Carmen Peláez-Moreno

Carmen Peláez-Moreno
University Carlos III de Madrid | UC3M · Department of Signal Theory and Communications

PhD

About

108
Publications
12,847
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
875
Citations
Introduction
In my research career I have combined the analysis , processing and multimedia representation ( coding, transmission, recognition, retrieval) with the ambition to understand the cognitive processes involved in their generation and perception as a means to advance technology. This work is supported by knowledge in the disciplines of modern machine learning , knowledge discovery and data analysis.
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - December 2021
Spanish National Research Agency
Position
  • Collaborator
Description
  • Scientific and Technical Project Evaluation and Assessment
January 2018 - present
University Carlos III de Madrid
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • UC3M4Safety is a Multidisciplinary Team to Detect, Prevent and Combat Violence against Women compound of six research groups, five from the Carlos III University of Madrid (UC3M) and one from the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM).
June 2013 - September 2013
Università degli Studi di Trento
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (108)
Code
Full-text available
The implementation of the entropy triangle stemming from the 2011 paper and used for several other papers until 2014.
Article
Full-text available
The most widely spread measure of performance, accuracy, suffers from a paradox: predictive models with a given level of accuracy may have greater predictive power than models with higher accuracy. Despite optimizing classification error rate, high accuracy models may fail to capture crucial information transfer in the classification task. We prese...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we present advances in the modeling of the masking behavior of the human auditory system (HAS) to enhance the robustness of the feature extraction stage in automatic speech recognition (ASR). The solution adopted is based on a nonlinear filtering of a spectro-temporal representation applied simultaneously to both frequency and time d...
Article
In this paper we fuse together the Landscapes of Knowledge of Wille's and Exploratory Data Analysis by leveraging Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) to support data-induced scientific enquiry and discovery. We use extended FCA first by allowing K-valued entries in the incidence to accommodate other, non-binary types of data, and second with different mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Among the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) proposed within the 2030 Agenda and adopted by all the United Nations member states, the Fifth SDG is a call for action to turn Gender Equality into a fundamental human right and an essential foundation for a better world. It includes the eradication of all types of violence against women. Wi...
Article
Full-text available
Speech ‘in-the-wild’ is a handicap for speaker recognition systems due to the variability induced by real-life conditions, such as environmental noise and the emotional state of the speaker. Taking advantage of the principles of representation learning, we aim to design a recurrent denoising autoencoder that extracts robust speaker embeddings from...
Chapter
In this chapter we hypotesize that Information Semifields are the underlying calculi that brains operate on and we postulate that strong artificial intelligences should try to imitate them. Information semifields have recently been proposed to describe the calculations that pertain to the manipulation of Renyi entropies. These are semifields that e...
Article
Full-text available
Generally, the curriculum design for undergraduate students enrolled in digital signal processing (DSP)-related engineering programs covers hard topics from specific disciplines, namely, mathematics, digital electronics, or programming. Typically, these topics are very demanding from the point of view of both students and teachers due to the inhere...
Article
Full-text available
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is a well-known supervised boolean data-mining technique rooted in Lattice and Order Theory, that has several extensions to, e.g., fuzzy and idempotent semirings. At the heart of FCA lies a Galois connection between two powersets. In this paper we extend the FCA formalism to include all four Galois connections between...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The introduction of arts in STEM (Science, Technology , Engineering, and Maths) teaching has gain momentum in the last years. The benefits of a joint academic programme design between both schools-arts and science-remarks the stimulation of creativity and critical thinking during the learning process towards the development of novel ideas and produ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we provide a basic technique for Lattice Computing: an analogue of the Singular Value Decomposition for rectangular matrices over complete idempotent semifields (i-SVD). These algebras are already complete lattices and many of their instances—the complete schedule algebra or completed max-plus semifield, the tropical algebra, and the...
Chapter
Currently, most of the affective computing research is about modifying and adapting the machine behavior based on the human emotional state. Although, the use of the affective state inference can be extended to provide a tool for other fields more society related such as gender violence detection, which is a real global emergency. Based on the Worl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Speech 'in-the-wild' is a handicap for speaker recognition systems due to the variability induced by real-life conditions, such as environmental noise and emotions in the speaker. Taking advantage of representation learning, on this paper we aim to design a recurrent denoising autoencoder architecture that extracts robust low-dimensional representa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In general, curriculum design for undergraduate students on engineering covers hard topics of specific disciplines typically related to mathematics and physics where they learn the basics of theory and practice. In this direction, a variety of skills concerning the analysis and implementation of analytic formulations are typically conducted in clas...
