Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo

Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo
University of Santiago de Compostela | USC · Department of Pharmacology Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology

PhD Pharmacy

About

398
Publications
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Publications

Publications (398)
Article
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. While there is a major focus on the study of juvenile/adult DR, the effects of hyperglycemia during early retinal development are less well studied. Recent studies in embryonic zebrafish models of nutritional hyperglycemia (high-glucose exposure) have revealed that hy...
Article
Worldwide nanotechnology development and application have fueled many scientific advances, but technophilic expectations and technophobic demands must be counterbalanced in parallel. Some of the burning issues today are the following: (1) Where is nano today? (2) How good are the communication and investment networks between academia/research and g...
Article
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(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to synthesize melatonin-eluting contact lenses (CLs) and evaluate both the ocular kinetics of the released melatonin and its effect on tear volume and intraocular pressure. (2) Methods: In vitro, melatonin-eluting CLs were synthesized by using non-functionalized (HEMA) and functionalized (HEMA/APMA) mon...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness in the world. While there is a major focus on the study of juvenile/adult DR, the effects of hyperglycemia during early retinal development are less well studied. Recent works in embryonic zebrafish models of nutritional hyperglycemia revealed that hyperglycemia leads to decreased...
Article
Full-text available
This work aimed to develop water-based formulations for onychomycosis topical treatment using micelles of small pegylated surfactants associated with α-cyclodextrin (αCD) to deliver terbinafine to the nail. Kolliphor® RH40 (RH40) and Gelucire® 48/16 (GEL) single and mixed micelles (RH40:GEL 1:1) were prepared. αCD was added to the surfactants dispe...
Article
Rapid precorneal loss of topically applied eye drops limits ocular drug absorption. Controlling release and precorneal residence properties of topical formulations may improve ocular drug bioavailability and duration of action. In this study, we evaluated in vivo ocular pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone in rabbits after application of a drug soluti...
Article
3D printing (3DP), or additive manufacturing, has been actively investigated as one of the enabling technologies for the impending era of personalized medicines. However, existing 3DP technologies do not afford the speeds required for on-demand production of medicines in fast-paced clinical settings. Volumetric printing is a novel 3DP technology th...
Article
Full-text available
Contact lenses (CLs) offer a wide variety of advantages as ocular drug-releasing platforms, but the feasibility of medicated CL development is constrained by numerous scientific, technological, and regulatory challenges. One main difficulty is the setting of release rate specifications for each drug, since at present there are no standardized in vi...
Article
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The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic unveiled an unprecedented scarcity of personal protective equipment (PPE) available in sanitary premises and for the population worldwide. This situation fostered the development of new strategies to reuse PPE that would ensure sterility and, simultaneously, preserve the filtering properties of the materials. In ad...
Article
Gamma rays were evaluated as energy source to generate reactive points onto polyvinyl chloride (PVC) catheters, allowing the grafting of stimuli-responsive vinyl monomers that may endow the catheters with the ability to load and release vancomycin. Dual temperature- and pH- responsiveness was achieved in PVC catheters in a two-step route using the...
Article
The access of biodegradable scaffolds to the clinical arena is constrained by the absence of a suitable sterilization technique for the processing of advanced polymeric materials. Sterilization with supercritical CO2 (scCO2) may circumvent some technological limitations (e.g., low temperature, no chemical residues on the material), although scCO2 c...
Article
In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully synthesized and coated with oleic acid (OA). The mean diameter of these NPs (ZnO-OA) was around 10 nm, their core was characterized by XRD and their coating by FTIR and Raman. Homogeneous dispersions at different concentrations (0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 wt%) of ZnO-OA in polyalphaolefin...
Article
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This work aims to use carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as main structural and functional component of 3D printed scaffolds for healing of diabetic wounds. Differently from previous inks involving small contents in CMC, herein sterile (steam-heated) concentrated CMC solely dispersions (10–20%w/v) were screened regarding printability and fidelity proper...
Article
Chemokines such as stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) regulate the migration of cancer cells that can spread from their primary tumor site by migrating up an SDF-1α concentration gradient, facilitating their local invasion and metastasis. Therefore, the implantation of SDF-1α-releasing scaffolds can be a useful strategy to trap cancer cells ex...
