Carmen Viera

Carmen Viera
Universidad de la República de Uruguay | UdelaR · Instituto de Biología

PhD Zoology

About

47
Publications
10,388
Reads
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500
Citations
Citations since 2017
19 Research Items
297 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
20172018201920202021202220230102030405060
Additional affiliations
March 2008 - July 2016
Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable
Position
  • Principal Investigator
January 2008 - July 2016
Independent Researcher
Independent Researcher
Position
  • Principal Investigator

Publications

Publications (47)
Preprint
Organisms may respond in different ways to the risk posed by conspecifics, but the cause of such variation remains elusive. Here, we use a half-sib/full-sib design to evaluate the contribution of (indirect) genetic or environmental effects to the behavioral response of the cannibalistic wolf spider Lycosa fasciiventris (Dufour, 1835) towards conspe...
Article
Anelosimus jabaquara (Theridiidae) is a social spider that lives in communal nests using tree leaves as retreats and it is known only from Brazil. There have been no studies that address sexual aspects in this species. This paper describes the sperm induction of this species under laboratory conditions. Out of a total of 20 males, we observed eight...
Article
Full-text available
Parental care has evolved numerous times in many taxonomic groups of animals. Matriphagy, as an extreme example of parental care, is present in many social species, subsocial species, and even in solitary spiders. Here, we describe matriphagy in five species of Anelosimus of different levels of sociality: social ( A. dubiosus ), intermediate social...
Article
An important aspect of implementing Integrated Pest Management programs is evaluating the compatibility of insecticides with the biological attributes of the natural enemies used for pest control. In this study, we evaluated the effects of selective and non-selective insecticides on the survival and feeding behavior of Hogna cf. bivittata and Lycos...
Article
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The educational and research experience was carried out in the context of confinement with six people deprived of liberty and a monitor in the territory. Spiders were sampled in three sites of the Penitentiary Institution: rooms of Persons Deprived of Liberty, wild vegetation field and organic crops. The hypothesis was that diversity would be influ...
Article
Although glyphosate is widely used for weed pest control, it might have negative side effects on natural enemies. Wolf spiders are one of the most representative predators found on soybean crops in Uruguay, preying on a wide variety of potential pests. However, the sublethal effects that pesticides might have on this group have been poorly explored...
Article
Spider wasps of the genus Minagenia have evolved koinobiontism as a relatively rare life strategy within the widely diversified hymenopteran family Pompilidae. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of the parasitic strategy of the wasp Minagenia sp. – namely host specificity, ontogeny, and sex determination as a function of host size. We foun...
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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There are substantive problems associated with invasive species, including threats to endemic organisms and biodiversity. Understanding the mechanisms driving invasions is thus critical. Variable extended phenotypes may enable animals to invade into novel environments. We explored here the proposition that silk variability is a facilitator of invas...
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Scorpions are dominant predators in some environments. Nevertheless, most studies of predatory behavior in scorpions have focused on diet composition whereas some other relevant aspects, such as predatory strategy, have been poorly explored. Herein we evaluate the prey acceptance and predatory strategy of the scorpion Bothriurus bonariensis against...
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Predators are traditionally classified as generalists and specialists based on the presence of adaptations that increase efficiency of prey capture and consumption and selection of particular prey types. Nevertheless, empirical evidence comparing foraging efficiency between generalist and specialist carnivores is scarce. We compared the prey-captur...
Chapter
Spiders are the most diversified group of terrestrial predators. They employ a wide variety of feeding strategies, and exploit several prey types, from invertebrates up to small vertebrates. Many studies on the trophic ecology of spiders have focused on generalist and euryphagous species. Thus, our knowledge of prey specialist (and stenophagous) sp...
Chapter
Full-text available
Spiders are famously aggressive and cannibalistic, and nearly all are solitary. Only about 20–25 out of over 46,000 known species display highly social behavior. Nevertheless, sociality has arisen in multiple families independently in spiders, probably via the ‘maternal care route’, with an apparent concentration of social species in the Neotropics...
Chapter
Spiders are considered one of the most abundant groups of predators in different ecosystems related to human production activities. Crops represent one of the most important economical sources for the Neotropical region. In consequence, agroecosystems are in continuous expansion and with them the associated spiders. In this chapter, we will present...
Book
Within the last few decades, arachnology in the Neotropical region has experienced a great development filling the knowledge gap in one of the most diverse regions of the world. Nevertheless, large geographical areas remain poorly sampled, especially within the Amazon, and new genera and species have been continuously discovered, even in urban area...
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Full-text available
La lista de especies prioritarias para la conservación en Uruguay resulta un insumo imprescindible para la gestión de la biodiversidad a nivel nacional y regional. Actualmente esta lista contiene vertebrados, plantas vasculares y moluscos continentales, siendo estos últimos los únicos representantes de invertebrados. Los arácnidos son predadores “t...
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The increasing forested area in Uruguay facilitates the establishment of exotic bark and ambrosia beetles. In 2009, the first infestation of bark beetles was officially recorded. The outbreak included Hylurgus ligniperda, Cyrtogenius luteus and Orthotomicus erosus. The objective of this study was to describe and compare the seasonal flight activity...
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Generalist predators have to deal with prey with sometimes very different morphologies and defensive behaviors. Therefore, such predators are expected to express plasticity in their predation strategy. Here we investigated the predatory behavior of the recluse spider Loxosceles rufipes (Araneae, Sicariidae) when attacking prey with different morpho...
Article
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Detailed descriptions of sperm induction are rare in the literature. Anelosimus vierae Agnarsson, 2012 (Theridiidae) is a Uruguayan subsocial spider that lives in communal nests. This paper describes the sperm induction of this species under laboratory conditions. We collected spiders in Montevideo, Uruguay, from different trees and placed them in...
Article
