Carmen Almendros

Carmen Almendros
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid | UAM · Biological and Health Psychology

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69
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (69)
Article
In the context of the long-term effects of psychological abuse, this study examined psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms in survivors of groups with cultic dynamics where abusive behaviors take place on an ongoing basis. We specifically tested the mediating role of psychological stress suffered after the departure from the group bet...
Article
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Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI-S), which is designed to assess the caregiver’s appraisal of the impact of caring for a relative with a serious mental illness. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 320 caregivers of a relati...
Article
Little attention has been given academically to empirically tested theoretical frameworks that aim to measure the risk of adolescents falling victim to cybergrooming. To this end, we have applied the Routine Activity Theory to investigate whether exposure to motivated offenders (PC/laptop ownership and Internet access in one’s own bedroom), capable...
Article
Little attention has been given academically to empirically tested theoretical frameworks that aim at measuring the risk of adolescents falling victim to cybergrooming. To this end, we have applied the routine activity theory (RAT) to investigate whether exposure to motivated offenders (PC/laptop ownership and Internet access in one's own bedroom),...
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Digital self-harm among spanish adolescents: analysis of prevalence and motivations. Digital self-harm consists of the use of information and com�munication technologies, as Internet and mobile phone, to post, send or share content that is harmful or humiliating to oneself. The first objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of differe...
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This study aims to verify the psychometric properties of the Spanish versions of the Social Roles Questionnaire (SRQ; Baber and Tucker, 2006), Modern Sexism Scale (MS), and Old-Fashioned Sexism Scale (OFS; Swim et al., 1995; Swim and Cohen, 1997). Enough support was found to maintain the original factor structure of all instruments in their Spanish...
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Online hate is a topic that has received considerable interest lately as online hate represents a risk to self-determination and peaceful coexistence in societies around the globe. However, not much is known about the explanations for adolescents posting or forwarding hateful online material or how adolescents cope with this newly emerging online r...
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Online hate is a topic that has received considerable interest lately, as online hate represents a risk to self-determination and peaceful coexistence in societies around the globe. However, not much is known about the explanations for adolescents posting or forwarding hateful online material or how adolescents cope with this newly emerging online...
Article
In the context of the negative consequences of psychological abuse, a scale was developed to specifically assess the emotional disturbances in individuals who had experienced abusive behaviors over a period of time within a cultic group. The Emotional Distress Scale in Survivors of Abusive Groups (EDS-SAG) was administered, along with other relevan...
Article
The purpose of this study was to delimit the psychological and social disturbances that individuals who have suffered psychological abuse within a social group on an ongoing basis can experience. A comprehensive classification of these disturbances was developed based on a review of the scientific literature. Its content was revised by an internati...
Article
The Psychological Abuse Experienced in Groups Scale (PAEGS) is a self-reported questionnaire measuring psychologically abusive behaviors experienced within a group. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the PAEGS for its use in the Spanish-speaking population. An online questionnaire was administered to 269 former...
Article
Rationale: Family refusal to organ donation of a deceased relative represents one of the most important barriers to organ transplantation. Although a large literature about family decisions has amassed, the existing evidence needs further integration and structuring. Objective: This study seeks to analyse relationships between bereaved relatives...
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Gender Role Conflict Scale – Short Form (GRCS-SF; Wester et al. 2012) in a sample of men. In addition, we extend the gender conflict paradigm by evaluating two samples of women with the same instrument. In Study 1, we investigated the inter...
Article
The purpose of this study was to adapt the Psychological Abuse Experienced in Groups Scale (PAEGS) for use in the Japanese population. This scale evaluates the frequency with which an individual has experienced psychologically abusive behaviors within a group. A questionnaire was administered to 130 former members of abusive groups and to a comp...
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Online grooming is the process by which an adult sexually victimizes a minor using the means offered by the Internet. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of persuasion and influence strategies used by aggressors to manipulate and involve minors in online grooming, as well as gender differences. The initial sample consisted of...
