the perspective of people with very...
Poster
Background: People with very high body mass (extreme obesity) have been left behind in disasters (Gray, 2017). However, disaster risk reduction (DRR) considerations are not visible in literature to understand risk, adaptive capacities and concerns (Gray & MacDonald, 2016). Method: Semi-structured interviews with up to 20 people who have extreme ob...
Article
Background: Communication has an essential role in the therapeutic relationship between a patient and healthcare professionals (HCPs) with terminology playing an important role. The terminology used by HCPs can significantly impact on an individual's perceptions of weight and experience of stigma. This is the first quantitative research study in A...
Poster
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION: There is an urgency to plan for, and reduce disaster risk as argued by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. However to achieve this, disaster risk reduction (DRR) approaches need to be more people-centred and inclusive of diverse and marginalised groups. People with high body mass have been recognised as one such group, h...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
What are the ethical risks of using simulation body suits in obesity research, education and practice? A reflexive critique. Introduction: Simulation body suits have received much attention by health service providers and researchers as an aid for training health professionals in safe manual handling, and addressing weight bias 1,2,3 however, less...
Article
Full-text available
The capacities and vulnerabilities of people with extreme obesity have yet to be explored in disaster risk reduction literature. Whilst people have been impacted in disasters in relation to their size, shape and weight, the literature is ‘conspicuously invisible’ on this topic and where guidance exists, people’s own accounts are missing. Through au...
Article
Full-text available
Extremely obese patients pose significant challenges for those who strive to provide care. The prevalence and consequences of weight bias and stigma in health care have been well documented, but research on how to reduce weight bias and stigma is limited. To assess the impact of simulating obesity on the attitudes and perceptions of health professi...
Article
Full-text available
It is a frightening reality for some people to be caught up in the midst of a disaster, alone and vulnerable due to their relative size, shape or weight. A literature search failed to find any empirical reports of data specific to body mass index (BMI) in disaster situations. A handful of largely anecdotal reports described situations in which peop...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This edition of the National Health Emergency Plan has been revised and updated to reflect current thinking on the health aspects of emergency management in New Zealand and internationally. It reflects the sophistication of a second-generation, risk-based plan developed by emergency management specialists under the leadership of the Joint Centre fo...
Conference Paper
Aim To provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study provided qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009-10 H1N1 campaigns, the impact on behavioural change and t...
Article
Full-text available
This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective heal...
Article
Full-text available
In order to better understand the long-term impact of child sex abuse, this study examined the association between women's experience of abuse, health symptoms, and psychological distress in adulthood. There is limited information about child abuse outside the United States. Nine hundred sixty-one women participated in a structured interview. Parti...
Data
The Families Choices: Choosing Schools for Disabled Children research suggests that the choice of education for disabled children may in fact be an “illusion” for some parents. The research reveals that for the majority, the process is emotionally stressful (60%), time-consuming (33%), financially draining (29%) and negatively impacts siblings (35...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This research is part of an Influenza A (H1N1) Rapid Response Research Initiative launched in partnership with the Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC) and the Ministry of Health in order to support research that aims to inform and advance understanding of the Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 and subsequent pandemics. The primary objective of the st...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse mental health effects in response to a variety of distressing events in specific populations are well documented. However, comparatively little research has been conducted within large community samples outside North America. To assess the prevalence and psychological impact of specific traumatic events in a New Zealand community sample. Pr...
Article
Full-text available
One thousand five hundred community residing New Zealand adults were assessed regarding their experience of traumatic events. Sixty-one per cent of those surveyed reported exposure to a traumatic event during their lifetime. Unexpected death of a close friend or relative was the most prevalent traumatic experience for the present sample, whereas co...
Article
Full-text available
Traumatic event exposure and physical health were examined in a community-residing sample of 1,500 New Zealand adults. Half (51%) reported past traumatic event exposure, 9% reported recent (past 12 months) trauma exposure, and 40% reported no exposure. After adjusting for gender, ethnic, and age differences, those experiencing crime and accident tr...
