Carlton Cooke

Carlton Cooke
Leeds Trinity University · Leeds Trinity Sport, Health and Nutrition (SHN) Department

About

192
Publications
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Publications

Publications (192)
Article
The determinants of energy saving phenomena reported for load carried on the head, back and in a doublepack remain unclear. This study compared the energetic, kinematic and kinetic responses to head (H), back (B) and doublepack (DP) loading. Fifteen volunteers walked on an instrumented treadmill at 3 km.h⁻¹ with 0, 3, 12 and 20 kg in each loading m...
Article
Objectives: To profile performance and physiological responses to typical patterns of match-day activity for second-half soccer substitutes. Design: Descriptive. Methods: Following a warm-up, 13 male team sports players underwent ∼85min of rest, punctuated with five min rewarm-ups at ∼25, ∼50, and ∼70min, before ∼30min of simulated soccer matc...
Article
Purpose: To quantify the peak post-pitch-entry physical responses of soccer substitutes while assessing contextual influences. Peak responses may be important performance indicators for substitutes introduced to provide a physical impact. Method: Thirty-three professional substitutes wore Microelectromechanical Systems during 44 matches (4 ± 3 obse...
Article
Full-text available
To minimize underperformance, injury, and illness, and to enhance readiness for training and match-play, post-match responses are commonly monitored within professional rugby. As no clear consensus exists regarding the magnitude and duration of post-match recovery, this review summarized the literature (17 studies yielded from literature searching/...
Article
Full-text available
Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) and functional IMT (IMTF: exercise-specific IMT activities) has been unsuccessful in reducing respiratory muscle fatigue following load carriage. IMTF did not include load carriage specific exercises. Fifteen participants split into two groups (training and control) walked 6 km loaded (18.2 kg) at speeds representi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of step width on load carriage economy. Fifteen healthy volunteers (age = 25 ± 3 years; stature = 1.78 ± 0.07 m; body mass = 73.6 ± 10.1 kg) completed three trials in a randomised order. Each trial differed by load carriage method and involved walking on a force-instrumented at 3km. h-1 with 0,...
Article
The development of performance adaptations resulting from an uphill-downhill training program and monitoring of the decline of adaptations during detraining.
Article
Development and maintenance of sprint training adaptations: an uphill-downhill study. J Strength Cond Res 36(1): 90–98, 2022-We examined the development of performance adaptations resulting from an uphill-downhill training program and monitored the decline of adaptations during detraining. Twenty-eight men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sprint tr...
Article
Equivocal findings exist for the economy associated with load carried close to the body's centre of mass. Individual variation could explain some of the equivocal findings. This research aimed to examine the extent of individual variation in loaded walking economy. Eighteen females carried load on the back, head and split between the front and back...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Battle Back Centre offers a bespoke, Self Determination Theory-oriented adapted sport and adventurous training programme centred on experiential learning and reflection to support the recovery of military personnel. Aim: To identify the short-term impact of participation in the programme on positive mental health and psychologica...
Article
BACKGROUND: While respiratory muscle fatigue is present following load carriage activity at sea level, the effect of environmental conditions on respiratory strength while undertaking load carriage is unknown.METHODS: The effect of thoracic load carriage during walks (5.5 km) in four environments [(thermo-neutral sea level (SL), -10°C (C), 4300 m (...
Article
It has been suggested that freedom of movement in the trunk could influence load carriage economy. This study aimed to compare the economy and sagittal plane trunk movements associated with three load carriage methods that constrain posture differently. Eighteen females walked at 3 km.h⁻¹ with loads of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 20 kg carried on the ba...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Adductor longus injuries are complex. The conflict between views in the recent literature and various nineteenth-century anatomy books regarding symphyseal and perisymphyseal anatomy can lead to difficulties in MRI interpretation and treatment decisions. The aim of the study is to systematically investigate the pyramidalis muscle and its an...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster summarizes the results of secondary data analysis of hip arthroscopy patients. We looked at the hip muscle strength, the range of motion and flexibility changes over a period of 24 weeks postoperatively. Muscle strength and joint flexibility measured by the FABER distance showed a statistically significant improvement with the biggest ch...