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This study applied a mean and covariance structure analysis (MACS) to the data from a Spanish university sample to examine the invariance of the factor structure of the Hoffman Gender Scale (HGS) across gender. The findings indicated that the hypothesized second-order model structure of the HGS was a reasonable representation of the data for males...
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Online sexual grooming and exploitation of adolescents is receiving increasing social attention. Drawing on a social influence framework, the aim of this study was to test a model of the direct and mediated relationships between an adult's use of persuasion strategies and online sexual grooming of early adolescents. The initial sample of the study...
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The aim of this study is the development and analysis of the psychometric properties of a new instrument to assess the possible psychological abuse experienced in a group setting. The Psychological Abuse Experienced in Groups Scale was administered to 138 people who self-identified as former members of abusive groups. Exploratory factor analysis re...
Research
Full-text available
Almendros (2004). Cultic Studies Review, 3 (2), 101-106.
Article
The qualitative research about out-group violence has examined different aspects of this social problem, but the evolution of violent groups has only been approached tangentially. This research analyses the discourses of 124 interviews done with youth from Madrid that belong to violent groups. Describe the interpretation made by young people and id...
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The qualitative research about out-group violence has examined different aspects of this social problem, but the evolution of violent groups has only been approached tangentially. This research analyses the discourses of 124 interviews done with youth from Madrid that belong to violent groups. Describe the interpretation made by young people and id...
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La investigación cualitativa sobre violencia juvenil ha indagado diferentes aspectos de este problema, pero el modo en que los jóvenes se involucran en grupos violentos y cómo evolucionan ha sido abordado solo tangencialmente. Este trabajo analiza cualitativamente 124 entrevistas reali-zadas a jóvenes de la Comunidad de Madrid que declaran pertenec...
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Se analiza diferencialmente la percepción de la conducta violenta grupal por parte de jóvenes. La muestra fueron 418 jóvenes de entre 13-17 años residentes en Madrid, de los cuales el 57.4% había “pegado en los últimos 12 meses a una o más personas pertenecientes a otro grupo” (variable dependiente). Las variables independientes midieron cuatro asp...
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Background: Stress is a known risk factor in addiction relapse, and prior studies show that relapse induced by stress may be more likely than drug-cue induced relapse. The main goal of our research was to establish the influence of perceived stress in methadone withdrawal outcome and the psychological factors involved. Method: A sample of 81 met...
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Background: In the context of intimate partner violence, psychological abuse (PA) has progressively gained scientific relevance. Even so, a greater effort is needed to define and evaluate psychological intimate partner abuse. A new exhaustive and operative taxonomy of PA strategies leads to the contribution of a new evaluation instrument. Method:...
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Background and aims: This study aims to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between three major risky online behaviors during adolescence: problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online. An additional objective was to study the role of impulsivity-irresponsibility as a possible explanatory v...
Article
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Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar y comparar la frecuencia de un amplio rango de métodos de disciplina parental entre España y Estados Unidos, en función del país, del sexo de los padres, del sexo de los hijos y del nivel educativo. Para ello, 2,755 estudiantes universitarios, 1,416 españoles y 1,339 norteamericanos, informaron retrospectiva...
Article
Methadone reduction treatment after a substitutive maintenance treatment still has a clinical interest in the care of patients with opioid addiction. Recent studies about agonist drugs and success in methadone detoxification have provided relevant information, but it is also interesting to explore the possible influence of other factors. The main g...
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Full text here: https://sites.google.com/site/mgamezguadix/publicaciones This study has two objectives: (1) to investigate the occurrence of sexting and online sexual victimization (OSV) in adults by sex, age, and sexual orientation and 2) to analyze whether participating in sexting is a risk factor for OSV. The sample included 873 Spanish 18- to 6...
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The purpose of this study was to delimit group psychological abuse through a psychosocial approach. An operational definition of the phenomenon and a taxonomy of group psychological abuse strategies were proposed based on a review of the scientific literature. A panel of 31 experts in the area evaluated the content of the taxonomy and judged the se...
