Carol O. Long

Carol O. Long

PhD, RN, FPCN, FTNSS FAAN
Retired but happy to join current research endeavers.

About

91
Publications
5,935
Reads
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378
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Carol O. Long research interests center on aging, dementia care, and pain management. She is currently looking for projects where she can be of assistance related to these topic areas.

Publications

Publications (91)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Palliative care is essential in the care of people with advanced dementia, due to the increasing number of patients requiring care in the final stages of life. Nurses need to acquire specific knowledge and skills to provide quality palliative care. The Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) is useful for assessin...
Chapter
The Vietnamese, an Asian racial group closely related to the Chinese, shares some characteristics with other Asian and Pacific Islander groups, yet many aspects of its history and culture are unique. Their immigration to the United States was largely due to war, persecution or the possible loss of life. Refugees from the past and those newer to the...
Chapter
Older adult patients are most likely to reside in the community as they age. The opportunity to provide quality comprehensive palliative nursing care that incorporates age-specific assessment and management principles in the care of older adults is necessary within community settings. This chapter specifies the key considerations for geriatric pall...
Article
Aim and objectives: To investigate the knowledge of and attitudes toward palliative care for advanced dementia and their associations with demographics among nursing staff, including nurses and nursing assistants, in long-term care settings. Background: Nursing facilities are places where persons with dementia die; therefore, providing quality e...
Article
Full-text available
As the world prepares for an increasingly aging population with chronic debilitating diseases, the demand for home healthcare services is increasing. As such, home healthcare clinicians face increased pressure to find resources and continuing support for patients. One area that may be underutilized is accessing Veteran benefits. Home healthcare cli...
Article
Full-text available
Background A Canadian guide for nursing home staff on comfort care for dementia has been translated and adapted for use in Japan. The present study piloted educational intervention for nursing home staff using the Japanese comfort care booklet. Method Some 61 nursing home staff (nurses and other care workers) completed a session that included pre-a...
Article
Death rattle, defined as the noise created by the flow of air through secretions in the upper respiratory tract, is a well-known phenomenon associated with the dying process. The use of anticholinergics is standard practice in hospice and palliative care, yet despite a growing number of quality clinical trials, there is still no compelling scientif...
Article
Full-text available
Acute and chronic pain management for persons residing in long-term care settings is a serious problem. In an effort to change practice in pain management and improve resident outcomes, the Campaign Against Pain education program was instituted at Beatitudes Health Care Center in Phoenix, Arizona. In this pilot study, professional and certified nur...
Article
Full-text available
The Questionnaire on Palliative Care for Advanced Dementia (qPAD) is a 2-part instrument that measures long-term care staff knowledge, and beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes about palliative and end-of-life care for persons with advanced dementia. Factor analyses of the Knowledge Test (coefficient α = .81) produced 3 factors: Anticipating Needs, P...
Article
Full-text available
Delirium is a very common neuropsychiatric disorder seen in the very ill and at the end of life and is distressing to patients, families, and caregivers. Although common, delirium is frequently misdiagnosed and poorly managed. Too often, patients are merely labeled as confused or agitated. This lack of recognition, assessment, and treatment can lea...
Article
Full-text available
State and federal agencies regulate longterm care (LTC) organizations to ensure residents with diverse illnesses and varying levels of independence and function receive quality care. No state or federal standards, however, explicitly assure the comfort of individuals in the advanced stage of dementia, the most common terminal illness in today's nur...
Article
Communication involves a 2-way process of sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages. Communication is socially constructed and embedded in culture. This paper addresses the connection between communication and culture and provides several areas of importance to consider when assuring that individualized care is provided for persons with c...
Article
Culture is a fundamental part of one's being. Spirituality is integrated with culture and both play a significant role in a person's journey through life. Yet, culture and spirituality are often misunderstood and may not seem to be important in healthcare settings. For adults with cancer and their families, this cannot be ignored. This paper review...
Article
The graying of America will lead to an unprecedented and overwhelming number of people with dementia. As the numbers of persons with advanced dementia continue to rise, hospice and palliative care clinicians struggle to offer the same excellent care afforded patients with more common hospice diagnoses. Challenging behaviors occur in up to 90% of pe...
Article
Pain is often unrecognized and undertreated in long-term-care settings. The Beatitudes Campus Health Care Center created the Campaign Against Pain program to improve pain management for residents with chronic pain and short-stay residents with acute pain. The program included education; onsite consultation; individual work groups composed of staff,...