Article
Full-text available
Small-diameter synthetic vascular grafts are required for surgical bypass grafting when there is a lack of suitable autologous vessels due to different reasons, such as previous operations. Thrombosis is the main cause of failure of small-diameter synthetic vascular grafts when used for this revascularization technique. Therefore, the development o...
Article
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Dry eye disease is a common ocular disorder that is characterised by tear deficiency or excessive tear evaporation. Current treatment involves the use of eye drops; however, therapeutic efficacy is limited because of poor ocular bioavailability of topically applied formulations. In this study, digital light processing (DLP) 3D printing was employed...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Diabetes is a pandemic disease that causes relevant ocular pathologies. Diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, cataracts, glaucoma or keratopathy strongly impact the quality of life of the patients. In addition to glycemia control, intense research is devoted to find more efficient ocular drugs and improved delivery systems that can over...
Article
Gene transfer to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has arisen as a powerful approach to increase the therapeutic potential of this effective cell population. Over recent years, niosomes have emerged as self-assembled carriers with promising performance for gene delivery. The aim of our work was to develop effective niosomes-based DNA delivery platforms...
Article
Full-text available
Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME), caused by chronic inflammation, is the most common cause of visual impairment in the medium-term after cataract surgery. Therefore, the prophylactic topical administration of combined steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is commonly done. Drug-eluting intraocular lenses (IOLs) gained interes...
Article
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Hyaluronic acid (HA) and gelatin (Gel) are major components of the extracellular matrix of different tissues, and thus are largely appealing for the construction of hybrid hydrogels to combine the favorable characteristics of each biopolymer, such as the gel adhesiveness of Gel and the better mechanical strength of HA, respectively. However, despit...
Article
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Sterilization is a quite challenging step in the development of novel polymeric scaffolds for regenerative medicine since conventional sterilization techniques may significantly alter their morphological and physicochemical properties. Supercritical (sc) sterilization, i.e. the use of scCO2 as a sterilizing agent, emerges as a promising sterilizati...
Article
Full-text available
The permeability through the cornea determines the ability of a drug or any topically applied compound to cross the tissue and reach the intraocular area. Most of the permeability values found in the literature are obtained considering topical drug formulations, and therefore, refer to the drug permeability inward the eye. However, due to the asymm...
Article
Full-text available
Pulmonary drug delivery has recognized benefits for both local and systemic treatments. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are convenient, portable and environmentally friendly devices, becoming an optimal choice for patients. The tailoring of novel formulations for DPIs, namely in the form of porous particles, is stimulating in the pharmaceutical research...
Article
Age-related eye disorders are chronic diseases that affect millions of people worldwide. They cause visual impairment and, in some cases, irreversible blindness. Drug targeting to the retina is still a challenge due to the difficulties with drug distribution, crossing eye barriers, and reaching intraocular tissues in an effective therapeutic concen...
Article
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Statins are receiving increasing attention in the ophthalmic field. Their activity as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors is clinically used to regulate cholesterol levels and leads to pleiotropic effects, which may help in the management of diabetes-related ocular pathologies. This work aims to design bioinspired contact...
Article
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Contact lenses (CLs) are prone to biofilm formation, which may cause severe ocular infections. Since the use of antibiotics is associated with resistance concerns, here, two alternative strategies were evaluated to endow CLs with antibiofilm features: copolymerization with the antifouling monomer 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and l...
Article
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Fruit juices are successfully proposed as suitable probiotic vehicles, but researchers’ efforts should be developed to avoid effects of bacteria overgrowing on sensory and nutritional cues of final products and to preserve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage. In the present study, encapsulation of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG strain i...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Soft contact lenses (SCLs) constitute a promising vehicle for ocular drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, prolonged contact with the eye and general acceptance. Soaking in the drug solution is the simplest method to load the drug into the SCLs. However, it usually does not ensure a controlled drug release, compatible with the t...
Article
Introduction Atropine is an old-known drug which is gaining increasing attention due to the myriad of therapeutic effects it may trigger on eye structures. Nevertheless, novel applications may require more adequate topical formulations. Areas covered This review aims to gather the existing knowledge about atropine and its clinical applications in...
Article
One of the main challenges of cardiovascular tissue engineering is the development of bioresorbable and compliant small-diameter vascular grafts (SDVG) for patients where autologous grafts are not an option. In this work, electrospun bilayered bioresorbable SDVG based on blends of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and segmented polyurethane (PHD) were pre...
