Carol Gilligan

Carol Gilligan
New York University | NYU · Department of Applied Psychology

Ph.D.

About

114
Publications
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26,348
Citations

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
In place of the question “Can we talk?” this article explores what keeps us from speaking, and also from listening, to voices that through time and across cultures have broken the silences in our midst. By highlighting the relational capacities that are with us practically from birth (including our ability to register the obvious and give voice to...
Article
This article is about survival and resistance in the context of armed conflicts, such as the one in Colombia. The story of Anna, a “Total Llanera woman” was constructed during the inquiry “Narratives of Surviving and Restoration” conducted in Manizales, Colombia. Working within a socioconstructionist framework and with narrative therapy assumptions...
Book
Cambridge Core - American Government, Politics and Policy - Darkness Now Visible - by Carol Gilligan
Article
In 1982 Harvard University Press published Carol Gilligan’s landmark work, In a Different Voice, a book on psychological theory and women’s development, which sparked a heated discussion in the world of psychology. After listening to women speaking about themselves and about morality, Gilligan noticed that psychologists would study men and generali...
Article
Full-text available
This article brings psychoanalysis to the fore in grappling with the question: Why does patriarchy persist? It highlights the psychological function of patriarchy as a defense against loss by connecting Gilligan's research on development with Bowlby's studies of attachment. Pathological responses to loss parallel the gender codes of patriarchal mas...
Article
Why are there so many people who receive scholarship aid who do not give back to the schools that gave it? Social exchange theories grounded in the assumption of direct reciprocity have long been the framework used within higher education to understand donative behavior. As a result, conventional wisdom within higher education holds that recipients...
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As the editor of this special section, the author wishes to take this opportunity to reflect on The Listening Guide as a qualitative research method: its distinguishing features, its history, the range of its uses, and the theoretical and methodological issues it raises. The author also introduces the two articles in this section that illuminate di...
Article
Adolescence is a difficult time, but it can be particularly stressful for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identifying youth. In order to avoid harassment and rejection, many LGBTQ teens hide their identities from their families, peers, and even themselves. Educator Michael Sadowski deftly brings the voices of LGBTQ youth out into the...
Article
The discovery that free association can undo dissociation is the psychological equivalent to discovering fire. Psychoanalysis began with this discovery, but its liberatory promise became constrained. With the shift in emphasis from dissociated knowledge to the unconscious, a cure through love became wedded to miracle, mystery, and authority. In the...
Article
The discovery that free association can undo dissociation is the psychological equivalent to discovering fire. Psychoanalysis began with this discovery, but its liberatory promise became constrained. With the shift in emphasis from dissociated knowledge to the unconscious, a cure through love became wedded to miracle, mystery, and authority. In the...
Article
Full-text available
Care, female or feminist Ethics ? In this unpublished interview, Gilligan talks about the challenges of her book A different voice, republished in France in 2008. Her project was to make women’s « moral » voice heard and men’s numbed voices in the meantime. If the ethics of care is not female in itself, but relevant of human concerns, it can become...
Article
In this unpublished interview, Gilligan talks about the challenges of her book A different voice, republished in France in 2008. Her project was to make women's «moral» voice heard and men's numbed voices in the meantime. If the ethics of care is not female in itself, but relevant of human concerns, it can become the ethics of all at the price of a...
Article
Why is America again unjustly at war? Why is its politics distorted by wedge issues like abortion and gay marriage? Why is anti-Semitism still so powerfully resurgent? Such contradictions within democracies arise from a patriarchal psychology still alive in our personal and political lives in tension with the equal voice that is the basis of democr...
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Full-text available
Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women. Bo...
Article
Beginning with the distinction between core consciousness or a core sense of self and a self that is wedded to a story about itself, this paper suggests that we have collectively been wedded to a false story about ourselves, a story that the core self resists. The gender disparity with respect to times in development when children's resilience is a...
Book
From the ardently religious young woman who longs for the life of a male scholar to the young rebel who visits a strip club, smokes pot, and agonizes over her loss of faith to the proud Lubavitcher with a desire for a high-powered career, Stephanie Wellen Levine provides a rare glimpse into the inner worlds and daily lives of these Hasidic girls. L...