Article
Full-text available
We set out to demonstrate that the Rényi entropies are better thought of as operating in a type of non-linear semiring called a positive semifield. We show how the Rényi’s postulates lead to Pap’s g-calculus where the functions carrying out the domain transformation are Rényi’s information function and its inverse. In its turn, Pap’s g-calculus und...
Article
Full-text available
A Speaker Identification system for a personalized wearable device to combat gender-based violence is presented in this paper. Speaker recognition systems exhibit a decrease in performance when the user is under emotional or stress conditions, thus the objective of this paper is to measure the effects of stress in speech to ultimately try to mitiga...
Article
We introduce a framework for the evaluation of multiclass classifiers by exploring their confusion matrices. Instead of using error-counting measures of performance, we concentrate in quantifying the information transfer from true to estimated labels using information-theoretic measures. First, the Entropy Triangle allows us to visualize the balanc...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a variant of the Rényi entropy definition that aligns it with the well-known Hölder mean: in the new formulation, the r-th order Rényi Entropy is the logarithm of the inverse of the r-th order Hölder mean. This brings about new insights into the relationship of the Rényi entropy to quantities close to it, like the information potential...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of saliency describes how relevant a stimulus is for humans. This phenomenon has been studied under different perspectives and modalities, such as audio, visual or both. It has been employed in intelligent systems to interact with their environment in an attempt to emulate or even outperform human behavior in tasks such as surveillance...
Preprint
We introduce a variant of the R\'enyi entropy definition that aligns it with the well-known H\"older mean: in the new formulation, the r-th order R\'enyi Entropy is the logarithm of the inverse of the r-th order H\"older mean. This brings about new insights into the relationship of the R\'enyi entropy to quantities close to it, like the information...
Article
We introduce a variant of the Rényi entropy definition that aligns it with the well-known Hölder mean: in the new formulation, the r-th order Rényi Entropy is the logarithm of the inverse of the r-th order Hölder mean. This brings about new insights into the relationship of the Rényi entropy to quantities close to it, like the information potential...
Article
Full-text available
We report on progress in characterizing K-valued FCA in algebraic terms, where K is an idempotent semifield. In this data mining-inspired approach, incidences are matrices and sets of objects and attributes are vectors. The algebraization allows us to write matrix-calculus formulae describing the polars and the fixpoint equations for extents and in...
Article
Perceptual signals such as acoustic or visual cues carry a massive amount of information. From a human perspective, this problem is solved by means of cognitive mechanisms related to attention. In particular, saliency is a property of particular stimuli that makes them stand from others to allow the brain to take decisions about their relevance in...
Article
Full-text available
Data transformation, e.g., feature transformation and selection, is an integral part of any machine learning procedure. In this paper, we introduce an information-theoretic model and tools to assess the quality of data transformations in machine learning tasks. In an unsupervised fashion, we analyze the transformation of a discrete, multivariate so...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present a new technique for the analysis of data tables by means of Formal Independence Analysis (FIA). This is an analogue of Formal Concept Analysis for the study of independence relations in data, instead of hierarchical relations. A FIA of a context produces, when possible, its block diagonalization by detecting pairs of sets o...
Article
In this paper we use information-theoretic measures to provide a theory and tools to analyze the flow of information from a discrete, multivariate source of information $\overline X$ to a discrete, multivariate sink of information $\overline Y$ joined by a distribution $P_{\overline X \overline Y}$. The first contribution is a decomposition of the...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper we try to analyse the dual-projection approach to weighted 2-mode networks using the tools of\(\mathcal{K}\)-Formal Concept Analysis (\(\mathcal{K}\)-FCA), an extension of FCA for incidences with values in a particular kind of semiring.
Article
Full-text available
We set out to demonstrate that the R\'enyi entropies with parameter $\alpha$ are better thought of as operating in a type of non-linear semiring called a positive semifield. We show how the R\'enyi's postulates lead to Pap's g-calculus where the functions carrying out the domain transformation are Renyi's information function and its inverse. In it...
Conference Paper
We report on progress relating \(\mathcal K\)-valued FCA to \(\mathcal K\)-Linear Algebra where \(\mathcal K\) is an idempotent semifield. We first find that the standard machinery of linear algebra points to Galois adjunctions as the preferred construction, which generates either Neighbourhood Lattices of attributes or objects. For the Neighbourho...
