Carol K. K. Chan

Carol K. K. Chan
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · Division of Learning, Development & Diversity

Ph.D.

About

85
Publications
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2,624
Citations

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
Helping pre-service teachers (PSTs) develop competencies in collaborative inquiry and knowledge building is crucial, but this subject remains largely unexplored in CSCL. This study examines the design and process of collaborative analytics-supported reflective assessment and its effects on promoting PSTs to develop their competencies in collaborati...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the continual effort of the Knowledge Building Community (KBC) connecting teachers within and across schools for knowledge creation and community building during the COVID-19 disruptions. During this crisis, schools around the world are challenged with the issues of implementing online learning. Three areas of misalignment wer...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the problem of the fragmentation of asynchronous online discourse by using the Knowledge Connection Analyzer (KCA) framework and tools and explores how students could use the KCA data in classroom reflections to deepen their knowledge building (KB) inquiry. We applied the KCA to nine Knowledge Forum® (KF) databases to examine th...
Chapter
Despite major theoretical progress in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), relatively less attention has been paid to the problem of how research advances may impact schools and classrooms. Given the global changes and educational policies for twenty-first-century education, issues of how research in CSCL can be integrated with classro...
Article
This paper examines the alignment of education with the needs for knowledge creation in the digital age using the Knowledge Building model and Knowledge Forum® technology. Knowledge Building is akin to knowledge creation as practiced in research laboratories and other frontier-advancing organizations, with added focus on value to the individual, co...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates designs for developing knowledge building (KB) and higher order competencies among academically low-achieving students. Thirty-seven low-achieving students from a ninth-grade visual arts course in Hong Kong participated. The design involved principle-based KB pedagogy, with students writing on Knowledge Forum® (KF), enriched...
Research
Full-text available
This workshop aims to engage participants in discussing and deriving the problem-space surrounding assessment and environment for knowledge building. The problem-space aims to map the types of data (text-based and multimodal data), hypotheses of the learning attributes (visible and invisible) to be derived from these data, and the related annotatio...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how reflective assessment supported by principles facilitated metadiscourse for knowledge advances mediated by Knowledge Forum® (KF). Participants were 60 tertiary students in two classes engaging in knowledge building and reflecting on their collaborative knowledge building using e-portfolios; one class was a principle-based kn...
Article
Full-text available
This study characterized students' online collaborative discourse from a theory-building perspective and examined its relation to epistemic and conceptual understanding. Fifty-two fifth graders' Knowledge Forum discussions on electricity were analysed. Discourse moves were coded within the inquiry threads, and two key epistemic patterns were identi...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students’ scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The symposium focuses on the analysis of the knowledge building process e.g. idea improvement conversations by which students get to a high quality of knowledge and understanding. Learning Analytics (LA) focuses on the collection, measure and analysis of data about learners and their contexts (Long & Siemens, 2011). LA tools are normally rooted in...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether and how students with low prior achievement can carry out and benefit from reflective assessment supported by the Knowledge Connections Analyzer (KCA) to collaboratively improve their knowledge-building discourse. Participants were a class of 20 Grade 11 students with low achievement taking visual art from an experie...
Chapter
This chapter explores how the design of knowledge-building inquiry promotes conceptual change in chemistry among high-school students in Hong Kong. The participants included 40 students who engaged in knowledge-building inquiry mediated by computer-supported Knowledge Forum database and a comparison class of 39 students who were instructed with con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigated how elementary-school children's science epistemologies can be fostered in a CSCL knowledge-building environment focusing on epistemic inquiry and reflection. Two classes of fifth graders in Hong Kong participated in a unit of electricity study. The design involves students engaging in scientific inquiry, pursuing ideas on K...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to identify the four key dimensions of epistemic beliefs that concern the nature of knowledge and knowing and examine their relationship with cognitive constructs, study approaches, and academic performance among Hong Kong college students. A 14-item scale was developed in three studies with independent samples of Hong Kong college...
