# Carmen HerreroUniversity of Alicante | UA · Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico

Carmen Herrero

Professor

## About

126

Publications

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Introduction

Carmen Herrero is an Emeritus Professor at tcurrently works at the Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico (FAE), University of Alicante. Carmen's research focus on Welfare Economics, Social Choice, Development Economics, Game Theory and Health Economics. THer most recent publication is 'Population structure and the Human Development Index". She is currently working on index construction for categorical data.

## Publications

Publications (126)

This paper seeks to compare income distributions from the opportunity advantage viewpoint. That is a measure of how likely it is for a representative individual of one society to receive a higher income than a representative individual of another. Opportunity advantage tries to measure the income opportunities a society offers to an individual, rel...

This paper presents an evaluation protocol that permits evaluating the relative performance of a set of populations in a multidimensional context when outcomes are measured in terms of categorical variables. This problem appears in many different fields, such as Medicine, Social Sciences, or Engineering. The key ingredient for this evaluation is co...

This paper presents an evaluation protocol that transforms a collection of rankings, defined over a set of alternatives, into a complete, transitive, and cardinal assessment. It combines the ideas of Borda and Condorcet by computing the support that each alternative receives on average when confronted with any other. The protocol evaluates those al...

This paper presents an index to evaluate progress in achieving the key dimensions of the Sustainable Develop- ment Goal 7, which entails ensuring “access to affordable, sustainable and modern energy for all.” The key as- pects of this index, called the Inclusive Green Energy index, are: (i) it focuses on changes, rather than on levels, of the acces...

The expansion of Covid-19 has severely hit the community's health all over the world, killing hundreds of thousands of people, subjecting health systems to an enormous stress (besides derailing economic activities and altering personal and social behavior). Two elements are essential to monitor the evolution of the pandemic as well as to analyze th...

We present in this paper an indicator that approaches the impact of COVID-19 on the community’s health, at this early stage of the pandemic. It consists of the product of the extent (ratio of those affected over the population) and a measure of severity (the intensity of the disease on those affected). We concentrate on the population of those seri...

Presentamos un índice sintético para evaluar el impacto del COVID-19 sobre la población de Es- paña y sus comunidades autónomas (CC.AA.), desde el punto de vista de su alcance y su severi- dad. El alcance mide la proporción de afectados de gravedad con respecto a la población total. La severidad es una medida de cuán grave es la si- tuación de esta...

This paper proposes a new approach to the comparison of income distributions based on the notion of opportunity advantage. This is a measure of how likely is that a representative individual of a society gets a higher income than that of another. Opportunity advantage can be regarded as the evaluation of the income opportunities that a society offe...

This paper provides an alternative way of measuring human development that takes explicitly into account the differences in the countries’ population structures. The interest of this proposal stems from two complementary elements. First, that there is an enormous diversity in the population structures of those countries analysed in the Human Develo...

There are many problems in the social sciences that refer to the evaluation of the relative performance of some populations when their members’ achievements are described by a distribution of outcomes over a set of ordered categories. A new method for the evaluation of this type of problems is presented here. That method, called balanced worth, off...

En esta obra se estudia la evolución de la calidad de vida en España durante el periodo de la crisis económica, desde una aproximación multidimensional basada en la iniciativa Better Life de la OCDE. Se trata de analizar la dinámica de un conjunto de variables relacionadas con el bienestar material, la educación, la salud y el entorno personal y so...

The GEP Measurement Framework, in its current version, proposes a method for measuring progress that monitors changes in key variables, taking into account global thresholds that should not be surpassed and utilizing achievable targets selected to help countries to move in the right direction through policy intervention. These components are critic...

This paper focuses on the evaluation of research institutions in terms of size-independent indicators. There are well-known procedures in this context, such as what we call additive rules, which provide an evaluation of the impact of any research unit in a scientific field based upon a partition of the field citations into ordered categories, along...

This paper refers to some social evaluation problems when equity matters. We propose here a way of assessing the equality of opportunity that is applicable to categorical data. It consists of dividing society into groups with similar characteristics and to measure the dispersion of outcomes within those groups, from the distribution of the populati...