Article
Taking a psychosocial perspective this study analyses the components of psychological abuse in intimate adult partner violence against women. Following a review of studies on the subject the main objective that emerged was the need for a new taxonomy of psychological abuse strategies, one which should include their corresponding operational definit...
Article
Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Family Questionnaire (FQ) and to further examine the differences between mothers' and fathers' emotional response to an eating disorder (ED). Method: A total of 382 carers of patients with an ED participated in the study, with ages ra...
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The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of child-to-parent violence in a Spanish sample and to analyze the relationship between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and negligent) and child-to-parent violence. Participants in this study were 1343 Spanish university students (74% females; mean age= 21.21; SD= 4.21...
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The objectives of this study were: (a) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among witnessing interparental violence, parenting practices, and children's long-term psychosocial adjustment; (b) to analyze the possible gender differences in the relationships specified. The sample consisted of 1295 Spanish university students (M age = 21.21...
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The first objective of this study was to examine the relationship between witnessing interparental violence and children's long-term psychological distress, and the extent to which this relation is mediated by deteriorating parenting practices (i.e., harsh discipline, affection/support, interparental and intraparental consistency). The second objec...
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Recent advances in "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapies" (HAART), aimed at controlling and preventing the spreading of HIV/AIDS, have improved the quality of life and life expectancies of many patients with this fatal disease. Nevertheless, a significant number of difficulties persist, such as the existence of individuals from disadvantaged grou...
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In the different settings where it has been studied, psychological abuse has been defined as an elusive concept with a difficult operationalization (e.g., Almendros, Gámez-Guadix, Carrobles, Rodríguez-Carballeira and Porrúa, 2009). If this is the case in the family (e.g., psychological abuse against the partner, children or the elderly), school or...
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The current study investigated the association between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction and psychological well-being in a sample of Spanish women. The participants were 157 female university students who completed questionnaires regarding their sexuality. Independent variables were various dimensions of sexual functioning, including orgasm l...
Article
The current study investigated the association between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction and psychological well-being in a sample of Spanish women. The participants were 157 female university students who completed questionnaires regarding their sexuality. Independent variables were various dimensions of sexual functioning, including orgasm l...
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This work reviews the studies that have investigated psychological abuse in group settings, particularly highlighting their evaluation and discussing their main findings. It has been asserted, in the different settings where it was studied, that psychological abuse is an elusive concept, difficult to operationalize (e.g., Almendros, Gámez-Guadix, C...
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Corporal punishment (CP) is probably the most controversial issue in the literature on parental discipline. Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze if the relation between CP and behavior problems is moderated by a positive parenting context in which CP may be used and by the co-occurrence of psychological aggression. Method: The sam...
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The aims of this study were: (a) to examine the prevalence of corporal punishment (CP) of children in Spain; (b) to analyze the extent to which CP is used in combination with psychological aggression and positive parenting among Spanish parents; and (c) to investigate whether the relation between CP and behavior problems is moderated by a positive...
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Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (DDI) in university students. Discipline is a central aspect of parenting that includes the behaviors that parents use to correct children's misbehavior or to achieve their compliance. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Dime...
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Sólo en las últimas décadas las conductas de abuso o violencia de tipo psicológico han adquirido una notable relevancia social en nuestro entorno occidental. Son ahora abundantes los estudios al respecto por parte de los investigadores, así como el análisis, evaluación y tratamiento que los profesionales realizan sobre dichas conductas abusivas y s...
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La Disciplina Parental constituye un aspecto fundamental de las prácticas de crianza que incluye las conductas de los padres y madres dirigidas a corregir el comportamiento inadecuado del menor y a lograr su obediencia. En el presente estudio se analizó en una muestra de 1.097 estudiantes universitarios la estructura interna del Inventario de Dimen...