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This paper aims to review the studies on the reproductive behaviour of the endemic Uruguayan subsocial spider Anelosimus vierae. We framed the reproductive behaviour of this species referring to the most important aspects of his life history. We show the sperm induction behaviour performed necessarily by males to transfer sperm from their genitalia...
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Postmating cannibalism where a female attacks, kills and consumes a male after a sexual encounter is frequently influenced by certain male morphological and behavioral characteristics. We conducted behavioral assays in the laboratory to test the predictions that male Alpaida veniliae (Keyserling 1865) with larger absolute and relative size in relat...
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Summary Food exchange by the mother to her brood is a frequent phenomenon in social arthropods. In the subsocial spiders of the genus Anelosimus Simon, 1891, maternal regurgitation to offspring plays an important role in the survival of the colony. Regurgitations also occur between subadult males and females in Anelosimus vierae Agnarsson, 2012. In...
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The feeding ecology of most Oecobius species is poorly understood; nevertheless, the limited literature available suggests that obligate myrmecophagy is common in this genus. Recent evidence suggests that some species might do not share this trait, but could be locally specialized predators. We describe the diet and prey selectivity of the spider O...
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Summary Harvestmen possess several chemical substances as a defence against predators. Among these, gonyleptidine has been one of the most studied and best characterized. This substance, produced by the harvestman Acanthopachylus aculeatus, is composed mainly of noxious substances such as benzoquinone. However, little is known about the secondary e...
Article
Generally, sexual repertoire within a species is conserved, but frequencies of occurrence of sexual behavioral acts often vary, and wide geographic distributions may favor these variations. Aglaoctenus lagotis is distributed along South America and belongs to Sosippinae, a subfamily of wolf spiders that builds funnel webs. Previous reports, based o...
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Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a descriptive and quantitative analysis of sexual behavior (c...
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Sexual behavior of Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae). Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a d...
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The subsocial spider Anelosimus cf. studiosus has a sex ratio biased toward females, but unexpectedly males perform ritualised fights to gain first access to females. Usually females will mate first with the winner male, but they can remate with loser males, remaining as satellite. We tried to discover why loser males wait to mate with a copulated...
Article
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Most sexual preference studies test female choice between different males or test male choice between females with different reproductive status, but few studies test male preference towards females of different ages within the same reproductive status. In subsocial spiders, males can share the nest with subadult and adult females of different ages...
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Extended maternal care is one of the first steps towards sociality in spiders. Females of Anelosimus cf. studiosus care for their egg-sacs and open them to allow the emergence of the spiderlings, which they feed by regurgitation. In this paper we studied the mechanisms underlying egg-sac opening behaviour in this subsocial spider, by exchanging egg...
Data
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EI manejo convencional de frutales con fertilizantes órgano-fosforados, herbicidas y pesticidas químicos afecta el equilibrio ecológico, alterando la diversidad y abundancia de insectos, así como de los predadores más abundantes, las arañas.
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Regurgitation from adult females towards juveniles is a well known phenomenon in social spiders. However, occasional observations in Anelosimus cf. studiosus from Uruguay showed the occurrence of food transfer also between large juveniles. We experimentally tested if well fed penultimate females were capable of regurgitating fluids to starved males...
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Se registra Anelosimus lorenzo para Uruguay, constituyendo el hallazgo más austral de la especie. El presente registro confirma la inusual presencia de una araña social para una zona de clima templado. Con este nuevo reporte, el número de especies de Anelosimus conocidas para este país se eleva a tres.
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Sexual selection theory predicts that a higher investment in offspring will turn females into the selective sex, while males will compete for accessing and courting them. However, there are exceptions to the rule. When males present a high reproductive investment, sex roles can reverse from typical patterns, turning males into the choosy sex, while...
Article
In spider species with first male sperm priority, males guard subadult females as a tactic for improving their paternity. Preliminary observations in Anelosimus cf. studiosus, a subsocial species from Uruguay, showed that males court and guard subadult females. To elucidate the sexual tactics of this species, we placed two adult males with one adul...
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We studied the life cycle of Anelosimus cf. studiosus under field and laboratory conditions. Nests were collected monthly from the field during a whole year for estimating the phenology of the species. Egg‐sac production, maternal care until spiderling emergence and instars of development until adulthood were recorded in the laboratory. This specie...
Article
The plasticity of behavioural expression has been used as an argument against the use of behavioural characters in the reconstruction of phylogenetic patterns. Nevertheless, plasticity itself may vary strongly among taxa, so that phylogenetic considerations about behavioural data must be complemented by an analysis of behavioural plasticity. Plasti...
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Full-text available
Three groups of spiders were raised from birth in the laboratory: Lycosa thorelli, L. carbonelli, and their experimentally obtained hybrid progeny. We analyzed the behaviour of the three male groups in the presence of a hybrid sexual pheromone. From the tests, 22 behaviour units were identified; 11 were simple and 11 were complex, the latter result...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Anelosimus vierae (Theridiidae) habita nidos con pocos individuos hermanos. Los machos adultos evitarían la endogamia buscando otras colonias. Pusimos a prueba la existencia de feromonas volátiles femeninas y la posible discriminación de los machos entre colonias propias y ajenas. En CH un macho optó entre una botella con una rama de árbol...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The main objective is to test adaptive venom evolution in prey-specialised spiders by integrating evidence of venom composition, diet breadth and venom activity across species that specialised on ants, spiders or termites.