Poster
Full-text available
A study looking at the validity and reliability of the Groin Abductor-Adductor Strength Platform (GrAASP), which is a recently designed strength testing platform. A hand-held dynamometer (HHD) was used to measure muscle strength. The findings indicate that the GrAASP is a valid and a reliable stabilising platform in assessing hip abduction and addu...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of load carriage in a range of temperatures to establish the interaction between cold exposure, the magnitude of change from unloaded to loaded walking and gradient. Methods Eleven participants (19–27 years) provided written informed consent before performing six randomly ordered walk...
Article
Objectives: To retrospectively compare the longitudinal physical development of junior rugby league players between the Under 13 and 15 age categories in relation to their adult career attainment outcome. Design: Retrospective longitudinal design. Methods: Fifty-one former junior rugby league players were retrospectively grouped according to t...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of creatine (Cr) supplementation on anaerobic performance when ingesting creatine and carbohydrates (CHO) together. Twenty male physical education students comprised the two experimental (CR and CRCHO) and one control (CON) groups of the study. All groups performed three 30 s anaerobic Wingate test...
Article
The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the Extra Load Index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km.h⁻¹, 6 km.h⁻¹ and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involv...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the effects of coingesting glucose and fructose on exogenous and endogenous substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise at altitude and sea level, in men. Seven male British military personnel completed two bouts of cycling at the same relative workload (55% Wmax) for 120 min on acute exposure to altitude (3375 m) and at sea l...
Article
Introduction Life expectancy has increased and elderly people have the desire to live an active lifestyle with participation in sports. Hip arthroscopy has not yet been established as standard treatment in this group of patients. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes after hip arthroscopy for FAI in patients aged over 50, as well as t...
Article
Purpose: To compare the accuracy and goodness-of-fit of two competing models (linear versus allometric) when estimating V˙O2max (ml.kg.min) using non-exercise prediction models. Methods: The two competing models were fitted to the V˙O2max (ml.kg.min) data taken from two previously published studies. Study 1 (the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Su...
Article
The purpose of the study was to assess the validity and inter-bike reliability of 10 Wattbike cycle ergometers, and to assess the test-retest reliability of one Wattbike. Power outputs from 100 to 1000 W were applied using a motorised calibration rig (LODE) at cadences of 70, 90, 110 and 130 rev · min(-1), which created nineteen different intensiti...
Conference Paper
A popular coaching recommendation is the acute coupling of a mechanically similar resistance exercise with an explosive movement, which in combination elicits an acute enhancement termed Post-Activation Potentiation (PAP). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the PAP model with regards to sprint performance. METHODS: Fiftee...
Article
Full-text available
Prediction of adult performance from early age talent identification in sport remains difficult. Talent identification research has generally been performed using univariate analysis, which ignores multivariate relationships. To address this issue, this study used a novel higher-dimensional model to orthogonalize multivariate anthropometric and fit...
Data
Exploratory Dataset. (XLSX)
Data
Validation Dataset. (XLSX)
Article
Purpose: To evaluate the movement and physiological demands of the Australasian National Rugby League (NRL) referees, officiating with a 'two referee' (i.e., 'lead' and 'pocket') system and to compare the demands of the lead referee and pocket referees. Methods: 10 Hz global positioning system devices were used to obtain 86 data sets ('lead', n=...
Article
Introduction Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) with associated intra-articular hip pathologies is a recognised cause of pain and disability in athletes. The purpose of this study is to report the clinical outcomes and time to return to play football between professional and non-professional athletes following hip arthroscopic surgery for femoroace...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the influence of annual-age category, relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on the career attainment outcomes of junior rugby league players originally selected for a talent identification and development (TID) programme. Junior rugby league players (N = 580) were grouped retrospectively according to their c...
Article
This study examined the effects of sprint running training on sloping surfaces (3°) in experienced sprinters using selected kinematic variables. Twelve experienced sprinters were randomly allocated to two training groups (combined uphill-downhill and horizontal). Pre- and post-training tests were performed to examine the effects of six weeks of tra...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A sprint kayaking specific deterministic model was used to identify key performance related technique factors using data from 12 international-level kayakers. There was large variability in the strength of the between-factor relationships across the group. The pull phase was split into 3 components with the 1st phase contributing the most to increa...
