Carol Chapelle

Carol Chapelle
Iowa State University | ISU · Department of English and Applied Linguistics

Distinguished Professor

About

115
Publications
23,279
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5,059
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
2129 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Introduction
Carol A. Chapelle is Distinguished Professor of Applied Linguistics at Iowa State University. Her research investigates issues in second language teaching, learning, and assessment with an emphasis on evaluation methods, use of technology, and Canadian Studies. Recent books are Argument-Based Validation in Testing and Assessment (Sage, 2021) and The Handbook of Technology and Language Learning and Teaching (Wiley, 2017; with Shannon Sauro).
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (115)
Chapter
Language tests play pivotal roles in education, research on learning, and gate-keeping decisions. The central concern for language testing professionals is how to investigate whether or not tests are appropriate for their intended purposes. This book introduces an argument-based validity framework to help with the design of research that investigat...
Book
Carol A. Chapelle shows readers how to design validation research for tests of human capacities and performance. Any test that is used to make decisions about people or programs should have undergone extensive research to demonstrate that the scores are actually appropriate for their intended purpose. Argument-Based Validation in Testing and Assess...
Article
Virtual Special Issues are a new resource for Language Testing readers. The Virtual Special Issues will highlight important topics and trends in the field by curating previously published articles that have contributed to defining important and influential issues, methods, and findings on the topics and trends. This Virtual Special Issue presents s...
Article
This 40 th anniversary of ARAL also marks the 40-year anniversary of a significant uptick in research on language assessment, and hence there is much to reflect on and revisit within this period—and still scope for imagining the future. Pre-1980, language assessment had a long history, but Spolsky (1995) designated the late 1940s as a time of profe...
Chapter
The chapter reports results of an investigation of linguistic landscape (LL) in images of Québec in 65 systematically sampled first-year French textbooks, over the fifty-year period from 1960 to 2010. A total of 311 images were found with over half of these appearing in the decade beginning in 2000. The sequential, explanatory mixed methods study d...
Article
Opération Amérique refers to the coordinated efforts of René Lévesque’s Parti Québécois government beginning late 1970s to promote Québec’s interests in the United States. The general goals and strategies of Opération Amérique suggest that it presents a case of soft power. However, the specific actions implemented as well as their effects have bare...
Article
The Cambridge Handbook of Language Learning - edited by John W. Schwieter June 2019
Article
The tablet project was undertaken in 2013 to explore the creation of an assessment to reveal English language learners' (ELLs') language capabilities in content area classes such as science. Such assessments could ideally be useful in multiple phases of the instructional process by providing information to learners, teachers, and other stakeholders...
Article
Argument-based validation requires test developers and researchers to specify what is entailed in test interpretation and use. Doing so has been shown to yield advantages (Chapelle, Enright, & Jamieson, 2010), but it also requires an analysis of how the concerns of language testers can be conceptualized in the terms used to construct a validity arg...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the papers in the Handbook of Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning, which introduces new ways of teaching every aspect of language, new pedagogical and assessment approaches, as well as new ways of conceiving and conducting research and development. The chapters describe how the many diverse lang...
Chapter
The chapters in the Handbook present new ideas, practices, and needs affecting second language teaching. This chapter culls three fundamental themes developed across the chapters: (1) multimodal language abilities need to be taught and investigated to engage with the reality of the world in which students learn and use language; (2) the continuousl...
Chapter
Evaluating the many uses of new technologies for language learning is integral to the process of innovation. This chapter reviews approaches taken by professionals as they conduct evaluations of technology and language learning to investigate particular types of claims about the value of the technology. It describes five types of arguments that app...
Chapter
This entry presents an overview of the past, present, and future of technology use in language assessment, also called computer-assisted language testing (CALT), with a focus on technology for delivering tests and processing test takers’ linguistic responses. The past developments include technical accomplishments that contributed to the developmen...
Book
The Handbook of Technology and Second Language Teaching and Learning presents a comprehensive exploration of the impact of technology on the field of second language learning. Contributions from a team of international scholars make up the Handbook consisting of four parts: language teaching and learning through technology; the technology-pedagogy...
