Carol Adaire Jones

Carol Adaire Jones
Environmental Law Institute | ELI

PhD Harvard University

About

59
Publications
12,972
Reads
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1,120
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Introduction
At ELI, I am developing projects to apply environmental laws and policies to promote sustainability, including: • the use of natural resource liability litigation in developing countries (with a focus on deforestation and illegal wildlife trade in Indonesia); and • food waste – designing policies and programs to reduce waste, increase donations of nutritious food, and to divert unavoidable waste from landfills;
Additional affiliations
September 2014 - present
Environmental Law Institute
Position
  • Visiting Scholar
September 1999 - August 2014
United States Department of Agriculture
Position
  • Associate Director for Research
January 1998 - August 1999
INCAE Business School
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (59)
Article
Full-text available
Tropical countries face a host of challenges to their natural environment and resources. Environmental law liability provisions offer one set of potential protections. This Article surveys such provisions in a variety of tropical country contexts. Of the seven countries studied, spanning a range of legal systems and economic development and environ...
Article
This paper examines how the United States has valued harm to public resources in natural resource liability laws and practice, an early legal application of the ecosystem-services conceptual framework. Our primary focus is on valuing harm to the difficult-to-value resources and ecological services that provide indirect or passive human uses, for wh...
Article
Full-text available
TO address a gap in organics processing infrastructure, four New England states — Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island — and more recently California, as well as a number of cities, have adopted bans on landfill disposal of food waste, or recycling mandates. Inverting the logic in the movie Field of Dreams (“if we build it, they wil...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Co-digestion of food wastes with wastewater solids at water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) can provide financial benefits to WRRFs, as well as a broad range of environmental and community benefits. With fewer than one in 10 WRRFs using anaerobic digestion (AD) to process wastewater solids, and about one in 10 of those co-digesting high streng...
Article
Full-text available
Many countries allow lawsuits to hold responsible parties liable for the environmental harm they cause. Such litigation remains largely untested in most biodiversity hotspots and is rarely used in response to leading drivers of biodiversity loss, including illegal wildlife trade. Yet, liability litigation is a potentially groundbreaking conservatio...
Book
Full-text available
Actions such as illegal wildlife trade, deforestation, mining and pollution are often responsible for huge and diverse harms to the environment—including particular impacts on threatened species. Faced with growing concern about the biodiversity crisis, including reports that at least one million species are at risk of extinction1, there are growin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many countries allow lawsuits to hold responsible parties liable for the environmental harm they cause. Such litigation remains largely untested in most biodiversity hotspots and in response to leading drivers of biodiversity loss, including illegal wildlife trade. Yet, liability litigation is a potentially ground-breaking conservation strategy to...
Chapter
The Anthropocene is often framed in terms of understanding and mitigating large-scale human-induced environmental change. However, facing unprecedented planetary transformations, the differentiated impacts that global environmental change has across communities, species, time and place must not only be considered and characterised, but actively rem...
Article
Full-text available
TO address a gap in organics processing infrastructure, four New England states — Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island — and more recently California, as well as a number of cities, have adopted bans on landfill disposal of food waste, or recycling mandates. Inverting the logic in the movie Field of Dreams (“if we build it, they wil...
Presentation
Full-text available
I present a framework for understanding the role of price incentives and supply mandates in promoting the diversion of wasted food from landfills to composting or anaerobic digestion. For Seattle WA, Portland OR, and Cambridge MA case studies, I compare the structure of MSW management and diversion-related policies against performance statistics re...
Article
Full-text available
The PNAS 100th Anniversary Special Feature on natural capital and ecosystem services highlights a range of opportunities and challenges to operationalize these concepts to strengthen environmental governance (1). However, the issue’s focus is largely on the role these concepts play in ex ante decision-making, and overlooks their role in informing c...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Recent volatility in agricultural commodity prices and projections of world population growth raise concerns about the ability of global agricultural production to meet future demand. This report explores the potential for future agricultural production to 2050, using a model-based analysis that incorporates the key drivers of agricultural producti...
Article
Bio-electricity is an important technology for Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-27) mitigation scenarios, especially with the possibility of negative carbon dioxide emissions when combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). With a strong economic foundation, and broad coverage of economic activity, computable general equilibrium models have p...