Article
We introduce from first principles an analysis of the information content of multivariate distributions as information sources. Specifically, we generalize a balance equation and a visualization device, the Entropy Triangle, for multivariate distributions and find notable differences with similar analyses done on joint distributions as models of in...
Conference Paper
The introduction of Deep Neural Network (DNN) based acoustic models has produced dramatic improvements in performance. In particular, we have recently found that Deep Maxout Networks, a modification of DNNs’ feed-forward architecture that uses a max-out activation function, provides enhanced robustness to environmental noise. In this paper we furth...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Gene Expression Data (GED) analysis poses a great challenge to the scientific community that can be framed into the Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) and Data Mining (DM) paradigm. Biclustering has emerged as the machine learning method of choice to solve this task, but its unsupervised nature makes result assessment problematic....
Conference Paper
In this paper we try to extend the Galois connection construction of \(\mathcal K\)-Formal Concept Analysis to handle semifields which are not idempotent. Important examples of such algebras are the extended non-negative reals and the extended non-negative rationals, but we provide a construction that suggests that such semifields are much more abu...
Conference Paper
We extend a framework for the analysis of classifiers to encompass also the analysis of data sets. Specifically, we generalize a balance equation and a visualization device, the Entropy Triangle, for multivariate distributions, not only bivariate ones. With such tools we analyze a handful of UCI machine learning task to start addressing the questio...
Conference Paper
A perceptually motivated feature extraction method based on mimicking the masking properties of the cochlea has been recently found to provide enhanced performance when applied to conventional speech recognition back-ends. On the other hand, the introduction of Deep Neural Network (DNN) based acoustic models has produced dramatic improvements in pe...
Article
A two-level variable bit rate (VBR) control algorithm for hierarchical video coding, specifically tailored for the new High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, is presented here. A long-term level monitors the current bit count along a sliding window of a few seconds, comprising several intra periods (IPs) and shifted on an IP basis. This long...
Chapter
We report on progress in characterizing K-valued FCA in algebraic terms, where K is an idempotent semifield. In this data mininginspired approach, incidences are matrices and sets of objects and attributes are vectors. The algebraization allows us to write matrixcalculus formulae describing the polars and the fixpoint equations for extents and inte...
Chapter
This paper deals with the relation between fuzzy implications and Galois connections, trying to raise the awareness that the fuzzy implications are indispensable to generalise Formal Concept Analysis. The concrete goal of the paper is to make evident that Galois connections, which are at the heart of some of the generalizations of Formal Concept An...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The recent improvements in Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems, both in performance and computational e ciency, allow us to develop new tools for the welfare of society. One of the social sectors that can highly benefit from these systems are the hearing impaired since they could obtain transcripts of live speech in an increasing number of e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have become very popular for acoustic modeling due to the improvements found over traditional Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM). However, not many works have addressed the robustness of these systems under noisy conditions. Recently, the machine learning community has proposed new methods to improve the accuracy of DNNs by us...
Article
Motivated by some spectral results in the characterization of concept lattices we investigate the spectra of reducible matrices over complete idempotent semifields in the framework of naturally-ordered semirings, or dioids. We find non-null eigenvectors for every non-null element in the semifield and conclude that the notion of spectrum has to be r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we present advances in the modeling of the masking behavior of the Human Auditory System to enhance the robustness of the feature extraction stage in Automatic Speech Recognition. The solution adopted is based on a non-linear filtering of a spectro-temporal representation applied simultaneously on both the frequency and time domains,...
Article
Full-text available
New auditory-inspired speech processing methods are presented in this paper, combining spectral subtraction and two-dimensional non-linear filtering techniques originally conceived for image processing purposes. In particular, mathematical morphology operations, like erosion and dilation, are applied to noisy speech spectrograms using specifically...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous work has shown a relation between L-valued extensions of Formal Concept Analysis and the spectra of some matrices related to L-valued contexts. To clarify this relation, we investigated elsewhere the nature of the spectra of irreducible matrices over idempotent semifields in the framework of dioids, naturally ordered semirings, that encomp...
Conference Paper
In this paper we propound the use of a number of entropy-based metrics and a visualization tool for the intrinsic evaluation of Sentiment and Reputation Analysis tasks. We provide a theoretical justification for their use and discuss how they complement other accuracy-based metrics. We apply the proposed techniques to the analysis of TASS-SEPLN and...
Article
Previous work has shown a relation between L-valued extensions of FCA and the spectra of some matrices related to L-valued contexts. We investigate the spectra of reducible matrices over completed idempotent semifields in the framework of dioids, naturally-ordered semirings, that encompass several of those extensions. Considering special sets of ei...