Article
Hearing the difference between a patriarchal voice and a relational voice defines a paradigm shift: a change in the conception of the human world. Theorizing connection as primary and fundamental in human life leads to a new psychology, which shifts the grounds for philosophy and political theory. A crucial distinction is made between a feminine et...
Article
Through a clinical case study, this paper explores the peak in girls' suicide attempts at ages 13 and 14 and offers a relational interpretation of girls' suicidal behaviors as symbolic and indirect speech, reflecting a language that is deeply encultured. In early adolescence, girls learn that if they threaten to harm or endanger themselves or actua...
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Full-text available
Feminists have long known that patriarchy begins and lives at home in hierarchies consisting of male “household heads” and subordinate women and children. And feminists have long known that these domestic hierarchies are enforced by law as well as by custom. Nancy Cott’s wonderful book gives us new clarity about how—and how very pervasively—that en...
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Full-text available
A Woman Decides addresses the need for intellectual versatility among judges and lawyers. The underlying premise of the essay is that excellence in judicial practice requires integration of rule-based and contextual reasoning. Professor Gilligan's work is relied on both to explain the importance of intellectual versatility and to explain why cultur...
Article
Between Voice and Silence: Women and Girls, Race and Relationship. Jill M. Taylor, Carol Gilligan, & Amy M. Sullivan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1995. 253 pp. ISBN 0-674-06880-7. $14.95 paper. What thoughts and feelings do girls from poor and working-class families have about relationships, about school, about their futures, about the...
Article
Full-text available
I am honoured that you asked me to give the Kohlberg Memorial Lecture and grateful for this occasion to remember Larry and speak about his work. For me, it means coming back into a conversation that I was intensely involved in a long time ago. I have not talked publicly about Larry or my relationship with him since the time of his death, and it has...
Chapter
Before reading this summary you should read the preceding summary of Kohlberg’s paper on moral development.
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For over a century, psychologists have described adolescence as a time of heightened psychological risk for girls. This article explores a relational impasse or crisis of connection that we have observed in girls' lives at adolescence by tracing through time the thoughts and feelings of two 12-year-old girls who were interviewed as part of a 5-year...
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Full-text available
University of Michigan. Vol. 1, no. 2- issued as the University of Michigan official publication, v. 63, no. 74- Electronic serial mode of access: World Wide Web. Michigan quarterly review
Article
In a psychology understood as a relational practice, the process of listening to, interpreting, and speaking about the stories of others is a relational act; such a psychology demands a method that is responsive to different voices and sensitive to the way body, relationships, and culture affect the psyche.
Chapter
Unser Ziel ist es, in diesem Aufsatz eine interpretative Methode zu beschreiben, die wir als Anleitung zur Auswertung (zum Lesen) von Interviewerzählungen über moralische Konflikte und Entscheidungen entwikkelt haben. Von zentraler Bedeutung für dieses Vorhaben ist, daß wir es für möglich halten, daß einerseits unterschiedliche Perspektiven im Hinb...
Article
Two concepts of the highly moral person are analyzed by contrasting two views of moral action, couched in terms of the moral voices of justice and care, in the moral judgments made by Israeli selective conscientious objectors during the war in Lebanon (1982–1985). It is argued that the highly moral person, as typified in Kohlberg, manifests respons...
Article
Full-text available
our aim in this chapter is to describe an interpretive method that we have developed as a guide to reading interview narratives of moral conflict and choice / central to this effort is our belief in the possibility of different perspectives on moral problems, and the potential for conflict among them our presentation will unfold as follows: we wi...
Article
In the fourteen articles collected in this volume, Gilligan and her colleagues expand the theoretical base of "In A Different Voice" (Harvard University Press, 1982) and apply their research methods to a variety of life situations. The contrasting voices of justice and care clarify different ways in which women and men speak about relationships and...
Article
Investigated the distinction between L. Kohlberg's (1984) justice and care perspectives in sex differences in moral development. Real-life dilemmas from 46 men and 34 women, primarily adolescents and young adults, show that concerns about both justice and care were represented in Ss' thinking about real-life moral dilemmas, but Ss tended to focus o...
Article
two meanings of the word "responsibility"—commitment to obligations and responsiveness in relationships—are central to the mapping of the moral domain put forth in this chapter / since moral judgments reflect a logic of social understanding and form a standard of self-evaluation, a conception of morality is key to the construction of the individual...
