Carol Goodenow

Carol Goodenow

Ph.D.

About

46
Publications
38,255
Reads
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6,965
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2014 - present
Self-employed
Position
  • Independent Research/Evaluation Consultant
January 1995 - August 2014
Independent Researcher
Position
  • Director, School Health Programs
Education
September 1978 - September 1985

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Background: Although lesbian, gay, bisexual and other sexual minority (LGB+) girls are more likely than heterosexual girls to be pregnant during adolescence, relevant pregnancy prevention programming is lacking. Methods: A national randomized controlled trial was conducted with 948 14- to 18-year-old cisgender LGB+ girls assigned to either Girl2...
Article
Introduction Although sexual minority girls are more likely than heterosexual girls to be pregnant during adolescence, programs tailored to their needs are non-existent. Here we describe the iterative development of Girl2Girl, a text messaging-based pregnancy prevention program for cisgender lesbian, gay, bisexual and other sexual minority (LGB+) g...
Article
We examined reasons lesbian and bisexual adolescent girls have sex or, if sexually inexperienced, might have sex with girls or boys, and the role of internalized homonegativity in these relations and among lesbians. Girls were recruited online and classified as lesbian (n = 129) or bisexual (n = 193); the classification was validated. Love and plea...
Article
Objective: To address the significant dearth of literature that examines how girls who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, or who have another nonheterosexual identity (LGB+) decide when and with whom to have sex; and to explore why inexperienced LGB+ girls might have sex with girls or boys. Study design: We conducted 8 online, asynchronous, bulletin bo...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Research suggests that lesbian and bisexual girls are between two and four times more likely to report having been pregnant than girls who identify as exclusively heterosexual. Despite this compelling evidence that sexual minority adolescent girls are at risk for teen pregnancy, programs tailored to the unique needs of LGB adolescents ar...
Article
Background: An established body of research documents that sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) populations are at higher risk for several adverse health behaviors and outcomes compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Smoking is one behavior where the gap is especially large, particularly among youth. Researchers have increasingl...
Article
Background: Despite efforts to decrease substance use, rates among sexual minority youth (SMY) remain higher than among heterosexuals. Substance use is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in adulthood, and SMY's use of substances is related to poorer mental and emotional health. Objectives: We sought to document the trends in substa...
Article
Over the past decade, there has been an increase in scholarship devoted to the topic of sexual and gender minority youth in schools (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, or questioning; LGBTQ). In this special section, we highlight this group of LGBTQ youth, a group that needs as many allies as possible, a group that lacks the social s...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous recent studies have demonstrated that schools are often unsafe for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents, who are more likely than heterosexual peers to be bullied, harassed, or victimized in school contexts. Virtually all of these studies call for change, yet none investigate whether or not it has occurred. Using repeated waves of...
Article
Objective: Disordered eating has decreased for all youth over time, but studies have not focused specifically on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth. Research has found that LGB youth report disordered eating behaviors more often compared to their heterosexual counterparts, but no studies have documented trends over time for LGB youth and consi...
Article
Purpose: Data suggest that lesbian and bisexual adolescents engage in risky sexual behaviors at higher rates than heterosexual girls. Whether these findings also apply to girls of other sexual identities is less well understood. Potential differences in risky sexual behaviors reported by lesbian versus bisexual adolescents are also underreported i...
Article
Unhealthy weight control behaviors may be precursors to clinical eating disorders; therefore, it is important to identify these actions, and what may trigger them, as early as possible. We used 2009 and 2011 Massachusetts Youth Health Survey data for middle and high school students. We studied age, sex, and race disparities related to unhealthy wei...
Article
Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth may experience significant body dissatisfaction. We examined sexual orientation differences in self-perceived weight status and the prevalence of potentially dangerous weight control behaviors in a representative sample of adolescents. Data were obtained from 12,984 youth between 2003 and 2009 over four cycles of th...
Article
Full-text available
We compared the prevalence of current homelessness among adolescents reporting a minority sexual orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, unsure, or heterosexual with same-sex sexual partners) with that among exclusively heterosexual adolescents. We combined data from the 2005 and 2007 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a representative sample of...
Conference Paper
Evidence of greater risk of homelessness among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents compared to heterosexual adolescents comes from study samples comprised of homeless youth. The extent that such findings can be generalized to representative samples of adolescents is unknown. We used data from the 2005 and 2007 Massachusetts (MA) Youth Risk Behav...
Article
Full-text available
Students' subjective sense of school belonging recently has been identified as a potentially important influence on academic motivation, engagement, and participation, especially among students from groups at risk of school dropout. Students' friends also influence their academic motivation, sometimes negatively. In this study, the relationship amo...
Article
Previous research has shown that youth who are homeless engage in high-risk behaviors. However, there has been little information published on nutritional and physical activity behaviors in this population, and studies comparing homeless youth in school with their non-homeless peers are scarce. This study compares weight-related risk behaviors of p...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the relationship of 2 dimensions of sexual orientation--sexual identity and sex of partners--with self-reported behaviors and experiences to identify factors that may place adolescent females at risk of HIV/AIDS. We gathered data on sexually experienced female high school students from 4 waves of a population-based survey. We used logis...
Article
Sexual minority adolescents—those self-identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) or with same-sex desires or sexual experiences—report higher rates of victimization and suicidality than their heterosexual peers, yet little empirical research has examined school factors associated with these risks. This study used data from the Massachusetts Yo...
Article
This study identified substantial training and resource needs for special education (SPED), transitional bilingual education/ English as a Second Language (TBE/ESL), and general education (GENED) HIV education teachers relative to providing appropriate, effective HIV education to students with disabilities (SWD) and language minority/Limited Englis...
Article
This study evaluated the extent to which school districts in Massachusetts adopted HIV education policies consistent with state education agency recommendations, and whether adoption of state-recommended policy language was associated with other core components of school-based HIV prevention programs such as staff development, curriculum, and imple...