Chapter
This entry presents an overview of the past, present, and future of technology use in language assessment, also called computer-assisted language testing (CALT), with a focus on technology for delivering tests and processing test takers’ linguistic responses. The past developments include technical accomplishments that contributed to the developmen...
Article
This review article provides an analysis of the research from the last two decades on the theme of technology and second language assessment. Based on an examination of the assessment scholarship published in Language Learning & Technology since its launch in 1997, we analyzed the review articles, research articles, book reviews, and commentaries a...
Article
This commentary offers a brief reflection on the state of CALL in 1997, when Language Learning & Technology was launched with my paper entitled "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" The point of my 1997 paper was to suggest the potential value of research on second language learning for the study of CALL. This look back fr...
Chapter
This chapter outlines the rationale for studying how culture is presented in beginning-level foreign language textbooks, explains the choice to focus on cultural narrative and politics, and defines textbook analysis as an area of inquiry in applied linguistics. Beginning with a discussion of culture teaching goals, Chapelle demonstrates the need to...
Chapter
This chapter interprets the findings from Chapelle’s research in Canadian and Québec content in beginning-level French textbooks for improving the teaching of the cultural narrative in foreign language classes. It summarizes the main findings of the study and makes suggestions for teachers and materials developers about Québec content in French tex...
Chapter
This chapter presents a two-stage qualitative analysis of the political messages in Quebec’s cultural narrative conveyed through text and image in French textbooks across the five decades. The first stage analyzes textbook images with political content, including flags, a symbol of cultural remembrance, ‘je me souviens,’ historical and political fi...
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This chapter draws upon the social-semiotic approach of Kress and van Leeuwen (2006) to analyze Canadian and Quebec images in sixty-five beginning-level French textbooks for the US market published from 1960 to 2010. The qualitative analysis is divided into three parts. The first analyzes how people are depicted in the Canadian and Quebec images wi...
Chapter
This chapter lays the groundwork for the study of Canadian and Quebec cultural content in beginning-level French textbooks used in the USA from 1960 to 2010. It explains why Quebec’s language politics is seen as interesting content for language textbooks and describes Quebec’s national cultural narrative, including events such as the French settlem...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes how textbook producers have presented Quebec’s cultural narrative through text in beginning-level textbooks. It introduces a means of analyzing the texts in a way that is useful for teachers and materials developers by drawing upon Byrnes, Maxim, and Norris’ (Mod Lang J 94(1): 1–8, 2010) curriculum development project. That pr...
Article
This book demonstrates how foreign language textbook analysis can inform future materials development to improve foreign language teaching. Through chronological analysis of French textbooks in the United States, this book explores the representations of Canada and Quebec in French beginner textbooks produced from 1960 to 2010. Chapelle couples a l...
Article
Two examples demonstrate an argument-based approach to validation of diagnostic assessment using automated writing evaluation (AWE). Criterion ®, was developed by Educational Testing Service to analyze students’ papers grammatically, providing sentence-level error feedback. An interpretive argument was developed for its use as part of the diagnosti...
Article
This study investigates the evolution of Canadian and Québec content in a sample of 65 first-year university French textbooks in the United States from the 1960s through 2010. Overall indicators of Canadian and Québec contexts and cultural notes were tabulated for each decade in addition to particular content such as Canadian history, Québec identi...
Chapter
The evaluation of language assessments and tests is introduced as validation—the justification of the interpretations and uses of testing outcomes. A variety of approaches to validation have appeared over the past decades in the published language-testing research, and therefore the professional literature contains a variety of analytic frameworks,...
Article
With the aim of summarizing years of research comparing pedagogies for second/foreign language teaching supported with computer technology and pedagogy not-supported by computer technology, a meta-analysis was conducted of empirical research investigating language outcomes. Thirty-seven studies yielding 52 effect sizes were included, following a se...
Article
In Spring semester 2006, we conducted a study with 50 learners of German to investigate the use of a new measure (Cárdenas-Claros, 2005) for research on the field independent/dependent (FID) cognitive style and CALL use. After the measure was administered, students worked on a CALL program for German that logs interaction. This paper reports the re...
