Carol Brayne

Carol Brayne
University of Cambridge | Cam · Cambridge Institute of Public Health

About

1,107
Publications
243,629
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
112,710
Citations

Publications

Publications (1,107)
Preprint
Climate change is a global problem, but climate solutions primarily need to be deployed at a local level. Local stakeholders play a vital role in taking decisive action to meet national and international climate targets. Effective local, regional and national policy and governance frameworks are needed. During the 2021-2022 academic year, the Cambr...
Article
Dementia is a public health and socioeconomic concern that is widely predicted to worsen as the proportion of older adults making up our global population increases. 1 By 2050, 152 million people worldwide are expected to experience dementia, along with its associated impact. In an ambitious act to galvanise a global response, the 2013 G8 Dementia...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To systematically reivew the observational evidence of the effect of school closures and school reopenings on SARS-CoV-2 community transmission. Setting Schools (including early years settings, primary schools and secondary schools). Intervention School closures and reopenings. Outcome measure Community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (inc...
Article
Full-text available
Despite many reported associations, the direct cause of neurodegeneration responsible for cognitive loss in Alzheimer’s disease and some other common dementias is not known. The normal human plasma protein, serum amyloid P component, a constituent of all human fibrillar amyloid deposits and present on most neurofibrillary tangles, is cytotoxic for...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction As Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are conceived to mimic the effects of common illicit drugs, they represent a serious public health challenge due to the spike in intoxications and fatalities that have been linked to their use. This study aims to provide epidemiological data on NPS use in the USA, determining lifetime prevalence o...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has already wreaked an immense toll on lives, livelihoods, and on the global economy. The UK can emerge stronger and more resilient, but to do so we must also face head-on the triple challenge of responding to the threats posed by growing social inequality, the destruction of nature, and climate change. How we choose to priori...
Article
Full-text available
Background: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. Methods and findings: We harm...
Article
Full-text available
Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It can be challenging for general practitioners to support their oldest old patients through the complex process of relocation. Objective: To provide a typology of the experiences of moving in very old age that is clinically useful for practitioners navigating very old people's relocation. Methods: Qualitative analysis of data from...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The present study aimed to examine the impact of loneliness on health and social care service use in the oldest old over a 7-year follow-up. Design Prospective study. Setting UK population-based cohort. Participants 713 people aged 80 years or older were interviewed at wave 3 of the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort Study. Of these, 665...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Between 2012 and 2017 dementia case finding was routinely carried out on people aged 75 years and over with unplanned admissions to acute hospitals across England. The assumption was that this would lead to better planning of care and treatment for patients with dementia following discharge from hospital. However, little is known about th...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Multidomain interventions, targeting multiple risk factors simultaneously, could be effective dementia prevention strategies, but may be burdensome and not universally acceptable. Methods: We studied adherence rates and predictors in the Finnish Geriatric Intervevntion Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability and Multid...
Article
Previous estimates of whether long-term exposure to benzodiazepines increases dementia risk are conflicting and are compromised by the difficulty of controlling for confounders and by reverse causation. We investigated how estimates for the association between benzodiazepine use and later dementia incidence varied based on study design choices, usi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Autism prevalence in the West is approximately 1% of school age children. Autism prevalence in China has been reported to be lower than in the West. This is likely due to at least two reasons: (1) most studies in China only included the special school population, overlooking the mainstream school population; and (2) most studies in China...
Article
Full-text available
The Prime Minister's challenge on dementia called for improved dementia diagnosis rates, based on assumptions of benefit to individuals and those who care for them. Subsequent policies have led to increased target drives for clinical practice to achieve early diagnosis of dementia through intense case identification. However, the current evidence b...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and healthcare systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortalit...
Article
Full-text available
Background The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortalit...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Living alone may be associated with greater risk for social isolation and loneliness. Living alone, social isolation, loneliness, and limited engagement in social activity have all been associated with poorer cognitive function in later life. Hence, if individuals who live alone are also at greater risk of isolation and loneliness, thi...
Article
Full-text available
Plain English summary Two goals of public health research are to understand what causes disease and ill health, and what can be done to prevent it. To develop appropriate and effective actions, we need to know what resources are available to communities, and what are the beliefs and values that influence behaviour. This means that research needs to...
Article
Objective: To investigate the impact of loneliness on all-cause mortality in the oldest old population over a 10-year follow-up. Method: Participants were from the third wave of the Cambridge City over-75s Cohort (CC75C) study, a population-based longitudinal study of older people aged 75 or over. Loneliness was measured two further times. At ea...