Article
Argues against J. Vasudev's claim that sex differences disappear in studies that control for socioeconomic status. Contends that women and men are not socioeconomic equals. Recommends that theories based on all-male research samples be questioned and that differences in women's moral orientation be accounted for in studies. (SKC)
Article
In talking about adolescent development, how will one respond to the adolescent's questions, or the questions behind the adolescent's questions: What is true? What is of value? Who am I now? Where is my home?
Article
Responds to criticisms of the present author's work In a Different Voice (1982). The dissonance between psychological theory and women's experience is emphasized. Developmental psychology has been built largely from the study of the lives of men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Responds to the criticisms raised by B. Weiner et al (see record 1984-12301-001) of the present authors' (see record 1982-23594-001) findings of stereotypical sex differences in violent fantasies, noting that the researcher who brings news of sex differences tends to be unwelcome in the present political climate. It is asserted that the replication...
Article
Responds to the criticisms raised by B. Weiner et al (see record 1984-12301-001) of the present authors' (see record 1982-23594-001) findings of stereotypical sex differences in violent fantasies, noting that the researcher who brings news of sex differences tends to be unwelcome in the present political climate. It is asserted that the replication...
Article
In response to a critique by C. J. Benton et al (see record 1984-12235-001), the present authors argue that the Benton et al study is not a true replication, as they ignore the most crucial aspect of the research—the content analysis of violent TAT stories. Although Benton et al call attention to a major problem in motivation research, that of a p...
Chapter
The century marked by the Radcliffe centennial is spanned roughly by the publication of two novels, both written by women and posing the same moral dilemma: a heroine in love with her cousin Lucy’s man. In their parallel triangles, these novels provide a historical frame in which to consider current research on women’s moral judgments and offer a w...
Article
Investigated the relationship between cognitive development, as measured by changes in the Moral Development Scale, and long-term reconstructive memory in 24 15–33 yr old females. The hypothesis that the past is reconstructed to conform with current developmental stages was examined. Results indicate that when developmental gains were made over a 1...
Article
Two modes of moral reasoning are distinguished in boys' and girls' discussions of moral dilemmas: one oriented to justice and rights, one to care and response. These different modes are associated with different forms of self-definition and reflect different images of relationships. The contrasting images of hierarchy and web derive from childhood...
Article
TAT stories written by 88 male and 50 female undergraduates were coded for the presence or absence of violent imagery and for the context in which the violence occurred. Results confirm previous findings of a greater incidence of violence in males' fantasy stories (M. S. Horner, see record 1973-09174-001) but extend these findings to show a sex dif...
Article
Investigations of moral development have usually relied on longitudinal research on adolescent males; such research has served as a basis for national educational efforts to foster moral development. To represent female as well as male perspectives in constructing theories of human development, conceptions of morality and conceptions of self and th...
Article
TAT stories written by 88 male and 50 female undergraduates were coded for the presence or absence of violent imagery and for the context in which the violence occurred. Results confirm previous findings of a greater incidence of violence in males' fantasy stories (M. S. Horner, see record 1973-09174-001) but extend these findings to show a sex dif...
Article
This study introduces a methodology for exploring sex differences and life span patterns in a small sample for the purpose of generating hypotheses concerning the frequency and kinds of relationships people identify as important. Sixty-two participants from the United States and India, ranging in age from nineteen to seventy-five were interviewed a...
Article
Discrepancies between hypothetical judgments and reasoning about an actual choice can predict the clinical outcome of crisis and the occurrence of developmental change.
Article
Provided an alternative conception of postconventional moral development that fits existing data on late adolescent and adult moral judgment better than L. Kohlberg's (1969) higher stage descriptions. Moral judgment data from a longitudinal study of 26 undergraduates were scored by L. Kohlberg et al's (1978) manual and replicated his original findi...
Article
Drawing on literary and psychological sources, Carol Gilligan documents the way in which theories of the life cycle, by taking for their model the lives of men, have failed to account for the experience of women. Arguing that this bias has promoted a concern with autonomy and achievement at the expense of attachment and intimacy, she suggests that...

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