Article
The purpose of this study was to design and examine a computer-supported knowledge-building environment and to investigate both collective knowledge-building dynamics and individual learning in the context of a tertiary education course in mainland China. The participants were 102 students in four intact Year-one tertiary business classes. Two clas...
Article
We propose a novel method for identifying questioning patterns, which are assumed to be one of the essential factors indicating the quality of knowledge-building discourse. The underlying principle of the proposed method is to extract syntactic and sematic information before segmenting the raw data and annotating them according to a multilayer fram...
Article
This study investigated the design of a computer supported knowledge-building environment in fostering 10-12 year olds' epistemic and conceptual understanding. Two classes of 5th graders in Guangzhou China participated in this study while they were learning a unit about electricity. One class engaged in knowledge building, supported with a computer...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on an ongoing study that examined the design of a knowledge-building environment that integrates knowledge building and epistemic change theories in fostering conceptual and epistemic growth. The study uses a quasi-experimental design in which four classes of 5th graders in Hong Kong participated in a unit focusing on electricity...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on an ongoing study that examined the design of a knowledge-building environment that integrates knowledge building and epistemic change theories in fostering conceptual and epistemic growth. The study uses a quasi-experimental design in which four classes of 5th graders in Hong Kong participated in a unit focusing on electricity...
Chapter
Learning scientists conduct basic research into how people learn, and draw on this basic research to design new routines, tools, and curricula to improve learning. When these designs take the form of classroom-level interventions in schools, the teacher is a key participant, determining how any intervention is realized and sustained in practice. Fo...
Article
Learning to read is very challenging for Hong Kong children who learn English as a second language (ESL), as they must acquire two very different writing systems, beginning at the age of three. Few studies have examined the role of phonological awareness at the subsyllabic levels, oral language proficiency, and L1 tone awareness in L2 English readi...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of a 12-week language-enriched phonological awareness instruction on 76 Hong Kong young children who were learning English as a second language. The children were assigned randomly to receive the instruction on phonological awareness skills embedded in vocabulary learning activities or comparison instruction whic...
Article
We report an exploratory study of discourse analysis, focusing on explaining the analytic approach. It is argued that most knowledge-building studies have taken a cognitively-oriented approach to examine collaborative discourse; therefore their findings do not shed light on how idea improvement is accomplished socially. The study employs thematic n...
Article
This study examined the effects of two designed learning environments for knowledge building. Two groups of first year Chinese tertiary students learning business English were engaged in a strong form of a knowledge-building environment (Principle-based Learning Environment, PBLE) and a weak form of knowledge-building environment (Knowledge Forum L...
Chapter
We discuss knowledge building in the context of government examinations in Hong Kong, and the need to develop twenty-first-century skills. Following this, we describe two pedagogical designs intended to develop knowledge building in this context: A gradual approach to develop it in four phases – developing a collaborative classroom culture, engagin...
Article
Blogging has been recommended as a suitable tool for learning during internship due to its associated usefulness in collaborative learning, reflection, communication, and social support. Blogging was incorporated in the internship activities of two discipline-specific groups of interns: information management (n = 53) and nursing (n = 28). In exami...
Article
Full-text available
This discussion paper for this special issue examines co-regulation of learning in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments extending research on self-regulated learning in computerbased environments. The discussion employs a socio-cognitive perspective focusing on social and collective views of learning to examine how students...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe the development of an SQL-based formative assessment system, the Knowledge Connections Analzyer (KCA), which is designed to provide evidence on four general questions that students may have about their work in an asynchronous online discussion environment: (1) Are we collaborating? (2) Are we putting our knowledge together? (3) How do i...
Article
The study assessed students' understanding of collaborative discourse and examined the role of knowledge building environment augmented with reflective assessment in fostering more sophisticated views of collaborative discourse among students. One language teacher and 31 high school students in Hong Kong participated in this study. Data were collec...
Article
In this study, we designed and examined a principle-based knowledge building environment that aimed to (a) promote collaboration, deep learning and domain understanding among Chinese tertiary students, (b) characterize knowledge building discourse patterns to understand the changes. The quasi-experimental design involved two groups of students: one...
