Carmen Cruces-Blanco

Carmen Cruces-Blanco
University of Granada | UGR · Department of Analytical Chemistry

Prof. Analytical Chemistry

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129
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Publications

Publications (129)
Chapter
Forensic science is a strongly expanding research field and encompasses all the scientific disciplines that can be used to support law enforcement at any level. Just limiting the attention to the analytical aspect of forensic sciences, it involves an extremely wide application area that includes forensic toxicology, personal identification, analysi...
Article
A novel multiresidue method is proposed for the determination of 12 5-nitroimidazoles and their metabolites in fish roe samples using UHPLC-MS/MS. A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed prior to sample analysis. The separation of compounds was accomplished using a C18 Zorbax Eclipse Plus column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8...
Article
QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) methodology in combination with UHPLC-MS/MS is proposed for the determination of 5-nitroimidazole (5-NDZ) residues in infant milk-based products. Chromatographic separation was accomplished in a C18 Zorbax Eclipse Plus RRHD (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) column under gradient elution conditions. Mobi...
Article
A novel salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) method has been developed for the extraction of eight 5-NDZ antibiotics from milk samples prior to their analysis by UHPLC. An exhaustive study of the parameters involved in the SALLE procedure has been carried out, optimizing the extraction solvent volume, the amount of the salt agent,...
Article
Full-text available
Capillary liquid chromatography with UV detection is proposed for the determination of 5-nitroimidazole residues in aquaculture products. The separation was carried out in a C18 column at 20 °C, using a mobile phase consisting of water and acetonitrile, at 7 μL/min and 320 nm as detection wavelength. Furthermore, full loop injection mode (8 μL) was...
Article
A novel capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry approach is proposed for the determination of eleven 5-nitroimidazoles in urine samples for therapeutical drug monitoring purposes. A comparison between two separation modes, namely micellar electrokinetic chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis was carried out, obtaining higher s...
Article
The simultaneous determination of usually employed anaesthetics (procaine, lidocaine and bupivacaine) has been developed and validated using capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection at 212 nm. The separation of these three drugs has been achieved in less than 7 min, using a temperature of 25º C and 25 kV, with a 150 mM citrate buffer (p...
Article
The separation of eight antibiotics belonging to 5-nitroimidazole family was carried out by means of CEC coupled with MS. Preliminary experiments were carried out with ultraviolet detection in order to select the proper stationary and mobile phase. Among the different stationary phases studied (namely Lichrospher C18, 5 μm particle size; Cogent(TM)...
Article
Cation selective exhaustive injection and sweeping followed by a micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation is evaluated for the sensitive analysis of 5-nitroimidazoles in untreated human serum and urine. Deproteinized serum and urine samples were diluted 76 and 143 times, respectively, in a low conductivity solvent (5.00 mM orthophosphoric...
Article
A rapid and simple analytical method has been developed for the determination of nineteen quinolones in environmental water samples using ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Chromatographic and detection conditions have been optimized and the separation was achieved in less than 4 min. The separation was carr...
Article
A novel method consisting of cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping (CSEI-sweeping) as on-line preconcentration followed by a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation has been developed for the determination of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NDZ) in environmental waters. Moreover, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) h...
Article
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction has been proposed as an extraction technique combined with MEKC for the analysis of eight 5-nitroimidazole compounds, including some metabolites, in water samples. Determination has been carried out using a diode array detector, employing 20 mM sodium phosphate and 150 mM SDS as the separation buffer. Separa...
Chapter
The control of drugs is an important task and will continue to be the subject of many publications. Many drugs have medical uses but a great number have recreational purposes with significant health risks which makes necessary both national and international control. While drugs remain controlled, it will be necessary, within the legal context, for...
Article
A novel capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with ultraviolet detection method has been developed and validated for the analysis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and phencyclidine (PCP) in human urine. The separation of these three analytes has been achieved in less than 8min in a 72-cm effective length...
Article
β-lactam antibiotics have been the most widely used antimicrobial drugs for more than 80 years and still constitute the most important group of antibiotics. Their extensive use in veterinary medicine practices as growth promoters, and chemotherapeutic and/or prophylactic agents causes numerous residues in foodstuffs which present a serious health h...
Article
A reliable and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the determination of the eight quinolones of veterinary use regulated by European Union (marbofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine and oxolinic acid). Chromatogra...
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Full-text available
A method based on micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with UV detection has been developed for the determination of nine 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NDZs), including metabolites in river water samples. Due to the relative insensitivity of UV detection in MEKC, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method has been proposed that preconcentrates water sam...