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed relationships between condom availability programs accompanied by community discussion and involvement and adolescent sexual practices. Sexual practice and condom use differences were assessed in a representative sample of 4166 adolescents enrolled in high schools with and without condom availability programs. Adolescents in sch...
Article
To examine associations between health risk behaviors and sexual experience with opposite-, same-, or both-sex partners in representative samples of high school students. We used 1995 and 1997 data from the Vermont and Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Logistic regression and multiple regression analyses were used to compare health risk be...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the prevalence of AIDS-related risk behaviors among adolescent males with female, male, and both-sex sexual partners and explored factors related to these behaviors. Three waves of a population-based survey provided data on male high school students: 3065 with only female sexual partners, 94 with only male partners, and 108 with...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared sexual risk behaviors of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adolescents and evaluated associations between gay-sensitive HIV instruction and risk behaviors of GLB youths. A random sample of high school students and HIV education teachers completed surveys. Self-reported risk behaviors of heterosexual and GLB adole...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationships between recency of immigration, substance use, and sexual behavior. Surveys were conducted with 2635 Massachusetts 8th and 10th graders that allowed comparisons of health behaviors and risk and protective factors among students living in the United States "always," more than 6 years, or 6 years or less. Compare...
Article
This study assessed whether immigrant adolescents receive health education and services in schools at levels comparable to native-born peers. Surveys from 2,635 8th and 10th graders allowed comparisons between students living in the United States "always" (n = 2,080), "more than six years" (n = 299), and "six years or less" (n = 191). Immigrant stu...
Article
: This study assessed whether immigrant adolescents receive health education and services in schools at levels comparable to native-born peers. Surveys from 2,635 8th and 10th graders allowed comparisons between students living in the United States “always” (n = 2,080), “more than six years” (n = 299), and “sixyears or less” (n = 191). Immigrant st...
Article
Full-text available
The adolescent task of ego identity formation is especially complex when it must be carried out in the context of a new country and culture. For immigrant adolescents, whose numbers have grown rapidly in the American school population in the past decade, developing a firm identity involves steering a course between refusing to adapt to American lif...
Article
Full-text available
Early adolescents'sense of classroom belonging and support-of being liked, respected, and valued by fellow students and by the teacher-was investigated among 353 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade middle school students. Focusing on one academic class, students completed scales of classroom belonging and support, expectancies for success, and intri...
Article
This article discusses the development and validation of a measure of adolescent students' perceived belonging or psychological membership in the school environment. An initial set of items was administered to early adolescent students in one suburban middle school (N = 454) and two multi-ethnic urban junior high schools (N = 301). Items with low v...
Article
This article discusses the development and validation of a measure of adolescent students' perceived belonging or psychological membership in the school environment. An initial set of items was administered to early adolescent students in one suburban middle school (N = 454) and two multi‐ethnic urban junior high schools (N = 301). Items with low v...
Article
This article discusses the development and validation of a measure of adolescent students' perceived belonging or psychological membership in the school environment. An initial set of items was administered to early adolescent students in one suburban middle school (N = 454) and two multi-ethnic urban junior high schools (N = 301). Items with low v...
Article
A study was done of the association between the psychological sense of school membership (PSSM) and measures of motivation and achievement among urban adolescents. The study was conducted among 301 students in 2 multi-ethnic urban junior high schools. African American, White, and Hispanic American students each comprised roughly one-third of the st...
Article
Education is an essentially social process, and the understanding of social contexts and reciprocal interpersonal and group processes as they are likely to occur in schools and classes is an important part of educational psychology. Focusing on selected topics originating in social psychology and sociology, this article advocates greater research a...
Article
In recent years, more attention has been given to the fact that grieving is a process, especially in the work of Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. The literature has focused on many aspects of bereavement, including how the process may be different at different ages. Much of the research on adolescents has focused on reactions to the suicide of a peer. The pu...
Article
Maslach and Jackson''s (1986) three dimensions of burnout, emotional exhaustion, lack of personal accomplishment and depersonalization, were investigated among 78 counselors at a short-term, residential treatment facility for emotionally disturbed children and adolescents. Two waves of data were collected so that possible changes in burnout over ti...
Article
This study investigated the relationship of students' sense of belonging in their classes to measures related to motivation, student effort, and academic achievement. Data from 612 fifth- through eighth-grade middle school students revealed that the sense of belonging in a class was related to: (1) students' expectations of academic success; (2) st...
Article
Using a cross-sectional interview study of 194 women with rheumatoid arthritis, investigated the relationship between health status, social integration, qualitative aspects of social support, and social and psychological functioning in the presence of a chronic, disabling disease. Even after controlling for the influences of current physical limita...
Article
Yelin and others have shown social work factors to be more important than disease factors in predicting work disability among arthritis patients; however, the effects of family factors on work role functioning have not been considered in previous explanatory models. In this study, we use Yelin's model to explain work disability among 122 women with...
Article
Based on a behavioral analysis of compliance with breast self-examination (BSE), this study replicates a previously successful stimulus control intervention and tests the effectiveness of two types of reward for increasing compliance: external reward and self-reward. Patient volunteers (N=153) were randomly assigned to experimental conditions and f...
Article
Few current studies of the effects of chronic conditions on social functioning examine the effects of disease on the role of homemaker. A major problem confronting researchers in this area is the difficulty in operationalizing dysfunction in social roles other than work roles. In this study we have developed a measure of homemaker functioning based...
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--State University of New York at Buffalo, 1985. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 218-227). Photocopy of typescript.

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