Article
Research into the physiological and movement demands of Rugby League (RL) referees is limited, with only one study in the European Super League (SL). To date, no studies have considered decision-making in RL referees. The purpose of this study was to quantify penalty accuracy scores of RL referees and determine the relationship between penalty accu...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), power at VO2peak and power at the anaerobic threshold (AT) with national ranking in a sample of British high performance junior surfers. Methods. Eighteen male surfers (aged 15.4 ± 1.4 years) from the British Junior Surfing team were t...
Article
Full-text available
Background Current UK policy in relation to the influence of the `food environment¿ on childhood obesity appears to be driven largely on assumptions or speculations because empirical evidence is lacking and findings from studies are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the number of food outlets and the proximity of food outlets i...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the annual and long-term (i.e., 4 year) development of anthropometric and physical characteristics in academy (16-20 years) rugby league players. Players were assessed at the start of pre-season over a six year period and were required to be assessed on consecutive years to be included in the study (...
Article
Two of the leading competitions in rugby league are the European Super League (SL) and Australasian National Rugby League (NRL); however, they adopt different officiating systems. The SL operates with one referee, whereas the NRL operates with two referees (NRL head and NRL pocket referees). There is currently no research comparing the movement dem...
Article
To advance our understanding of talent identification and development (TID), it is valuable to retrospectively trace athletes’ long-term career progression (Vaeyens et al. [2008]. Journal of Sports Sciences, 38, 703-714). However, research monitoring athletes career progression through TID programmes into professional sport are limited and no study...
Article
Rugby league referees have the responsibility of enforcing the laws of the game and can influence the outcome based on their decisions. Performance demands inherent in refereeing involve fitness and positioning, law knowledge and application, contextual judgement and game management (Weston et al., 2012, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 42...
Article
Professional rugby league clubs implement training programmes for the development of anthropometric and physical characteristics within an academy programme. However, research that examines seasonal changes in these characteristics is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the seasonal changes in anthropometric and physical characteristi...
Article
Full-text available
The multi-stage 20-m shuttle run fitness test (20mMSFT) is a popular field test which is widely used to measure aerobic fitness by predicting maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and performance. However, the velocity at which VO2max occurs (vVO2max) is a better indicator of performance than VO2max, and can be used to explain inter-individual differences...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) were evaluated at rest and during exercise in normobaric hypoxia (NH) and then an 11-day trek to 5300m. A 7-week IMT program was completed by 6 females and 3 males (age 34.8 ± 10.0 years) randomized to IMT (n = 4) or placebo [P (n = 5)]. A Powerbreathe was initially set at a resistance of 50% (IMT) o...
Article
Objectives The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Design Retrospective design Method Former j...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the effects of wave conditions on performance and the physiological responses of surfers. Following institutional ethical approval 39 recreational surfers participated in 60 surfing sessions where performance and physiological response were measured using GPS heart rate monitors. Using GPS the percentage time spent in surfin...
Article
Objectives To generate insights into the personal meaning and value of an inclusive adventurous training and adapted sport course for military personnel who have experienced physical disability as a result of injuries sustained during active service. Design Narrative storytelling approach based on collaboratively written creative nonfictions. Met...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of the pre-exercise (30 minutes) ingestion of galactose (Gal) or glucose (Glu) on endurance capacity as well as glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Ten trained male cyclists completed three randomised high-intensity cycling endurance tests. Thirty minutes prior to each trial cyclists ingested 1 litre of either 40g...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric profiles of male surfers and to investigate the relationship of these measures with performance and ability. Following institutional ethical approval, 79 male surfers underwent anthropometric assessment. These surfers composed of three sub-groups of professional (n=17; age: 34.12, s...