This paper refers to the ranking of densities that describe the distribution of an attribute in a given set of populations. The key elements of the problem are: (i) The distributions refer to ordered categorical data (e.g. health statuses, educational achievements, prestige positions, satisfaction levels); (ii) The evaluation of each distribution i...

There are many different evaluation problems that involve several groups (societies, firms or institutions) whose members can be classified into ordered categories, pursuant to their characteristics or their achievements. This paper addresses these types of problems and provides an evaluation criterion based on the distribution of the agents across...

This paper analyses the evaluation of the relative performance of a set of groups when their outcomes are defined in terms of categorical data and the groups’ members are heterogeneous. This type of problem has been dealt with in Herrero and Villar (2012) for the case of a homogenous population. Here we expand their model controlling for heterogene...

This paper aims at evaluating the impact of the economic crisis on Spain and its regions by means of two multidimensional indicators that measure the evolution of development (a variant of the human development index) and poverty (combining incidence, intensity and social exclusion). The chosen period is 2006-2011. There are two main outcomes. Firs...

This paper aims at evaluating the impact of the economic crisis on Spain and its regions by means of two multidimensional indicators that measure the evolution of development (a variant of the human development index) and poverty (combining incidence, intensity and social exclusion). The chosen period is 2006-2011. There are two main outcomes. Firs...

This working paper refers to the evaluation of health states when equity matters. We propose an evaluation formula that incorporates equity concerns from an equality of opportu- nity viewpoint and is applicable to categorical data, such as self-reported qualitative health states. An empirical illustra- tion using Spanish data is provided.

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of a non-fatal road crash on the health-related quality of life of injured people. A new approach based on the cardinalization of categorical Self-Assessed Health valuations is suggested. Health losses have been estimated by using different Time Trade-off and Visual Analogue Scale tariffs, in or...

This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the cont...

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of a nonfatal road crash on the health-related quality of life of injured people. A new approach is suggested, based on the cardinalization of categorical Self-Assessed Health valuations. Health losses have been estimated by using different Time Tradeoff and Visual Analogue Scale tariffs, in ord...

This paper deals with the axiomatic derivation of social evaluation indices in a multidimensional context. The resulting evaluation formula is the geometric mean of the egalitarian equivalent values of the different characteristics under consideration. We provide an application to the measurement of human development and compare the results obtaine...

We propose a new Human Development Index that involves a number of changes with respect to the present one, even though it keeps the basic structure of the index (namely, preserving “health”, “education” and “material wellbeing” as the three basic dimensions of human development). The first change refers to the substitution of the arithmetic mean b...

The purpose of this paper is to extend the Rights Egalitarian solution (Herrero, Maschler & Villar, 1999) to the context of non-transferable utility sharing problems. Such an extension is not unique. Depending on the kind of properties we want to preserve we obtain two different generalizations. One is the "proportional solution", that corresponds...

This paper reports an experimental study on three well-known solutions for problems of adjudicating con icting claims: the constrained equal-awards, the proportional, and the constrained equal-losses rules. We first let subjects play three games designed such that the unique equilibrium allocation coincides with the recommendation of one of these t...

We propose a method for calculating the production costs of an intervention in a manner that accounts for differences in productive 'effort.' This method could be used within a cost-effectiveness analysis framework in the evaluation of new medical technologies, pharmaceuticals, treatment programs, or public health interventions. We apply it to show...

We consider allocation problems with indivisible goods when agents' preferences are single-peaked. We propose natural rules (called up methods) to solve such a class of problems. We analyzed the properties those methods satisfy and we provide a characterization of them. We also prove that these methods can be interpreted as extensions to the indivi...

This paper deals with the axiomatic derivation of social evaluation indices in a multidimensional context. The resulting evaluation formula is the geometric mean of the egalitarian equivalent values of the different characteristics under consideration. We provide an application to the measurement of human development and compare the results obtaine...

La situación a la que se enfrentan los pacientes en lista de espera y el problema de su gestión es un ejemplo sencillo de asignación de recursos: la asignación de unidades de un bien indivisible entre un conjunto de agentes que demandan, cada uno, una unidad del bien. En este documento de trabajo se estudia esta situación, tanto en un contexto está...

Presentamos un procedimiento para calcular ganancias de oportunidades en salud, en el marco de capacidades de Sen. Mediante este método se pueden realizar análisis coste-oportunidad para la evaluación de programas de salud alternativos.