Chapter
Language assessment and testing intersects almost all language-related issues that applied linguists study. These intersections take place at the level of ideas, but typically also in many of the everyday practices in language teaching, certification, and gate keeping, where language tests are used.Keywords:assessment methods in applied linguistics...
Chapter
Almost any test user will readily agree that tests should be valid and reliable, but if asked to explain what “reliability” means, most test users would be hard pressed, despite the widespread use of this measure in the documentation that accompanies language tests. Assessment experts would also agree that reliability is a central concern for inter...
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In second language teaching and learning, computer technology extends the types of interactive activities that learners can work on in and outside of the classroom, and therefore it has affected the way that many teachers teach and learners learn. Teachers might, for example, ask students to seek specific information on the Internet in preparation...
Chapter
It seems like a simple enough question: Is computer-assisted language learning effective for language learning? Indeed, researchers address this question in a variety of ways, but most language teachers and researchers would point out that the question is considerably more complex than it first appears. Keywords: CALL; computer mediated communica...
Chapter
Textbooks often play a central role in the formal teaching of foreign and second languages, especially at beginning level. To this day, much language teaching is structured by published textbooks, even if it is supplemented with other materials from the Internet or elsewhere. In view of the importance of textbooks in providing learners with their f...
Article
In this research, we compare the results for a 2009 survey of Iowa State University students (our non-Canadian Studies sample) with the 2010 survey of Loyola University, Chicago, the University of Missouri, and Université Laval students (our Canadian Studies sample) on their knowledge of Canada. In general, we find significant differences between t...
Article
This study piloted test items that will be used in a computer-delivered and scored test of productive grammatical ability in English as a second language (ESL). Findings from research on learners' development of morphosyntactic, syntactic, and functional knowledge were synthesized to create a framework of grammatical features. We outline the interp...
Article
At the launch of Language Learning & Technology fourteen years ago, it was impossible to foresee the splash—to put it mildly—that computer technology in general and the Internet in particular would make on second and foreign language teaching and learning. In that first issue of the journal, I suggested that research might be useful in helping appl...
Article
For an audience of teachers, materials developers, students, and other applied linguists, three key issues in materials evaluation are establishing a means of drawing on professional knowledge about language learning in the evaluation process; recognizing the tension between the utility of robust evaluation results and the inherent context-specific...
Article
Advances in natural language processing (NLP) and automatic speech recognition and processing technologies offer new opportunities for language testing. Despite their potential uses on a range of language test item types, relatively little work has been done in this area, and it is therefore not well understood by test developers, researchers or us...
Article
Drawing on experience between 2000 and 2007 in developing a validity argument for the high-stakes Test of English as a Foreign Language™ (TOEFL®), this paper evaluates the differences between the argument-based approach to validity as presented byKane (2006)and that described in the 1999 AERA/APA/NCME Standards for Educational and Psychological Tes...
Article
Language educators argue that foreign language learning in the United States should increase students' intercultural competence (IC), which will allow them to see relationships among different cultures, mediate across cultures, and critically analyze cultures including their own. Qualitative research investigating students experiences with such cro...
Article
This paper argues that the vertical spread of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), i.e., a spread throughout language materials and curricula, makes it difficult to draw a clear distinction between CALL and other language materials. In view of the emphasis that teachers, researchers, and administrators have placed on evaluating CALL, I argue...
Article
The point of departure for this article is the contrast between the theoretical landscape within view of language teaching professionals in 1991 and that of today. I argue that the pragmatic goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) developers and researchers to create and evaluate learning opportunities pushes them to consider a variety o...
Article
This study investigated a hidden curriculum in published language teaching materials by tabulating the number of instances that Canada was mentioned in 9 French textbooks and their accompanying workbooks and CD–ROMs. The materials were used at large public universities in the northern United States. For the present study, 2 raters, a Québécois stud...