Article
This study examined students’ views of collaboration and learning, and investigated how these predict students’ online participation in a computer-supported learning environment. The participants were 521 secondary school students in Hong Kong, who took part in online collaborative inquiry conducted using Knowledge Forum™. We developed a questionna...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work proposes a theoretical perspective on formative assessment that is more consistent with knowledge building. Based on this, a system for assessing knowledge building and collaborative learning was designed and developed. The system converts a Knowledge Forum tuplestore to an SQL database and then utilizes queries based on four types of gen...
Article
Full-text available
Despite major theoretical progress in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), relatively less attention has been paid to the problem of how research advances may impact schools and classrooms. Given the global changes and educational policies for twenty-first century education, issues of how research in CSCL can be integrated with classro...
Conference Paper
Learning in biomedical engineering is highly interdisciplinary: students need to integrate concepts between engineering and life sciences, and be able to design and develop technologies with physiological considerations. In this study, biomedical engineering students' artifacts were analyzed in detail according to the structure-behavior-framework (...
Chapter
A common underlying theme in education in the contemporary era is the need for change at all levels of education to prepare citizens for life in the knowledge society. The knowledge society is characterized by increasing globalization, progressively shorter half-lives of knowledge, the increasing importance of knowledge creation in sustaining devel...
Chapter
Over the past two decades, researchers have accorded increasing attention to understanding Chinese students. This interest has been spurred by many factors, including the consistently high performance of East Asian students in cross-national studies of achievement (e.g., Mullis, Martin, Gonzalez, & Chrostowski, 2004a, 2004b; Organization for Econom...
Chapter
Since the pioneering work on the paradox of the Chinese learner (Watkins & Biggs, 1996; 2001), there has been growing enthusiasm for examining teaching and learning for Chinese learners (Fan, Wong, Cai, & Li, 2004; Lee & Mok, 2008; Rastall, 2006). Biggs (1996) examined Western misperceptions and discussed the importance of sociocultural, contextual...
Chapter
In the introduction to this volume, we highlighted the need to revisit the Chinese learner against the background of socioeconomic and technological changes, shifts in learning paradigms, new educational policies and widespread curriculum reforms. This volume has examined the contemporary Chinese learner of the 21st century considering the changing...
Conference Paper
This study examined the design and process of how students' reflective assessment promoted collaborative metacognition for conceptual and epistemic changes, mediated by Knowledge Forum, a computer-supported environment. The design involved augmenting knowledge-building inquiry with reflective assessment - Students wrote reflective summaries to trac...
Book
This book examines teaching and learning in Chinese societies and advances understanding of ‘the Chinese learner’ in changing global contexts. Given the burgeoning research in this area, pedagogical shifts from knowledge transmission to knowledge construction to knowledge creation, wide-ranging social, economic and technological advances, and chang...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the Chinese learner in the current changing education contexts with their emphasis on 21st century learning goals of inquiry, teamwork, and learning how to learn. With socioeconomic and technological changes, internationalisation and educational reforms, pedagogical approaches developed in the Western countries, such as inquiry-...
Article
Health education can offer a valuable window onto conceptual and behavioral change. In Study 1, we mapped out 3rd-grade Chinese children's beliefs about causes of colds and flu and ways they can be prevented. We also explored older adults' beliefs as a possible source of the children's ideas. In Study 2, we gave 3rd- and 4th-grade Chinese children...
Article
Most studies have investigated college and high school students' epistemological beliefs in Western contexts, with few studies examining how beliefs about learning are related to children's strategies and comprehension in the Chinese cultural context. The present study investigated Chinese elementary school children's beliefs about learning and exa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study examined students' beliefs and strategies in project-based learning among International Business students in China and the relationships among these measures and their contribution to academic performance. In-depth interviews with 25 second-year students focused on their project learning experience examining their epistemology and strate...
Chapter
This chapter examines the role of networked multimedia environments in supporting and advancing new educational models that emphasize inquiry, collaboration, and knowledge building. We first examine changing theories and metaphors of learning and consider how designs of multimedia networked environments are influenced by these changing views. Follo...