Measures of disability and health-related quality of life are becoming essential parameters in the evaluation of treatment and prevention strategies for reducing the burden of injury. When computing the effectiveness of such measures in health terms, it is frequent to consider pre-injury status as perfect health, as well as the injury status as a c...

This paper provides an axiomatic foundation of a multiplicative human development index, as an alternative to the standard additive one. There are three key advantages that derive from our multiplicative formulation: One, that it is a theoretically well founded measure. Two, that it does no impose the restriction of a constant rate of substitution...

We study claims problems in which a certain amount of indivisible units (of an homogeneous good) has to be distributed among a group of agents, when this amount is not enough to fully satisfy agents' demands. We are interested in finding solutions satisfying robustness and fairness properties. To do that, we define the M-down methods, which are the...

We consider allocation problems with indivisible goods when agents’ preferences are single-peaked. Two natural procedures (up methods and temporary satisfaction methods) are proposed to solve these problems. They are constructed by using priority methods on the cartesian product of agents and integer numbers, interpreted either as peaks or opposite...

This paper reports an experimental study on three well-known solutions for problems of adjudicating con icting claims: the constrained equal-awards, the proportional, and the constrained equal-losses rules. We first let subjects play three games designed such that the unique equilibrium allocation coincides with the recommendation of one of these t...

Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) are the most frequently used outcome measure in cost utility analysis. In cost utility analysis the benefits of health care programs are not expressed in monetary terms but rather in utility terms. They provide a straightforward procedure to combine quantity of life and quality of life into one single index measu...

This paper reports the results of an experiment in which probabilistic insurance, as proposed by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), is compared both with full insurance and no insurance. The experimental results conform to the intuitive prediction that risk-averse agents who are indifferent between full insurance and no insurance, will prefer full insura...

We show that, under some plausible assumptions, the gain in QALYs a screening program offers is a positive linear transformation of the program's sensitivity level. This result simplifies considerably the cost-utility analysis of mutually exclusive screening programs.

There exist congenital diseases that reduce newborns’ potential opportunities. This reduction is sometimes alleviated if the
congenital disease is detected early by a newborn screening program. We propose a new outcome measurement procedure for newborn
screening programs, based on the opportunity gains they offer. We show that, under plausible assu...

The economic evaluation of health care programs can be carried out from two different perspectives: the hospital’s narrow perspective and the social perspective, which includes all costs. It is well known that, depending on the perspective, the economic evaluation may lead to discrepant recommendations. In this paper we present an example of this s...

Under expected utility, the individual preferences over lotteries on health profiles can be represented either by a multiplicative utility function, when mutual utility independence is claimed, or, an additive one (known as QALY), when it is claimed additive independence. In this paper, we impose a weaker condition, i.e., utility independence with...

In the management of waiting lists, point systems could be a useful mechanism to establish priorities amongst patients. In this paper we explore the possibility of using Conjoint Analysis (CA) in order to implement a point system based on social preferences. We conducted an experiment for the specific case of cataract extraction. In spite of the pi...

In this work we deal with rationing problems. In particular with claims problems with indivisible goods, that is, problems in which a certain amount of indivisible units (of an homogeneous good), has to be distributed among a group of agents, when this amount is not enough to satisfy agents' demands. We define discrete rules to solve those problems...

In this paper we explore the notion that players are decent, in the sense that their choices are bound by certain unwritten social rules. We apply thisidea to two cases: bankruptcy and bargaining in exchange economies. Wecharacterize the results that are generated by such a behavior in the cases ofbankruptcy and in two person bargaining in exchange...

We examine fluctuations in the predicted educational attainment of newly arrived legal U.S. immigrants between 1972 and 1999 by combining data from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service with the Current Population Survey. A mid-1980s decline gave way to a noticeable improvement in the skill base of the immigrant population between 1987 an...

In this paper we provide a new outcome measure for the cost-utility analyses of alternative screening programs of a particular disease. We show that for non-invasive screening programs satisfying plausible assumptions, QALYs can be replaced by a simpler outcome: the sensitivity of the program. In other words, the cost-utility analysis can be made w...