Chapter
Computer-assisted language learning, defined as "the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning", covers a broad spectrum of concerns, but the central issues are the pedagogies implemented through technology and their evaluation. In view of the range of complex materials included under the umbrella of CAL...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers working with learner corpora promise quantitative results that would be of greater practical value in areas such as CALL than those from small-scale and qualita- tive studies. However, learner corpus research has not yet had an impact on practices in teaching and assessment. Significant methodological issues need to be examined if resul...
Chapter
Full-text available
Levy et al. (2006) framed the issue of adaptivity by describing the many ways that adaptivity can be constructed in assessments. They proposed a taxonomy which categorizes assessments by three dimensions with potential adaptive power—claim status, observations status, and the controlling parties of claims and observations. This paper interprets the...
Article
Evaluation of innovation is perhaps the most significant challenge teachers and curriculum developers face when attempting to introduce innovation into language education. How can those who are investing significant resources into learning and teaching be shown that innovation might be for the best? This paper reflects on experience in the evaluati...
Article
Computer technology provides learners with new and varied options for language learning through interactive tasks delivered through CD-ROMs, Web pages, and communications software on the Internet. Researchers need to reconsider any approach to second language acquisition (SLA) concerned with explaining how language development is prompted by exposu...
Article
Résumé Le développement des matériels EAO pour un apprentissage autonome soulève à nouveau des questions sur un apprentissage individualisé. Cet article examine quatre fonctions informatiques visant une approche individualisée en tutorat EAO : a) la nécessité de cibler et de traiter les difficultés linguistiques de chaque apprenant ; b) la nécessit...
Article
The fact that some adults are more successful at acquiring an L2 than others has led to investigations of individual characteristics as predictors of successful L2 acquisition. This paper reports the results of an investigation of the relationship between two learner characteristics, Ambiguity Tolerance (AT) and Field Independence (FI), and adult l...
Article
Data collected on 33 ESL students working with computerized spelling and dictation lessons were used to infer three learning strategies: advance preparation, monitoring input, and monitoring output. Subjects' cognitive styles were measured by the Group Embedded Figures Test (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and Karp 1971) for field independence and the Matc...
Article
Field independence/dependence (FI/D) has been hypothesized to be an important variable in second-language acquisition (SLA); however, interpretations of empirical research on the role of FI/D vary. This paper establishes the significance of FI/D-SLA research by reexamining the construct of FI/D and its measurement and clarifying its role in languag...
Article
This paper describes past Canadian contributions to the study of CALL and raises questions about the identity of Canadian CALL as distinct within CALL scholarship in North America. L'article décrit les contributions antérieures de Canadiens à l'étude de l'apprentissage des langues assisté par ordinateur (ALAO) et soulève certaines questions concern...
Article
Keynote address delivered at CALICO's annual conference in May 2005 at Michigan State University.
Article
Pedagogical hints about CALL use are extrapolated from results of research. The following hints are explained on the basis of research results from which they were drawn: The more modes in which learners receive linguistic input, the better for learning. Online help can help learners. Teachers need to help learners be aware of the value of online h...
Article
Researchers and teachers agree that evaluation of CALL should ideally inform pedagogical choices about how best to use CALL, but how to go about such an evaluation is not clear. This study offers an example of a context-based evaluation by operationalizing criteria for CALL evaluation and administering the instruments to three groups of stakeholder...
Article
This paper makes connections between the research reported in this issue the broader area of second language studies focusing on learner language, interaction, individual differences, linguistic analysis, and language learning and teaching. Theoretical, empirical and ethical challenges posed by technology-based second language studies are illustrat...
Article
CALL evaluation might ideally draw on principles from fields such as second language acquisition, language pedagogy, instructional design, and testing and measurement in order to make judgments about criteria such as elaborated input, feedback, collaborative learning, authentic tasks, navigation, screen design, reliability, validity, impact, and...
Article
The potentials of elearning are likely to be explored for many years to come in view of some of its obvious logistical benefits for learners and apparent financial incentives for institutions. One would hope that such exploration of teaching practice would have a parallel research program to investigate the nature and effects of dialogue and commun...
Article
The web offers new opportunities to realize some of the current ideals for interactive language assessment by providing learners information about their language ability at their convenience. If such tests are to be trusted to provide learners with information that might help to improve their language ability, the tests need to undergo validation p...