Article
Traumatic event exposure and physical health were examined in a community‐residing sample of 1,500 New Zealand adults. Half (51%) reported past traumatic event exposure, 9% reported recent (past 12 months) trauma exposure, and 40% reported no exposure. After adjusting for gender, ethnic, and age differences, those experiencing crime and accident tr...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to measure the prevalence of psychological distress and physical illness among women in New Zealand, and to identify the risk factors for psychological distress and health, with specific reference to domestic violence. A survey was carried out among a community sample of 961 women aged 19-90 years. Among all women surveyed, 25% wer...
Article
This study examines the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and interpersonal functioning in a New Zealand community sample of 756 Vietnam War veterans. The results support previous research findings showing that PTSD adversely affects veterans' interpersonal relationships, family functioning, and marital/dyadic adjustment and...
Article
This article presents findings from a longitudinal study investigating the psychological impact of peacekeeping duties on 277 New Zealand Defence Force personnel. Mental health and stressor experience data are presented for four stages of deployment from prior to the deployment to approximately 6 months after service personnel returned to New Zeala...
Article
Moskos's model of military organization argues that the military is moving from a traditional 'institutional' format to a civilian or 'occupational' format. The present research examined the perceptions of organizational structure and psychological climate, and the mental and physical health of New Zealand Army personnel within the framework of Mos...
Article
The present study investigated long-term psychological effects of Cyclone Bola, which struck the East Coast of New Zealand's North Island in March, 1988. Using mailed self-report questionnaires, data was collected from 118 individuals who had been evacuated from their homes during Cyclone Bola, and/or who applied for financial aid following the dis...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents data on the use of physician services by 354 older adults in New Zealand. Utilization of physician services and predisposing factors were ascertained by structured interview in a cross-sectional sample of men (n = 155) and women (n = 199) aged 60 years or over. Interview responses were used to test the hypothesis that a combinati...
Article
Full-text available
The psychological effect of peacekeeping duties on 277 New Zealand Defence Force personnel was investigated using a longitudinal, cross-sectional study. Self-report data were collected in five stages from before deployment to approximately 6 months after return. Multiple measures of mental health, physical health, and stressors were used. Results r...
Article
This article reviews recent research concerned with the association between combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and interpersonal functioning, before describing the development of a pilot program established to provide mental health services for Vietnam veteran family members. The results of a brief program evaluation are also prese...
Article
This study examines differences in job satisfaction between military and ex-military personnel and examines the contribution of demographic, dispositional, and organ- izational variables to those differences. Analysis of data from 571 current New Zealand Army personnel and 171 ex-Army personnel found that Army personnel rated significantly lower th...
Article
The association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), combat exposure, and race was examined in a New Zealand community sample of 756 Vietnam War veterans. Maori veterans reported higher levels of PTSD than their non-Maori counterparts. However, the race effect was shown to be mediated by combat exposure level, rank, and combat role. These...
Article
The association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), combat exposure, and race was examined in a New Zealand community sample of 756 Vietnam War veterans. Maori veterans reported higher levels of PTSD than their non-Maori counterparts. However, the race effect was shown to be mediated by combat exposure level, rank, and combat role. These...
Article
The aim of the paper is to investigate the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety in a community sample of New Zealand Vietnam War veterans. Data were collected as part of a national survey on the health and mental health of New Zealand Vietnam veterans. Five hundred and seventy-three randomly selected male Vietn...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Part time PhD with the Joint Centre for Disaster Research NZ (Massey University and GNS Science), supported by my own Institution (Otago University, Wellington) - overview commentary article just published, provisional registration underway...
Project
Undertaking a review of the 2007 Planning for Individual and Community Recovery in an Emergency Event - principles for psychosocial support document. This review involves a review of existing international guidance and literature to inform the development of the revised document.