Article
Athlete development through adolescence can vary greatly due to maturational processes. For example, variation can be observed in anthropometric and fitness measures with later maturing individuals 'catching up' their earlier maturing peers at a later time points. This study examined a methodological issue concerning how best to assess anthropometr...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of jump height (h), absolute (VPOWERABS) and relative to body mass (VPOWERREL) performance indices when elicited of a modified 30 s Bosco vertical jump test (VJT) based on the absolute (WPOWERABS) and relative (WPOWERREL) power values of a 30 s Wingate test (WAnT). Methods: Nineteen ph...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity over time in the same individuals comparing body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR). Five year longitudinal repeated measures study (2005-2010). Children were aged 11-12 (Y7) years at baseline and measurements were repeated at age 13-14 (Y9)...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of an 8-week uphill-downhill sprint training programme on the force generation capacity of leg muscles. Twenty-four university students were randomly allocated to one of two training groups (combined uphill-downhill and horizontal) and a control group. The combined training method produced significant improvements in...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English academy rugby league players by annual-age category (Under 16s - Under 20s) and between backs and forwards. Data was collected on 133 academy players over a 6 year period (resulting in a total of 257 assessments). Player assessments comprised...
Article
Purpose: To explore the psychosocial outcomes of an inclusive adapted sport and adventurous training course that aims to support the rehabilitation and personal development of military personnel who have sustained physical and/or psychological disability. Method: Narrative life story interviews were conducted with 11 men aged 20-43 taking part i...
Article
Chronic adductor enthesopathy is a well-known cause of groin pain in athletes. Currently, percutaneous nonselective adductor tenotomies give mixed results and not always predictable outcomes. A selective partial adductor longus release as treatment for recalcitrant chronic adductor longus enthesopathy provides excellent pain relief with a prompt an...
Article
The use of global positioning systems (GPS) technology within referees of any sport is limited. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the movement and physiological demands of professional rugby league referees using GPS tracking analysis. Time-motion analysis was undertaken on 8 referees using 5-Hz GPS devices and heart rate...
Article
This study evaluated the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics of three individual adolescent junior rugby league players, and compared their characteristics with a cross-sectional population matched by age and skill level. Cross-sectional anthropometric and fitness assessments were conducted on 1,172 players selected to the Rug...
Article
Objective: It has been suggested that childhood obesity is inversely associated with deprivation, such that the prevalence is higher in more deprived groups. However, comparatively few studies actually use an area-level measure of deprivation, limiting the scope to assess trends in the association with obesity for this indicator. Furthermore, most...
Article
This study longitudinally evaluated whether maturation and relative age interact with time during adolescence to differentially affect the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players. Anthropometric and fitness characteristics of 81 junior players selected into the UK Rugby Football League's talent ident...
Article
Objectives: The current study provided a longitudinal evaluation of the anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players across three annual-age categories (i.e., under 13s, 14s and 15s) considering playing position and selection level. Design: Longitudinal design. Methods: Eighty-one junior rugby league players select...
Article
This study determined the effect of ingesting galactose and glucose 30 min before exercise on exogenous and endogenous fuel use during exercise. Nine trained male cyclists completed three bouts of cycling at 60% Wmax for 120 min after an overnight fast. Thirty minutes before exercise, the cyclists ingested a fluid formulation containing placebo, 75...
Article
The Vendée Globe is a solo round-the-world sailing race without stopovers or assistance, a physically demanding challenge for which appropriate nutrition should maintain energy balance and ensure optimum performance. This is an account of prerace nutritional preparation with a professional and experienced female racer and assessment of daily nutrit...
Article
Full-text available
The characterisation of bone geometry in male and female athletes may increase our understanding of how physical loading may enhance bone strength in both sexes. This study investigated sexual dimorphism in hip geometry of athletes and age- and sex-matched non-athletes. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the left proximal femur was performed in 62...
Article
This study assessed the reproducibility of performance and selected metabolic variables during a variable high-intensity endurance cycling test. 8 trained male cyclists (age: 35.9 ± 7.7 years, maximal oxygen uptake: 54.3 ± 3.9 mL·kg - 1·min - 1) completed 4 high-intensity cycling tests, performed in consecutive weeks. The protocol comprised: 20 min...
Article
Research suggests that there has been a leveling off in obesity prevalence occurring in the child population. However, a concern with the evidence base is that all of the studies have relied upon the use of BMI. The purpose of this study was to compare waist circumference (WC), BMI, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) data in three different sample of...