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Full-text available
This paper aims at presenting the contribution of cognitive ergonomics to the research carried out in language centres. After a brief presentation of the self-access room of the language centre which was surveyed, the authors describe the ergonomic concepts: instrumental genesis (Rabardel 1995) and task redefinition (Leplat 1997), which served as a...
Article
Computer Applications in Second Language Acquisition explores computer applications in second language acquisition by reviewing and interpreting research and development in three areas: computer-assisted second language learning, computer-assisted second language assessment, and computer-assisted second language research – addressing issues such as...
Article
Vocabulary tests are used for a wide range of instructional and research purposes, but there is no comprehensive basis for evaluating the current instruments or developing new lexical measures. This article presents a framework for vocabulary testing that begins with an analysis of test purpose and then shows how purpose can be systematically relat...
Article
The papers in Language learning through social computing introduce the classroom practices and philosophical underpinnings of computer-assisted language learning (CALL), which builds on collaborative approaches to L2 teaching and learning. The majority of the essays address general issues in collaborative learning through CALL, describing the autho...
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All previous papers on language assessment in the Annual Review of Applied Linguistics make explicit reference to validity. These reviews, like other work on language testing, use the term to refer to the quality or acceptability of a test. Beneath the apparent stability and clarity of the term, however, its meaning and scope have shifted over the...
Article
Can scores on L2 reading tests be interpreted as indicators of reading ability alone, or must they be considered indicators of the test takers' reading ability in addition to their knowledge of the subject matter chosen for a particular test? This book reports the results of a large-scale study investigating this question through analysis of ESL/EF...
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This paper suggests that some design features and evaluation criteria for multimedia CALL might be developed on the basis of hypotheses about ideal conditions for second language acquisition (SLA). It outlines a relevant theory of SLA and enumerates the hypotheses it implies for ideal conditions such as input saliency, opportunities for interaction...
Article
Advancements in the design and use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) activities require that key questions about CALL be identified and effective research methods be used to answer them. In this paper, I suggest looking to research on other types of second language (L2) classroom learning activities for guidance in framing CALL research...
Article
CALL for English as a second language ¹ is an interdisciplinary area of inquiry which has been influenced primarily by educational technology (Reiser, 1987) but also by fields such as computational linguistics ² and recently by applied linguistics as well. These related fields contribute diverse epistemologies which shape CALL research questions an...
Article
Second language (L2) researchers (Singleton and Little, 1991) have sug gested that C-tests, developed as norm-referenced measures for proficiency and placement testing (Klein-Braley, 1985), can be used in L2 vocabulary research. This article illustrates how researchers can bring to bear essentials of measurement theory on L2 research by weighing va...
Article
For effective use and study of CALL, teachers and researchers need to be able to assess the degree of similarity among CALL activities as well as the significance for language learning of any apparent differences among activities. This paper explains how the concept of genre is useful for investigating similarities among the types of language produ...
Article
Computer-based learning environments have been defined as settings where students use software to facilitate active, exploratory learning. We distinguish between illocutionary and non-illocutionary learning environments: the computer interprets the intent of students in the former but not in the latter. We apply these terms to language learning env...
Article
Papers from the conference on language testing include: "Foundations and Directions for a New Decade of Language Testing" (Carol Chapelle, Dan Douglas); "A Comparison of the Abilities Measured by the Cambridge and Educational Testing Service EFL Test Batteries" (Lyle F. Bachman, Fred Davidson, John Foulkes); "Judgments in Language Testing" (J. Char...
Article
Griffiths and Sheen's reappraisal (Applied Linguistics, Volume 13, Number 2)of the SLA research infield independence/dependence (FI/D) touched on some relevant points. However, it confused fundamental theoretical and research issues. As a consequence, it concluded only that FI/D could not be relevant to second language learning and that researchers...

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Projects (3)
Project
Uncover connections between French in Canada and French language teaching in the United States.
Project
Innovate language learning through discovery of affordances of evolving information, language, communication, and networking technologies.
Project
Explore issues in validation for tests and assessments with focus on second language assessment