Article
A simple and very sensitive capillary-liquid chromatography method coupled with laser induced fluorescence detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of seven quinolones of veterinary use in milk. Moreover, a comparison between two different sample treatments (QuEChERS and molecularly imprinted polymer, MIP) has been carried ou...
Article
We review analytical methodologies using capillary electrophoresis and related techniques (micellar electrokinetic chromatography and capillary electrochromatography) with detection systems (ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, fluorescence, laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry) for quantification of drugs of abuse and their metabolites in...
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Full-text available
A sensitive capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence method has been developed for the determination of six fluoroquinolones of human (ofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and norfloxacin) and veterinary use (danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin) in different kinds of water. Fluorescence detection was achieved using a He-Cd laser, with a wa...
Article
A method for the simultaneous determination of four fluoroquinolones of veterinary use (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin and sarafloxacin) in two complex matrixes, such as bovine raw milk and pig kidney, has been established and validated. The method is based on the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with a very sensitive detect...
Article
A sensitive and reliable method using capillary HPLC with UV-diode array detection (DAD) has been developed and validated for the trace determination of residues of 10 beta-lactam antibiotics of human and veterinary use, in milk, chicken meat and environmental water samples. The analytes included ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin V, penicillin G,...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we review applications of capillary electrophoresis (CE) to the determination of antibiotic residues in food derived from animals and in environmental samples. Although many CE methods have been used to determine antibiotics in the pharmaceutical field (drug quality control or therapeutic monitoring in biological samples), food and en...
Article
A new analytical method based on CZE coupled with tandem MS detection (CE-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nine penicillins of human and veterinary use (nafcillin, dicloxacillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin G, amoxicillin, penicillin V and piperacillin), whose levels are regulated by the EU Council...
Article
The present study describes the simultaneous determination of four drugs, two local anaesthetics (lidocaine and bupivacaine) and two opium alkaloids (noscapine and papaverine) by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using Oasis HLB cartridges. Their recoveries ranged from 81 to 107% at the target concentr...
Article
A sensitive and reliable method using capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-diode array detection (CZE-DAD) has been developed and validated for trace determination of beta-lactam antibiotics in waste, well and river water matrices. Due to the lack of sensitivity of the UV-vis detection, a solvent extraction/solid-phase extraction (SPE) method app...
Article
A method for the simultaneous determination of eight beta-lactam antibiotics (nafcillin, cloxacillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and penicillin G) in fortified milk samples of different origins has been proposed by using CZE with diode-array detection (CZE-DAD). Optimum separation was obtained on a 64.5 cm x 75 microm bubble...
Article
In the past decade, capillary-electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been demonstrated to offer promising, effective and economic approaches for the separation of a large variety of substances, including those encountered in forensic analysis. Reliable, automated CE instruments have become commercially available and have advanced methods in forensic...
Article
The potential of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) for analyzing nine beta-lactams antibiotics (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, nafcillin, piperacillin, amoxicillin) in different pharmaceutical preparations, have been demonstrated. An experimental design strategy has been applied...
Article
A CZE method with UV-Vis detection has been established and validated for the determination of nine sulfonamides: sulfapyridine, sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamether, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfachlorpyridazine, and sulfamethizole. Optimum separation was obtained on a 64.5 cm x 75 microm bubble cell capillary using...
Article
We describe a detailed study on the possibility of analyzing aminated pesticides and metabolites using pre-column derivatization with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and their subsequent separation and detection by cyclodextrin capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection. Different variables affecting the derivatizatio...
Article
The first total separation by electrophoresis of five carbohydrates, sucrose, maltotriose, maltose, glucose and fructose, is described. The basic technique requires 1-naphthylacetic acid as background electrolyte at pH 12.5, indirect UV detection at 222 nm, with a capillary of 75 µm × 120 cm and a voltage of 25 kV. Linear calibration curves from 50...
Article
A sensitive, rapid, efficient, and reliable method for the separation and determination of phenolic acids by capillary zone electrophoresis has been carried out. A detailed method optimization was carried out to separate 14 different compounds by studying parameters such as pH, type and concentration of buffer, applied voltage, and injection time....
Article
Full-text available
Simultaneous determination of alcohols, amines, amino acids, flavonoids, and purine and pyrimidine bases in bottled beer samples directly without any pre-treatment was carried out by capillary zone electrophoresis with diode-array detection. Electrolyte conditions such as pH, composition and concentration of the buffer, working voltage and type and...