Conference Paper
We review previous work using Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) to build Information Retrieval (IR) applications seeking a wider adoption of the FCA paradigm in IR. We conclude that although a number of systems have been built with such paradigm (FCA in IR), the most effective contribution would be to help establish IR on firmer grounds (FCA for IR). S...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present an extended feature extraction procedure for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) over 3G UMTS channels [2], within a bitstream-based Network Speech Recognition (NSR) architecture. This procedure takes advantage of the Unequal Error Protection (UEP) policy that is applied by the channel coder that highly protects selected par...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Dynamic Compressive Gammachirp ([8]) is presented for producing auditory-inspired feature extraction in Automatic Speech Recognition. The proposed acoustic features combine spectral subtraction and two-dimensional non-linear filtering technique most usually employed for image processing: morphological filtering. These features have been proven...
Conference Paper
A simplified protocol and associated metrics based on Signal Detection Theory (SDT) for subjective Video Quality Assessment (VQA) is proposed with the aim of filling the gap existing between the lack of discrimination abilities of objective Quality Estimates (specially when perceptually motivated processing methods are involved) and the costly norm...
Conference Paper
Perceptual coding has become of great interest in modern video coding due to the need for higher compression rates. Many previous works have been carried out to incorporate perceptual information to hybrid video encoders, either modifying the quantization parameter according to a certain perceptual resource allocation map or preprocessing video seq...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years, support vector machines (SVMs) have shown excellent performance in many applications, especially in the presence of noise. In particular, SVMs offer several advantages over artificial neural networks (ANNs) that have attracted the attention of the speech processing community. Nevertheless, their high computational requirements pr...
Conference Paper
In this paper we introduce a Web-based tool for the analysis of Genomic Expression (GE) data based in K-Formal Concept Analysis (KFCA). First we present the task of analysing GE data and then we describe the tool implementing KFCA. As a second contribution, we present a mechanism to visualise a sequence of concept lattices by fixing the intents aga...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We assess the behaviour of 5 different feature extraction methods for an acoustic event classification task - built using the same SVM underlying technology - by means of two different techniques: accuracy and the entropy triangle. The entropy triangle is able to find a classifier instance whose relatively high accuracy stems from an attempt to spe...
Article
Full-text available
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an exploratory data analysis technique for boolean relations based on lattice theory. Its main result is the existence of a dual order isomorphism between two set lattices induced by a binary relation between a set of objects and a set of attributes. Pairs of dually isomorphic sets of objects and attributes, called...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper,estimation method for perceptual video coding is proposed. The method employs a camera motion compensated vector map computed by means of a hierarchical motion estimation (HME) procedure and a Restricted Affine Transformation (RAT)-based modeling of the camera motion. To allow for a computationally efficient solution, the number of la...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
DNA micro-arrays are a mechanism for eliciting gene expression values, the concentration of the transcription products of a set of genes, under different chemical conditions. The phenomena of interest—up-regulation, down-regulation and co-regulation—are hypothesized to stem from the functional relationships among transcription products. In [1,2,3]...
Article
Full-text available
Hybrid speech recognizers, where the estimation of the emission pdf of the states of hidden Markov models (HMMs), usually carried out using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), is substituted by artificial neural networks (ANNs) have several advantages over the classical systems. However, to obtain performance improvements, the computational requirement...
Data
Full-text available
Hybrid speech recognizers, where the estimation of the emission pdf of the states of hidden Markov models (HMMs), usually carried out using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs), is substituted by artificial neural networks (ANNs) have several advantages over the classical systems. However, to obtain performance improvements, the computational requirement...
Chapter
In this paper a method to remove noise in speech signals improving the quality from the perceptual point of view is presented. It combines spectral subtraction and two dimensional non-linear filtering techniques most usually employed for image processing. In particular, morphological operations like erosion and dilation are applied to a noisy speec...
Article
Full-text available
We develop two tools to analyze the behavior of multiple-class, or multi-class, classifiers by means of entropic measures on their confusion matrix or contingency table. First we obtain a balance equation on the entropies that captures interesting properties of the classifier. Second, by normalizing this balance equation we first obtain a 2-simplex...
Article
Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
En el presente artículo se pretende estudiar las prestaciones de un sistema de reconocimiento biométrico mediante firma manuscrita usando la teoría de Análisis Formal de Conceptos (FCA). Se usará la modalidad online de la firma manuscrita, con un algoritmo basado en Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM). Para analizar el desempeño del sistema se reali...