We deal with a cost allocation problem arising from sharing a medical service in the presence of queues. We use a standard queuing theory model in a context with several medical procedures, a certain demand of treatment and a maximum average waiting time guarantee set by the government. We show that sharing the use of an operating theatre to treat...

This paper reports an experimental study on three well known solutions for bankruptcy problems, that is, the constrained equal-awards, the proportional and the constrained equal-losses rule. To do this, we first let subjects play three games designed such that the unique equilibrium outcome coincides with one of these three rules. Moreover, we also...

This paper focuses on bankruptcy problems and duality. By introducing the idea of dual properties, we obtain a new characterization of the Constrained Equal Losses rule by means of well-known properties. “Dual” procedures to solve discrepancies can also be used to support, noncoopera-tively, the Constrained Equal Awards and the Constrained Equal Lo...

In cost-utility analysis it is assumed that health state valuations are directly comparable across individuals. Instead, health state valuations may be relative and related to people's expectations and abilities. Then health state valuations are not fully comparable across people and, consequently, cost utility analysis cannot be applied in full. T...

We face the problem of allocationg a fixed amount of a perfectly divisible good among a group of agents with single-peaked preferences. We survey the three different cases studied in the literature: the pure distribution case, the redistribution case, and the gerneral case. The so called general case provide with a natural framework to analyze the...

This paper focuses on a new property for bankruptcy rules, calledsustainability, which requires that the agents with small enough claims be fully reimbursed. We show that the constrained equal-awards rule
is the only rule that satisfies path independence and sustainability. Exploiting duality relations, we also provide a characterization
of the con...

A complete characterization of economies with the nonsubstitution property is presented for linear models. In this characterization, a degree of proper joint production as well as the existence of durable capital goods is allowed for.

We examine fluctuations in the predicted educational attainment of newly arrived legal U.S. immigrants between 1972 and 1999 by combining data from the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service with the Current Population Survey. A mid-1980s decline gave way to a noticeable improvement in the skill base of the immigrant population between 1987 an...

The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of applying a point system as a guide to the management of waiting lists in National Health Systems. Following recent contributions in the axiomatic theory of justice, the ethical properties of a point system are illustrated. In addition, we present the results of an experiment whose objecti...

This paper provides a comparative analysis of some classical solutions to bankruptcy problems from an axiomatic viewpoint. These rules are the constrained equal-awards rule, the constrained equal-losses rule, the proportional rule and the Talmud rule. The purpose of this study is to facilitate the understanding of their differences and to clarify t...

We deal with a cost allocation problem arising from sharing a medical service in the presence of queues. We use a standard queuing theory model in a context with several medical procedures, a certain demand of treatment and a maximum average waiting time guarantee set by the government. We show that sharing the use of an operating theatre to treat...

The objective of this study is to explore the possibility of applying a point system as a guide to the management of waiting lists in National Health Systems. Following recent contributions in the axiomatic theory of justice, the ethical properties of a point system are illustrated. In addition, we present the results of an experiment whose objecti...

We analyze empirically the fulfillment of the property of Mutual Independence, traditionally assumed in the literature on health profiles evaluation. Mutual Independence turns out to be equivalent to the simultaneous fulfillment of two weaker properties: Independence of the Past with regard to the Future and Independence of the Future with regard t...

Most axiomatic treatments of bargaining do not give a substantive role to individually irrational points. We show in this paper that it can matter greatly whether axioms and solutions are formulated with respect to the entire feasible set or with respect to only the individually rational portion. In particular, a principle of individual monotonicit...

The main result of this paper is that for allocation problems in which preferences are single-peaked, the equal distance rule is the only rule satisfying symmetry, efficiency, dummy, agenda-independence, and constrained linearity.

A generalization of the QALY model for general health profiles is provided in this paper. Twonatural assumptions on inter-temporal preferences play a key role in arriving at our representation.The first one, Indifference to the future afterdeath, is uncontestable in our framework, and thesecond one, Preference Independence of future with regard to...

So far, only weak utility functions have been used to represent strict partial orders, but such a representation is not completely satisfactory, since we can not reconstruct the preference relation by simply knowing the weak utility function. The purpose of this paper is to present a type of numerical representation for strict partial orders, in su...