Article
Full-text available
With theoretical advances conceptualizing learning as a social, distributed and collective process, there is a need to capture and assess community knowledge— knowledge as a social product that has an out-in-the-world existence and has value to a community. There has now been much progress in analyzing collaborative processes and interactions in CS...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to examine a design of computer-supported collaborative learning environment featured by Knowledge Forum with embedded teacher-student co- designed scaffolds and group portfolios as an assessment tool for Chinese tertiary business students and to further investigate how academic literacy develops in the designed environment. Four in...
Article
Full-text available
Despite emphasis and progress in developing collaborative inquiry in computer-supported collaborative learning research, little attention has been given to examining how collective learning can be assessed in computer-supported collaborative learning classrooms, and how students can have agency in assessing their own collaborative process. We propo...
Conference Paper
We describe the design of a knowledge-building environment and examine the roles of knowledge building principles and portfolios as scaffolds in fostering collaboration for students of different achievement levels. Students assessed their contribution in Knowledge Forum™ using rubrics and they wrote electronic portfolios and group reviews to assess...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the design of a knowledge-building environment and examine the role of knowledge-building portfolios in characterizing and scaffolding collaborative inquiry. Our goal is to examine collaborative knowledge building in the context of exploring the alignment of learning, collaboration, and assessment in computer forums. The key design prin...
Article
With the advent of the knowledge era, teacher education needs to prepare teachers to face the changing technological contexts and to model pedagogies and tools for better forms of learning. Despite much enthusiasm about the roles of technology in education, its role in transforming teacher learning, in ways aligned with advances in the learning sci...
Article
In Hong Kong and Canada, indeed globally, slogans about learning to learn and teaching for 21st‐century knowledge and skills are common. However, there are few examples of how teacher education courses or programs are responding to these new demands. In this paper, we propose a framework for designing teacher education premised on the theoretical p...
Article
Full-text available
The spontaneous utterances produced by 492 Cantonese‐speaking children aged 36–60 months in 30‐minute toy play contexts were collected. The incidence and percentage of different lexical classes, the ratio of noun and verb types and tokens were calculated. A statistically significant predominance of verb usage was found in the expressive utterances...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe the design of a knowledge-building environment and examine the roles of knowledge-building portfolios in characterizing and scaffolding collaborative inquiry. Three classes of Grade 9 students in Hong Kong used Knowledge Forum (KF) under several design conditions. Results showed (1) Students working on portfolios guided with knowledge b...
Conference Paper
We explore the use of collaborative summary notes in Knowledge Forum™ (KF) as a way to capture the distributed nature of knowledge advances among groups of students building knowledge together. The purpose of this exploration is to develop assessments that can be used for scaffolding the discourse and promoting ideas within the community, as well a...
Article
Background: Although there have been numerous studies conducted on the psychometric properties of Biggs' Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ), these have involved the use of traditional omnibus measures of scale quality such as corrected item total correlations, internal consistency estimates of reliability, and factor analysis. However, these omn...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a descriptive quantitative methodology for categorical data analysis that works well with small samples was used to investigate whether Chinese students' conceptions of learning included memorisation as an integral part of understanding, as suggested by phenomenographic studies. Twenty-five Chinese students attending the B.Ed. progra...
Chapter
This paper explores the design of knowledge building portfolios in assessing and scaffolding collaborative knowledge building. We sought (a) to examine how knowledge building portfolios can characterize and assess both individual and collective aspects of knowledge building; and (b) to investigate the roles of knowledge-building portfolios in foste...
Article
Full-text available
Utterances produced during spontaneous play activities by 180 Cantonese-speaking children, ranging in age from 3 to 5 years, were analysed with the focus on declaratives. Syntactic development was gauged in terms of changes in the mean length of utterance, sentence type and structure, syntactic complexity, and verb pattern, and age-related develpme...
Article
The relationship between the scales of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and Learning Process Questionnaire (LPQ) was examined using an integrated data approach (Skinner, 1977, 1978) that combined features of multiple regression analysis, canonical correlation, and multiple-set factor analysis. Results based on a Hong Kong...