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This work presents an analysis and review of the studies carried out about psychological abuse in couple relationships. This problem is receiving increasing attention by the scientific community because of its importance, its high prevalence and the harm it causes. After a review of the more relevant contributions and their practical implications,...
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Este trabajo pretende examinar el proceso de vinculación de una persona a un grupo de manipulación psicológica (GMP) o secta coercitiva. Para ello, se aplicó una batería de cuestionarios a 101 españoles auto-identificados como ex-miembros de diversos GMP, a 38 exmiembros de grupos no manipulativos y a 24 personas que simularon haber sido miembros d...
Article
En este artículo se abordan algunos de los aspectos principales que ayudan a explicar el tipo de vínculo que se construye al entrar una persona en una secta coercitiva. Se revisan elementos definitorios y delimitadores del marco de acción de ese tipo de sectas o grupos de manipulación psicológica. Se presta especial atención al proceso de vinculaci...
Article
Many former cult members perceive themselves to have been psychologically abused during their cult involvement (Chambers, Langone, Dole y Grice, 1994); adjustment and psychological difficulties after leaving a cult also have been documented (Aronoff, Lynn y Malinoski, 2000). It has been argued that those evaluations of former cult experiences are n...
Article
The present article aims at exploring the internal functioning of terrorist groups in terms of those dynamics that are typical of coercive cults. Using a social psychology perspective, we describe the main features that define both types of groups, and analyse the interaction processes appearing in them. We focus first on the interaction between th...
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Resumen Este trabajo ofrece un análisis y revisión de los estudios sobre abuso psico-lógico en las relaciones de pareja, problema que está recibiendo una atención creciente por parte de la comunidad científica, debido, entre otras razones, a su importancia, a su elevada prevalencia y a sus consecuencias. A partir de la revi-sión de las contribucion...
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This exploratory study aims to examine the perceptions that 101 self-identified Spanish former members of diverse abusive groups have of their past group and their reasons for leaving it, as well as the psychological distress they experienced following their exit. In addition, we compare the participants' responses according to their methods of exi...
Article
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This study investigates the relationship between antiretroviral treatment and drug abuse. For this prospective study, investigators followed a sample of 100 HIV+ patients on a methadone maintenance program in Madrid (Spain), over a period of time of one year. A high percentage of participants (more than 50% according to the indicators) were seen to...
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Several factors have been described in the literature as influencing an individual’s susceptibility to cult recruitment and/or remaining within the cult. Some of these factors have been widely and repeatedly asserted, although the scarce data available from empirical research in this subject and other cultrelated topics (Aronoff, Lynn & Malinoski,...
Article
Based on a review of the literature on psychological violence or abuse, an approach to its definition is made. Three different settings in which psychological violence or abuse may occur are analysed in order to study the similarities and differences in psychologically abusive behaviours. The settings are a) manipulative groups such as coercive cul...
Article
A partir de una revisión del campo de la violencia o abuso psicológico,se realiza una aproximación a su delimitación y se analiza su aplicación en tres ámbitos distintos para estudiar las similitudes y diferencias existentes entre ellos. En concreto, se estudia el abuso psicológico aplicado en grupos manipulativos como algunas sectas, el aplicado e...
Article
This work shows preliminary results for the adaptation of the Group Psychological Abuse Scale (GPA) (Chambers, Langone, Dole and Grice, 1994), for the measurement of group psychological abuse to the Spanish population. This scale is unique in assembling the varieties and extent of psychological abuse in group contexts. The Spanish translation of th...
Article
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En este estudio se presentan datos preliminares para la adaptación a la población española de la escala Group Psychological Abuse Scale (GPA) (Chambers, Langone, Dole y Grice, 1994) para la medida del abuso psicológico en grupos. Esta escala es única para la medición específica de la extensión y variedades de abuso psicológico en contextos grupales...

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Project
define how group psychological abuse-strategies and behaviors are used in Islamist oriented radicalization, defining the extent of each behaviour for every category and sub-categories particularly in early stage and recommendations to facilitate disengagement.