Abstract The problem,of distributing a given amount,of a divisible good,among,a set of agents which may have individual entitlements is considered here. A solution to this problem, called the Rights‐Egalitarian Solution is proposed. This allocation rule divides equally among,the agents the difference between,the aggregate entitlements and the amoun...

We consider allocation problems with single-peaked preferences, and focus on the equal-distance rule. An axiomatic characterization of the equal-distance rule is provided.

This paper focuses on some appealing properties for claims problems. Our main result is that the Constrained Equal-Losses Rule is the only rule satisfying equal treatment of equals, composition from minimal rights, and path independence.

This paper focuses on two new properties for bankruptcy rules: preeminence and sustainability. Theypertain to situations when the claims of some agents are much larger than the claims of otheragents. They differ in the way the recommend agents with small claims to be treated. Preeminencerequires that the agents with very small claims should no be a...

This paper examines optimal redistribution in a model with high and low-skilled individuals with heterogeneous tastes for labor, that either work or not. With such double heterogeneity, traditional Welfarist criteria including Utilitarianism fail to take the compensation-responsibility trade-off into account. As a response, several other criteria h...

Starting from a finite or countable set of states of health, and assuming the existence of an objective transitive preference relation on that set, we propose a way of performing interpersonal comparisons of states of health. In so doing, we first consider the population divided into types, and consider that two individuals of a different type have...

The axiom translation invariance consists in asserting the invariance of the ranking of two utility streams if one applies the same translation to both. This axiom is significant in the characterization of utilitarian criteria in finite dimension. This characterization is achieved thanks to the "weak weighted utilitarianism theorem".The objective h...

A basic premise of optimal tax theory is that information about individuals' productivity and time worked is unobservable and does not enter into the government's objective function. In this paper, we explore the implications of a framework where earning capacity both plays an intrinsic and an instrumental role. In particular we analyze how a redis...

A modification of the proportional solution for bargaining problems with claims is proposed. This solution is constructed by considering an endogenous reference point. Characterization results of the aforementioned solution are provided.

Starting from a generic way of ranking opportunity sets, we present and axiomatically characterize a way of ranking profiles of opportunity sets. This can be understood as an extension of Kranich's difference relation. © 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.

A basic premise of optimal tax theory is that information about individuals' productivity and time worked is unobservable and does not enter into the government's objective function. In this paper, we explore the implications of a framework where earning capacity both plays an intrinsic and an instrumental role. In particular we analyze how a redis...

A basic premise of optimal tax theory is that information about individuals' productivity and time worked is unobservable and does not enter into the government's objective function. In this paper, we explore the implications of a framework where earning capacity both plays an intrinsic and an instrumental role. In particular we analyze how a redis...

The problem of distributing a given amount of a divisible good among a set of agents which may have individual entitlements is considered here. A solution to this problem, called the Rights-Egalitarian Solution, is proposed and characterized. This allocation rule divides equally among the agents the difference between the aggregate entitlements and...

This paper deals with the analysis of allocation problems with simgle peaked preferences, under the condition of agenda-independence (that is, when the allocation rule yields the same final outcome, no matter how the problem is subdivised into partial problems).

This paper deals with the analysis of allocation problems with single peaked preferences, under the condition of agenda-independence (that is, when the allocation rule yields the same final outcome, no matter how the problem is subdivided into partial problems). Since the Uniform rule does not satisfy this property, two alternative allocation rules...

In this paper we study several methods of ranking profiles ofopportunity sets by taking as a primary notion equality of opportunity,undestood as equality of choice sets. Each of these social decision ruleslooks first at the size of the common opportunity set available to allmembers of the society. If this is not decisive, additional criteria areuse...

In this paper a reconstruction of the theory of bargaining with claims in economic environments is addressed. The spirit of that reconstruction is similar to that made by Roemer of the standard bargaining theory.

In this paper a reconstruction of the theory of bargaining with claims in economic environments is addressed. The spirit of that reconstruction is similar to that made by Roemer of the standard bargaining theory.

A unified approach to the problems of bargaining with a reference point and of bargaining with claims is addressed. Then, two solutions are reexamined from this perspective: the lexicographic egalitarian and the lexicographic claim-egalitarian. New characterization results are also provided.