Article
A very rapid and simple MEKC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of four antiepileptic drugs, ethosuximide (Etho), primidone (Pri), phenytoin (Pht) and carbamazepine (Cbz) in human serum. Sample analysis required only 100 microL of human serum which only needed to be centrifuged, decanted and combined with the running buffer [5....
Article
We describe a simple, selective capillary electrophoretic method using precolumn derivatization and UV detection at 280 nm to determine carbohydrates in beverages. Three carbohydrates, glucose, maltose and maltotriose, were analysed. The labelling reagent was p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Under optimised conditions the labelling reaction took 1 h at...
Article
A test mixture of five pesticides and metabolites (naphthalene acetamide, carbaryl, 1-naphthol, thiabendazole, and carbendazime) has been investigated by capillary electrophoresis with an ultraviolet diode array detector. These compounds were separated in <10 min by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). MEKC was performed in 30 m...
Article
In this work, a sub-minute and sensitive capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) method was developed for the analysis and quantitation of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or serotonin in urine. The method involves precolumn derivatization with fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC) using an excitation...
Article
This paper describes a UV detection method for the pesticides aldicarb and carbofuran, and some of their main metabolites, aldicarb-sulfoxide, aldicarb-sulfone and 3-hydroxy-carbofuran, in ground waters. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with diode-array detection was developed for their determination at 210 nm. The experimental study w...
Article
A capillary electrophoretic method was developed using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) with diode-array detection to analyze simultaneously 26 beer constituents in a single procedure, including alcohols, iso-alpha-acids, amino acids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, a vitamin, purine and pyrimidine bases. After filtration, sample...
Article
This paper presents an optosensor for screening of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: anthracene (ANT), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), fluoranthene (FLT), and benzo[b]fluoranthene (Bbf) using a photomultiplier device with an artificial neural network as transducer. The optosensor is based on the on-line immobilization on a non-ionic resin (Amberlite XAD...
Article
A test mixture of five phytohormones [naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), naphthoxyacetic acid (NOA), indoleacetic acid (IAA), indolebutyric acid (IBA), and indolepropionic acid (IPA)] was investigated. These compounds were cleanly separated with good resolution by capillary zone electrophoresis with a UV diode array detector using 20 mM sodium phosphate...
Article
We describe here a method for detecting and quantifying the highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in water, based on a flow-trough optical sensor. The technique is fast (response time of 40 s) and simple and at the same time meets the standards of sensitivity and selectivity required by the European Guidelin...
Article
The applicability of heavy atom–induced room temperature phosphorescence (HAI-RTP) in real samples is demonstrated in this work. In this methodology only two reagents, potassium iodide as heavy atom salt and sodium sulfite as oxygen scavenger, were used to obtain the phosphorescent signal of carbazole in solution while anthracene did not show phosp...
Article
A three-dimensional derivative variable-angle synchronous scanning (DVASS) and a synchronous scanning (SS) heavy-atom room-temperature phosphorimetry (HAI-RTP) method are reported, for the first time, to identify and quantify the spectral overlapping phosphorescent pesticides thiabendazole (TBZ) and carbaryl (CBL). These pesticides are widely used...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the development of two optosensors for the determination of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, fluoranthene and benzo[b]fluoranthene) using a photomultiplier device and an intensified coupled charge device (ICCD) as optical transducers, respectively. These optosensors are based on the on-line immo...
Article
A method is described for the analysis of the insecticide imidacloprid [1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine] and its metabolite 6-chloronicotinic acid by micellar electrokinetic chromatography with diode-array detection at 270 and 227 nm, respectively. The best results were obtained using sodium dodecyl sulphate at a con...
Article
Beer has been a popular beverage for thousands of years, and brewers often describe brewing as the oldest biotechnological process. Beer constituents comprise more than 800 compounds and many of them contribute to its flavor characteristics, such as bitterness, sweetness, acidity, hop character, carbonation, alcoholic and fruity or ester flavor, mo...
Article
This paper presents the characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in solid-surface fluorescence as the first step for obtaining new optical sensors for PAHs screening. The fluorescence properties of the EPA-PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[a]...
Article
Full-text available
Very simple and selective methods are presented to determine the amino acid tryptophan (Trp) and the biogenic amine tryptamine (Tryp), both compounds with an indole-type molecular structure by the methodology named Heavy Atom Induced-Room Temperature Phosphorescence (HAI-RTP) which constitutes the first time that HAI-RTP has been used to detect com...