Article
Full-text available
This paper estimated mortality for 282 causesof death in 195 countries from 1980 to 2017, adding 18 causes to its estimates compared to GBD 2016. In 2017, the GBD study added numerous data sources, including 127 country-years of vital registration data and 502 country-years of cancer registry data.
Article
Full-text available
Summary Background: How long one lives, how many years of life are spent in good and poor health, and how the population’s state of health and leading causes of disability change over time all have implications for policy, planning, and provision of services. We comparatively assessed the patterns and trends of healthy life expectancy (HALE), which...
Article
Full-text available
Despite several studies demonstrating an independent and inverse association between cognition and mortality, the nature of this association still remains unclear. To examine the association of cognition and mortality after accounting for sociodemographic, health and lifestyle factors and to explore both test and population characteristics influenc...
Article
As the number of older adults increases worldwide, it is becoming increasingly important to find effective ways of fostering better ageing trajectories. The models used to shape this process inform research, policy and practice and impact older adults themselves. Two important ageing models are successful ageing (SA) and resilience (RES). Aligning...
Article
The amyloid cascade hypothesis (ACH) has dominated strategy in dementia research for decades despite evidence of its limitations including known heterogeneity of the dementia syndrome in the population and the narrow focus on a single molecule ‐ the amyloid beta protein (Aβ) as causal for all Alzheimer‐type dementia. Other hypotheses relevant to Aβ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Autistic people may have different educational needs that need to be met to allow them to develop their full potential. Education and disability policies remain within the competence of EU Member States, with current educational standards and provisions for autistic people implemented locally. This scoping review aims to map EU and nat...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Autistic people may have different educational needs that need to be met to allow them to develop their full potential. Education and disability policies remain within the competence of EU Member States, with current educational standards and provisions for autistic people implemented locally. This scoping review aims to map EU and na...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence to suggest that social isolation is associated with poor cognitive health, although findings are contradictory. One reason for inconsistency in reported findings may be a lack of consideration of underlying mechanisms that could influence this relationship. Cognitive reserve is a theoretical concept that may account for the role o...
Data
Longitudinal association between social isolation and sub-domains of cognition assessed by the CAMCOG. We conducted further regression analyses to determine whether social isolation was more associated with any specific cognitive domains assessed by the CAMCOG using longitudinal data (see “S4 Table”). Social isolation was significantly associated w...
Data
Cross-sectional association between social isolation and sub-domains of cognition assessed by the CAMCOG. We conducted further regression analyses to determine whether social isolation was more associated with any specific cognitive domains assessed by the CAMCOG (see “S2 Table”). Social isolation was significantly associated with orientation (adju...
Data
Comparison of included and excluded participants at two year follow-up. S1 Table provides a comparison of participants who were included and excluded at follow-up. Excluded participants were significantly older, had a significantly lower baseline CAMCOG score, fewer years of education, lower scores for cognitive activity, lower occupational complex...
Data
Longitudinal association between social isolation and cognitive change. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the reliability of the regression analysis assessing the relationship between social isolation and cognitive change score. As there was little cognitive change across the sample over two years, a binary variable was created to d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In Germany and Chile, substitutive private health insurance has been shaped by its co-existence with statutory social health insurance. Despite differences in the way choice is available to users in the health insurance regimes of Chile and Germany, the way in which each country has managed choice between private health insurance and s...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The aims of this study are to examine the evolution of clinical dementia diagnosis over 3 decades and to investigate secular trends of dementia. Methods: Four cohorts covering a period from 1988 to 2013 were used: the Personnes Agées Quid and Three-City-Bordeaux studies, and the Cognitive Function and Aging Study (CFAS) I and II. M...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are early features of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease (AD), occurring before the formation of classical AD neuropathology, and resulting from an imbalance between pro‐ and anti‐oxidants. Astrocytes play a major neuroprotective role, producing high levels of anti‐oxidants including metallot...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The presence of concomitant medical conditions in people with dementia is common. Dementia may be related to differential use of health, social and informal care. Methods: Data from two large UK population-based studies (CFAS I & II) of adults aged 65 years and older were analysed using logistic regression for binary outcomes and Poi...
Preprint
Full-text available
A novel POLARIS gene-based analysis approach was employed to compute gene-based polygenic risk score (PRS) for all individuals in the latest HRC imputed GERAD (N cases=3332 and N controls=9,832) data using the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project summary statistics (N cases=13676 and N controls= 27322, excluding GERAD subjects) to identify...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A previous Cochrane systematic review concluded there is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of 18F-FDG PET in clinical practice in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Objectives: To update the evidence and reassess the accuracy of 18F-FDG-PET for detecting people with MCI at baseline who would clinically conver...