Article
Full-text available
There is an unmet clinical need for eye drop formulations to efficiently treat the diseases of the posterior ocular segment by non-invasive topical administration. Here, we systematically reviewed the literature on ocular penetration enhancers and their ability to transfer drugs to the posterior segment of the eye in experimental studies. Our aim w...
Article
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Aerogels are the lightest processed solid materials on Earth and with the largest empty volume fraction in their structure. Composition versatility, modularity, and feasibility of industrial scale manufacturing are behind the fast emergence of aerogels in the drug delivery field. Compared to other 3D materials, the high porosity (interconnected mes...
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an innovative additive manufacturing technology, capable of fabricating unique objects in a layer-by-layer manner. Semi-solid extrusion (SSE) is a subset of material extrusion 3D printing, based on the sequential deposition of layers of gel or paste to create an object of a desired size and shape. In comparison to...
Chapter
High-throughput screening approaches for the discovery of novel drug entities have led to an increasing number of lipophilic water-insoluble compounds, with poor physicochemical and biopharmaceutical properties. In parallel the need of improvements in traditional dosage forms in terms of personalized drug loading, precise control of the release and...
Article
Full-text available
Physiological wound healing process can be delayed in the presence of certain pathologies, such as diabetes or cancer. In this perspective, the aim of this study was to design a new nanogel platform of hyaluronan, poly-L-lysine and berberine suitable for wound treatment. Two different nanogel formulations were selected after a first formulation scr...
Article
Intravesical instillation therapy is an alternative approach to oral medications for the treatment of severe bladder diseases, offering high drug concentrations at the site of action while minimising systemic side effects. However, therapeutic efficacy is often limited because of the short residence time of the drug in the bladder and the need for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Polyethyleneimine (PEI) is a synthetic cationic polymer recognized as a non-viral gene carrier with high transfection efficiency. However, cytotoxicity issues limit its use. Pluronic block-copolymers conjugated with PEI have demonstrated promising results for multiparametric target gene/drug co-delivery in cancer with reduced side effects. The goal...
Article
A combined strategy to control the release of two drugs, one anti-inflammatory (diclofenac sodium, DCF) and one antibiotic (moxifloxacin hydrochloride, MXF), from a soft contact lens (SCL) material, was assessed. The material was a silicone-based hydrogel, which was modified by molecular imprinting with MXF and coated by the layer-by-layer (LbL) me...
Article
Contact lenses may act as drug release platforms for the treatment of ocular infections, but there is still the need for extending their typical release periods and enhancing ocular bioavailability. The present study aimed to develop a molecularly imprinted silicone-based hydrogel to be used in the manufacturing of contact lenses that can be loaded...
Article
Over 5% of the world's population has disabling hearing loss, which affects approximately one third of individuals over 65 years. Hearing aids are commonly used in this population group, but prolonged use of these devices may cause ear infections. We describe for the first time, the use of 3D printing to fabricate hearing aids loaded with two antib...
Article
This work aimed to implement an electrospinning protocol that allows simultaneous production of micro- and nanofibers in a single scaffold to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) combining biodegradable polymers and proteins, and to evaluate its capability to manage diabetic wounds. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and gelatin (Ge) were chosen to prepa...
Article
Full-text available
The delivery of bioactive agents using active wound dressings for the management of pain and infections offers improved performances in the treatment of wound complications. In this work, solid lipid microparticles (SLMPs) loaded with lidocaine hydrochloride (LID) were processed and the formulation was evaluated regarding its ability to deliver the...
Article
Recently graphene and other 2D materials were suggested as nano additives to enhance the performance of nanolubricants and reducing friction and wear-related failures in moving mechanical parts. Nevertheless, up to our knowledge there are not previous studies on electrochemical exfoliated nanomaterials as lubricant additives. In this work, engine o...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of ocular diseases are caused by viruses, and most treatments rely on the use of systemic formulations and eye drops. The efficient ocular barriers that oppose antiviral drug penetration have prompted the development of improved topical delivery platforms. The aim was to design hydrogel contact lenses endowed with an affinity for acyclovi...
Article
Full-text available
Injectable nanobioplatforms capable of locally fighting the inflammation in osteoarticular diseases, by reducing the number of administrations and prolonging the therapeutic effect is highly challenging. -Cyclodextrin cationic polymers are promising cartilage-penetrating candidates by intra-articular injection due to the high biocompatibility and a...