Article
This article presents a research project on thedevelopment of pre-service mathematicsteachers'' skills and understanding ofthemselves as pedagogical problem solvers. Theproblems were similar to those they are likelyto encounter in their future mathematicsclassrooms. The project took place within aBachelor of Education program. The articledescribes...
Article
This study investigated the effects of peer collaboration anddiscourse patterns on conceptual change in the context of high-schoolstudents learning from incompatible scientific information. The domainof investigation was biological evolution. Participants included 108students from Grades 9 and 12 randomly assigned to four conditions: (1)peer-confli...
Article
Ninety-four children in grades one to six (7 to 12 years old) in Hong Kong were individually administered a Chinese reading test consisting of 80 characters that varied in frequency (high or low) and orthographic structure (simple or complex). Phonological processing tasks, including short-term memory, pseudo-character recognition, and tone discrim...
Article
The quality of the Motivational Strategies for Learning Questionnaire - Chinese Version (MSLQ-CV) items was assessed with a nonparametric item analysis on a sample of 1292 Hong Kong primary and secondary students. Although a number of items within each scale needed options combined, the overall quality of these scales in discriminating between trai...
Article
This study examined elementary school children's beliefs about learning and assessed the influences of such beliefs on their understanding of science texts. Eighty-three children, 46 from Grade 4 and 37 from Grade 6, were administered a questionnaire on children's implicit notions of learning. Children were also asked to read a science text and com...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined knowledge building inquiry and discourse among high-school students using Knowledge Forum in a Hong Kong classroom. The goals were to characterize knowledge building inquiry and discourse, examine change over time, and investigate whether knowledge building is related to conceptual understanding. The key features of this learnin...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined how individuals and peers process scientific information that contradicts what they believe and assessed the contribution of this activity to conceptual change. Participants included 54 students in Grade 9 and 54 students in Grade 12, who were randomly assigned to four conditions: (a) individual conflict, (b) peer conflict, (c)...
Article
This study examined the constructive cognitive activity of children listening to text and assessed the contribution of this activity to learning. Informative statements were read to 109 children (in grades 1 to 6) who were asked to think aloud about each statement. Analysis of the protocols led to a scale identifying five levels of constructive act...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports Year 1 of a study examining desi gn, principles and trajectories of teacher growth in knowledge building in the context of a teacher community in Hong Kong. The knowledge-building teacher network, funded by the Ministry, consists of 7 teachers (seconded teachers) with various levels of experience in knowledge building working tog...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the design and process of how students' reflective assessment promoted collaborative metacognition for conceptual and epistemic changes, mediated by Knowledge Forum. The design involved knowledge-building inquiry with reflective assessment – Students wrote reflective summaries to track their initial understanding and trajectorie...
Article
Full-text available
There is mounting interest in the large-scale implementation of knowledge building recently. However, there still lack of tools that are widely available for teachers and students to self-assess their knowledge building efforts. It is also critical to develop a theoretical perspective on formative assessment that is deeply integrated with knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
Despite knowledge building as an educational approach advocated in classroom innovations, little attention has been paid to professional development regarding how to develop teachers to understand and to engage in such innovations. This paper reports on an ongoing 2-year research into teacher development in knowledge creation work adopting principl...
Article
University Microfilms order no. UMI00428340. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Toronto, 1993. Includes bibliographical references.

Projects

Projects (2)
Project
This work led by Christina Yang studies how a class uses software we developed (The Knowledge Connections Analyser, KCA) to reflect on its online dialogues in knowledge building. It extends research in a low-SES context, but now is trying to understand the social practices in which the software is used and students make sense of the data it generates.
Project
Problem-based learning (PBL) is adapting to 21st Century learners through the introduction of educational technologies. Research in this field remains limited in scope and scale. The application of an Interactional Ethnography (IE) across three undergraduate PBL healthcare programmes will address both issues. *Funded by The Research Grants Council of Hong Kong, General Research Fund (GRF) Ref. 17100414.