Article
Advanced dementia is a terminal condition; however, research has revealed that affected individuals are subjected to multiple intrusive and burdensome interventions. Individuals with advance dementia require palliative care long before their death. This article reviews selected approaches that support personhood, explain behavior management princip...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers and practitioners require reliable and valid methods for measuring the quality of life (QOL) of people with dementia to assess the impact of interventions, identify activities that are most engaging and pleasurable, and improve dementia care practice. Practitioners require methods that are both useful and usable. This article describes...
Article
An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
Article
Hospice care provides an excellent opportunity to improve comfort and quality of life for patients who will die of this disease and to assist family caregivers. By employing the elements that have been discussed, the hospice benefit can be tailored to meet the unique needs of a growing number of people in our communities who need hospice care, and...
Article
Recent events are quickly becoming the hard teacher: giving tests of preparedness first, then allowing for lessons afterward. However, each emergency teaches valuable lessons about assessment and preparation, and each lesson learned can be integrated into assessment of and preparation for the next event. This article outlines key steps that home ca...
Article
Full-text available
The Boy Scout motto is "be prepared," but can your home health agency abide by this standard? The post-9/11 days of 2001 and the natural disasters that have threatened people and plagued our home and countries abroad illustrate the heightened level of awareness and preparedness home healthcare agencies must achieve to satisfactorily meet emergency...
Article
An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
Article
When Mrs. McClain’s pulmonologist added another new inhaler to her medication regimen, she began to worry. She wanted to know about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and her nurse knew that several Internet resources might help Mrs. McClain understand the etiology and treatment of her disease process. Check out the Web sites below, add...
Article
As nurse practitioners become more vital to primary care, they are also more apt to play a role in end-of-life care. In order to be proficient providers, NPs must familiarize themselves with issues surrounding EOL care.
Article
An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
Article
Find out about these busy invaders before they take a bite out of your privacy.
Article
Major changes in the care and treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer's type have been made, and more are looming on the horizon. This article presents current information regarding pathology, diagnosis, causes, and treatment options. Additionally, the newest medications and alternative approaches to this prevalent disease are discussed.
Article
An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
Article
Major changes in the care and treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer’s type have been made, and more are looming on the horizon. This article presents current information regarding pathology, diagnosis, causes, and treatment options. Additionally, the newest medications and alternative approaches to this prevalent disease are discussed.
Article
To determine the degree of interest in using a computer for the purpose of accessing services from a nurse practitioner (NP) at domestic violence shelters (DVSs); and to identify issues of privacy and confidentiality that might arise from participation by victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a Telehealth intervention. Focus groups with 19...
Article
The delivery of home health and hospice care continues to grow and expand, outpacing both acute and long-term care services. Nurses working in these settings require case management and problem-solving skills that meet the care needs of the homebound, vulnerable elderly. This article describes a service-oriented research and educational project bet...
Article
Defining and monitoring infection rates in home care is of major importance with the implementation of Adverse Event Outcome Reports. This study identifies the collective effort of home care quality improvement nurses in defining standard indicators for urinary tract infections and the ways to monitor these infections within and across home care ag...
Article
These partnerships are not merely a survival tactic. Thriving and progressive leaders spawn the creativity needed to accomplish great tasks through collective dialogue and mutual goals. Academic and educational partnerships can work for you!
Article
An abstract is unavailable. This article is available as HTML full text and PDF.
Article
Nurses in home healthcare and hospice are embracing the advances in computer science and technology to provide an edge in administration and clinical practice. Of concern to nurse managers is the extent to which personal computers and the Internet have been used in home healthcare and hospice, and what information, opportunities, and needs related...
Article
Plug-ins and helper applications are programs that add additional capability to computer Web browsers. These browser extenders allow us to access the most current and most dynamic information on the Web: material that can assist us in fulfilling our professional role now and in the future. We can--and most of us will need to--add browser extensions...
Article