Article
Over the past several decades, the possibility of joining together compounds in one crystal lattice via well-defined intermolecular forces to shape drug-delivery relevant features e.g. solubility has fuelled the development of crystal engineering in both the academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Cocrystal approaches are particularly useful if b...
Article
Full-text available
Hierarchically porous synthetic bone grafts (scaffolds) are gaining attention in the clinical arena. Scaffolds should combine morphological (macro- and microporosity, pore interconnectivity), mechanical and biological (biocompatibility, degradation rate) properties to fit this specific use. Supercritical (sc-) foaming is a versatile scaffold proces...
Article
Full-text available
Progesterone (PG) may provide protection to the retina during retinitis pigmentosa, but its topical ocular supply is hampered by PG poor aqueous solubility and low ocular bioavailability. The development of efficient topical ocular forms must face up to two relevant challenges: Protective barriers of the eyes and lack of validated ex vivo tests to...
Article
Oligochitosan, a low molecular weight derivative of the cationic biopolymer, chitosan, currently shows a great potential of application as a biodegradable non-toxic stimuli-sensitive drug carrier. This paper aimed to elucidate the thermoresponsive potential of oligochitosan and the temperature-controlled drug binding and release to shed light on ol...
Article
A layer-by-layer (LbL) coating was designed using ionic polysaccharides (chitosan, sodium alginate, sodium hyaluronate) and genipin (crosslinker), to sustain the release of diclofenac sodium salt (DCF) from soft contact lens (SCL) materials. The coating was hydrophilic, biocompatible, non-toxic, reduced bacterial growth and had minor effects on the...
Article
This study aimed to investigate whether hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing can modify the interactions between drugs, cyclodextrins and polymers, and in turn alter the microstructure and properties of supramolecular gels. Mixtures composed of amphiphilic polymer (Soluplus), cyclodextrin (HPβCD or αCD), plasticizer (PEG400 or PEG6000) and colloidal...
Article
In this work, synthesis of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) organomodified LDH Zn2Al carrying glibenclamide (GLIB) was performed in one step and in one-pot to obtain nanoparticles (NP). XRD data showed GLIB adsolubilization (d =14.03 Å) and NP coating with Eudragit L100®. In addition, thermal and XRD data showed exfoliated/intercalated nanocomposite fo...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to design and evaluate novel cyclodextrin (CD)-based aggregate formulations to efficiently deliver nepafenac topically to the eye structure, to treat inflammation and increase nepafenac levels in the posterior segment, thus attenuating the response of inflammatory mediators. The physicochemical properties of nine aggregate...
Article
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As an alternative to eye drops and ocular injections for gene therapy, the aim of this work was to design for the first time hydrogel contact lenses that can act as platforms for the controlled delivery of viral vectors (recombinant adeno-associated virus, rAAV) to the eye in an effective way with improved patient compliance. Hydrogels of hydroxyet...
Article
Cancer remains one of the leading causes of death worldwide despite significant therapeutic advancements and improved detection methods. Nucleic acid (NA) therapeutics are receiving increasing attention for cancer management and cure. Indeed, ribonucleic acid (RNA) oligonucleotides (such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA)), mess...
Article
Full-text available
Acyclovir (ACV) is one of the most used antiviral drugs for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infections and other relevant mucosal infections caused by viruses. Nevertheless, the low water solubility of ACV limits both its bioavailability and antiviral performance. The combination of block copolymer micelles and cyclodextrins (CDs) may result...
Article
Full-text available
Electrospun nanofibers are gaining interest as ocular drug delivery platforms that may adapt to the eye surface and provide sustained release. The aim of this work was to design an innovative ophthalmic insert composed of hyaluronan (HA) nanofibers for the dual delivery of an antioxidant (ferulic acid, FA) and an antimicrobial peptide (ε-polylysine...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this work was to synthesize hybrid thin films prepared combining polyamide-6 (N6) and microcellulose (CE) at various weight ratios. Products exhibited improved mechanical properties, temperature-tunable hydrophilicity, and antimicrobial features. The obtained N6@CE films were grafted with N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) using gamma-rays, prov...
Article
This work aims to design biocompatible aerogel sponges that can host and control the release of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α or CXCL12), a key protein for applications ranging from regenerative medicine to cancer therapy (notably for neural tissues). Miscibility of silk fibroin (SF) and hyaluronic acid (HA) was investigated by means of fl...