Article
A global computable general equilibrium model was used to simulate the global market impacts of future income, population, and productivity changes on the scale and composition of agricultural output across heterogeneous regions and the resulting implications for non-CO2 emissions. By simulating separately the effects of increasing income and popul...
Article
Following the failure of legislative proposals for a multi-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-and-trade policy, the shift in focus to energy sector policies ignores the perhaps substantial potential for GHG mitigation from agriculture/forestry. We review estimates of the current U.S. agriculture sector contribution to GHG mitigation from a portfolio o...
Article
Full-text available
Rising energy prices and changing energy and environmental policies have transformed the relationship between the energy and agriculture sectors. Traditionally, the relationship has been one-way, with agriculture using energy products as an input in production; during the past decade, however, the energy sector’s use of agricultural products as ren...
Chapter
Fossil fuel combustion is the predominant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States and consequently has been the major focus of strategies for GHG mitigation. However, current efforts to transform the energy sector from high-carbon (C) energies (i.e., fossil fuel) to no- or low-C technologies are costly and will require a long...
Article
Full-text available
Following the failure of legislative proposals for a multi-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-and-trade policy, the shift in focus to energy sector policies ignores the perhaps substantial potential for GHG mitigation from agriculture/forestry. We review estimates of the current U.S. agriculture sector contribution to GHG mitigation from a portfolio o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report summarizes the current state of knowledge of the drivers of land-use change and describes the analytic methods used to estimate the impact of biofuel feedstock production on land use. The models used to assess policy impacts have incorporated some of the major uncertainties inherent in making projections of future conditions, but some u...
Article
Full-text available
Global biofuel production currently represents about 3% of total transportation fuels, with the vast majority of production concentrated in the US, Brazil, and the European Union. The primary sources are maize feedstock ethanol in the US, sugarcane feedstock ethanol in Brazil, and oilseed feedstock biodiesel in the European Union. The conventional...
Article
Household economic well-being can be gauged by the financial resources (income/wealth) available to the household or by the standard of living enjoyed by household members (consumption). Based on responses to USDA’s annual Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), a joint effort by the Economic Research Service (ERS) and the USDA National Agr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Rural residents have higher rates of age-adjusted mortality, disability, and chronic disease than their urban counterparts, though mortality and disability rates vary more by region than by metro status. Contributing negatively to the health status of rural residents are their lower socioeconomic status, higher incidence of both smoking and obesity...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, the economic well-being of households is gauged by indicators of the financial resources available–— household income and, when available, wealth. ERS publishes estimates of farm household income and wealth based on responses to USDA’s annual Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS). Since 1998, average farm operator hous...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports estimates of consumption-based measures of well-being for farm households based on new, specially-designed survey questions in USDA's annual, nationally representative survey of farms, the Agricultural Resource Management Survey. With this new data, we show how patterns of consumption-smoothing relative to income levels differ be...
Article
Rural residents have higher rates of age-adjusted mortality, disability, and chronic disease than their urban counterparts, though mortality and disability rates vary more by region than by metro status. Contributing negatively to the health status of rural residents are their lower socioeconomic status, higher incidence of both smoking and obesity...
Article
Full-text available
We discovered an emerging non-metropolitan mortality penalty by contrasting 37 years of age-adjusted mortality rates for metropolitan versus nonmetropolitan US counties. During the 1980s, annual metropolitan-nonmetropolitan differences averaged 6.2 excess deaths per 100,000 nonmetropolitan population, or approximately 3600 excess deaths; however, b...
Article
Full-text available
An influx of retirees and ethnic populations brings both challenges and benefits to small-town America. Rural populations are changing. Patterns of migration, in tandem with the age structure and ethnic composition of the nonmetro population, will influence future development patterns. While today's nonmetro America is less ethnically diverse and a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses how farm access to credit affects farm input allocation and farm efficiency in the CEE transition countries. Drawing on a unique farm level panel data with 37,409 observations and employing a matching estimator we are able to control for the key source of endogeneity – unoberserved heterogeneity. We find that farms are credit co...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases can be reduced by withdrawing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in soils and biomass. This report analyzes the performance of alternative incentive designs and payment levels if farmers were paid to adopt land uses and management practices that raise soil carbon levels. At payment levels b...