Benchmarking outcome data and constructing "best practices" to meet patient care needs are emerging trends and new mandates on the horizon in home care. The Arizona Association for Home Care Continuous Quality Improvement Forum embarked on a journey to develop standards to define and monitor urinary tract infections in the home. A collaborative pro...
Article
The Web is an extraordinarily dynamic medium that is growing in size and complexity at a furious pace. Web pages already number in the billions and roughly double each year. The contents of the Web are largely unstructured, which may make finding specific information a considerable challenge. However, once you develop some skill at navigating this...
Article
The Internet provides electronic communications and access to information around the globe. In only one decade of public use this format has emerged as the method of rapid access to information, and projections are for continued growth. The WWW consists of over 40,000,000 servers containing billions of pages of information on virtually every concei...
Article
Addressing patient satisfaction evaluations in home healthcare is a multifaceted approach and has reached new importance due to the move to outcome based care within the quality-of-care arena and new or pending governmental or accreditation standards (Figure 2). Home healthcare agencies must be responsive to patient needs and provide supporting doc...
Article
An important area of pharmacologic concern, particularly in the home setting, is that of drug interactions. The 1997 action by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to remove fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine, causing the weight-control phen-fen scare, is a high-profile example of an issue that occurs every day with little fanfare. In drug administ...
Article
Formal preparation of nursing students in home healthcare can be a reality in a college curriculum. This article describes the development and course content of a home healthcare course in the College of Nursing, Arizona State University.
Article
Pneumonia is as significant concern for caregivers of the elderly, often because of the obscure manifestation of the disease and reports of increasing mortality. Key diagnostic criteria, prevention measures, and management strategies are reviewed for the home healthcare nurse.
Article
Pneumonia is a significant concern for caregivers of the elderly, often because of the obscure manifestation of the disease and reports of increasing mortality. Key diagnostic criteria, prevention measures, and management strategies are reviewed for the home healthcare nurse.
Article
The 11,424 cases of Lyme disease reported in 1994 represented a nearly 40% increase from the previous year. The dramatic increase of Lyme disease in the United States points to the need for home healthcare nurses to review their knowledge of the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention measures for this emerging infection.
Article
The 11,424 cases of Lyme disease reported in 1994 represented a nearly 40% increase from the previous year. The dramatic increase of Lyme disease in the United States points to the need for home healthcare nurses to review their knowledge of the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prevention measures for this emerging infection.
Article
With the current focus on outcomes of care and promoting the image of nursing there is significant attention on how families perceive nursing care. These authors provided a patient satisfaction model in a previous article in DCCN (September-October, page 272). Here they describe nursing techniques which help to increase family satisfaction by meeti...
Article
Family satisfaction with nursing care is difficult to evaluate because there are many factors which influence it, especially in critical care areas. These authors present a model for evaluating the primary factors which affect family satisfaction with critical care nursing.
Article
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB), which only a few years ago was thought to be under control and soon to be eliminated, has resurfaced as a real threat in the home and community setting. This article discusses TB symptoms, therapies (including a discussion of the drug-resistant forms of TB), prevention and control strategies, and the role of the hom...
Article
With the incidence of tuberculosis on the rise, home healthcare nurses are challenged to maintain skills in administering healthcare and interpreting tuberculosis (TB) tests. In this article, the most widely used method of TB testing, the Mantoux PPD test, is presented. The procedures for administering the test, the methods of evaluating the result...
Article
Elderly patients look to nurses for the majority of their home care, including rehabilitative services. This model curriculum in geriatric rehabilitation nursing incorporates both clinical skills and case management and provides hands-on agency experience to enhance the learning process.
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Arizona State University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references (leaves [91]-106).

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
Our new program, called Steps to H.O.P.E. (Health, Optimism, Purpose, Endurance), was created to address ambiguous loss and grief common in family caregivers of persons with dementia. The goal of the program is to reduce the stress and burden that caregivers experience by providing them with strategies that promote their ability to adapt better to adversity and make them more comfortable in dealing with this ambiguity. The program is delivered via group sessions; thereby lending the ability for participants to learn from each other. Using Pauline Boss's Boundary Ambiguity Theory or Ambiguous Loss, this intervention study will assist in learning more about what mechanisms help family caregivers to manage loss and grief in dementia caregiving.