Article
We describe a simple and selective method for analysing propranolol and a sensitive test for its control in urine. A flow-through fluorescence optosensor based on on-line immobilization in a non-ionic-exchanger (Amberlite XAD-7) solid support in a continuous flow was used in both cases. Determination was made in 5 mM H(2)PO(4)(-)/HPO(4)(2-) buffer...
Article
Full-text available
A detailed characterization of the microemulsion composition is necessary to make the phosphorimetry suitable as powerful analytical methodology. Four microemulsion systems (hexane/ n -butanol/SDS/water, hexane/ n -pentanol/SDS/water, hexane/3-pentanol/SDS/water, and hexane/ n -hexanol/SDS/water) were studied, establishing the oil/water (O/W) micro...
Article
Hemos desarrollado un nuevo método para la determinación directa y simultánea de 25 analitos presentes en cerveza, incluyendo alcoholes, aminas, iso- -ácidos, aminoácidos, flavonoides, bases púricas y pirimidínicas, usando electroforesis capilar en zona (ECZ) con detección por batería de diodos. Los compuestos presentes en las muestras de cerveza s...
Article
The applicability of heavy atom induced room temperature phosphorescence in real samples is demonstrated in this work. In this methodology only two reagents, potassium iodide as heavy atom salt and sodium sulphite as oxygen scavenger, were used to obtain phosphorescent signal of propranolol in solution. Thus a new simple, rapid and selective phosph...
Article
We have studied the presence in the environment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the city of Granada using room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) applied to microemulsions. A detailed study into the different compositions of several normal microemulsion together with experimental variables (heavy atom, deoxygenate agen...
Article
This paper presents two easy and selective methods for determining the active principles nafronyl (NFL) and naproxen (NAP), using a flow-through fluorescence optosensor based on the on-line immobilization on a nonionic-exchanger (Silica Gel, Davisil™ and Amberlite XAD 7, respectively) solid support. The determination was performed in 5×10−3 M HAc/N...
Article
This paper presents two easy and selective methods for determining the active principles nafronyl (NFL) and naproxen (NAP), using a flow-through fluorescence optosensor based on the on-line immobilization on a nonionic-exchanger (Silica Gel, Davisil™ and Amberlite XAD 7, respectively) solid support. The determination was performed in 5×10−3M HAc/Na...
Article
Four parabens (esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), effective preservatives against the growth of bacteria, yeast, and mold in numerous industrial products, have been used in this work as model compounds to demonstrate the resolving power of capillary electrophoresis (CE). The simultaneous determination of methyl-(MP), ethyl-(EP), propyl-(PP), and but...
Article
In this work, a widely used pesticide named carbaryl, present in numerous water supplies, has been determined by the so-called heavy atom induced room-temperature phosphorescence (HAI-RTP) methodology. A detailed study of numerous instrumental variables such as sensitivity, slits, decay time, and gate time, and those of experimental type such as he...
Article
This paper presents a facile and selective method for the determination of the pharmaceutical compound nafronyl using heavy atom induced room temperature phosphorimetry (HAI-RTP) as analytical technique. The determination was performed in potassium iodide 1.6 M and sodium sulphite 0.002 M at a measurement temperature of 20 degrees C. The phosphores...
Article
A highly sensitive and selective capillary ion electrophoretic (CIE) method has been established to show the applicability of this separation technique to the determination of some of the anions usually found in water samples. The ions were monitored by UV spectrophotometry with diode-array detection in presence of sulfonated calixarene compounds a...
Article
We present here the first confirmation that the new methodology of room-temperature phosphorescence emission named heavy-atom induced room-temperature phosphorescence (HAI-RTP), can be observed for both polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen heterocycles. This methodology makes use of RTP emission directly from the analyte in fluid solution,...
Article
Full-text available
 A spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of methyl paraben based on derivatization with the labelling reagent dansyl chloride (DNS-Cl), is presented. The effect of the reaction variables (pH, DNS-Cl concentration, temperature, reaction time) and instrumental parameters, has been examined. A linear calibration graph in the ng/ml range has...
Article
Full-text available
A partial least-squares calibration method is proposed, for the first time, for phosphorescence signals. The proposed method is based on the determination of phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and benz[a]anthracene by room temperature phosphorimetry, using microemulsion solutions. The emission and first-derivative emission spectra of the ternary mixtures...
Article
A simple spectrofluorimetric analysis of a local anaesthetic named procaine using a specific labelling reagent for primary amino groups, has been developed. Because procaine shows very weak native fluorescence, the technique of spectrofluorimetry has been very much limited for its determination. A detail study of the variables affecting the derivat...