Article
Full-text available
Several major federal environmental statutes enacted in the 1970s designate federal, state, and tribal resource management agencies as trustees of natural resources on behalf of the public and enable the trustees to recover damages for injuries to public resources. The measure of damages in the statutes is the cost of restoring the resources to bas...
Article
Full-text available
We use a nested-logit model of recreational fishing to examine how varying the range of fishing activities included in the choice set affects welfare measures. The basic analytical results are quite intuitive: welfare calculations with a site-choice travel cost model that omits relevant substitute activities will tend to understate gains and to ove...
Article
Full-text available
The basic measure of natural resource damages in USA environmental liability statutes is the cost of restoring the injured resources, plus compensation for the interim loss of resources from the time of injury until their full recovery. In contrast, until 1996, the international Convention Protocols addressing liability for accidental oil spills di...
Article
In this paper we characterize seasonal recreational participation with a model of between-trip durations, a variation on seasonal participation models that provides certain advantages relative to modeling total trip counts directly. Employing a competing risk framework, we are able to model anglers? demands for trips of different lengths. The durat...
Article
Full-text available
In the past two decades, the U.S. Congress has passed several major environmental statutes that designate natural resource management agencies as trustees of the resources on behalf of the public and that allow the trustees to recover damages for injuries to public resources from releases of hazardous substances and discharges of oil. The standard...
Article
The basic measure of natural resource damages in USA environmental liability statutes is the cost of restoring the injured resources, plus compensation for the interim loss of resources from the time of injury until their full recovery. In contrast, until 1996, the international Convention Protocols addressing liability for accidental oil spills di...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the impact of Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforcement on compliance with agency regulations in the manufacturing sector, with a unique plant-level data set on inspections and compliance during 1972-83, the first 12 years of the agency. The analysis suggests that, for an individual plant, the effect of OSHA inspections d...
Article
Full-text available
The authors examine the impact of OSHA health inspections on compliance with agency regulations in the manufacturing sector, with a unique plant-level dataset of inspection and compliance behavior during 1972-1983, the first twelve years of OSHA enforcement operations. Two major findings are robust across the range of linear and count-distribution...
Article
Regulatory agencies charged with public health and safety typically promulgate uniform regulatory standards, which suggests the agencies are concerned mainly to reduce harmful externalities, with little concern for firms' costs. A focus on benefits, to the exclusion of costs, in standard-setting and enforcement leads to inefficiencies. We show that...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the impact of OSHA health inspections on compliance with agency regulations in the manufacturing sector, with a unique plant-level dataset of inspection and compliance behavior during 1972-1983, the first twelve years of OSHA enforcement operations. Two major findings are robust across the range of linear and count-distribution models es...
Article
Many regulatory agencies enforcing quality standards across diverse populations of firms lack sufficient resources to promote full compliance. Based on a model with lump-sum noncompliance penalties, W. Kip Viscusi and Richard J. Zeckhauser have advocated that, in most circumstances, an agency with insufficient enforcement resources should choose a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper recognizes that compensating differentials are a function of the income tax rate, using this observation to introduce a methodology for estimating compensating differentials with a specific application to the value of a statistical life (VSL). When taxes change, the pre-tax wages of risky jobs should shift relative to the pre-tax wages o...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, we assess the impact of the labor market, product liability, and workers compensation on incentives to control asbestos hazards in the workplace. First we develop criteria for efficient incentives to reduce occupational disease. Then we compare these norms with the observed performance of the compensation systems for asbestos insul...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases can be reduced by withdrawing carbon from the atmosphere and sequestering it in soils and biomass. This report analyzes the performance of alternative incentive designs and payment levels if farmers were paid to adopt land uses and management practices that raise soil carbon levels. At payment levels b...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Harvard University, 1982. Includes bibliographical references (v. 2, leaves 417-424). Microfiche. s

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Projects (7)