Carlos KH Wong

Carlos KH Wong
The University of Hong Kong | HKU · Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy

PhD, MPhil, BSc

About

311
Publications
28,409
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3,761
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - present
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Professor
August 2014 - July 2017
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • Professor
November 2012 - July 2014
The University of Hong Kong
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (311)
Article
Background Evidence remains inconclusive on any significant benefits of remdesivir in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. This study explored the disease progression, various clinical outcomes, changes in viral load, and costs associated with early remdesivir treatment among COVID-19 patients. Methods A territory-wide retrospective cohort of 10,41...
Article
Full-text available
Background Safety after the second dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine remains to be elucidated, especially among individuals reporting adverse events after their first dose. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a delayed second dose on all-cause mortality and emergency services. Methods A territory-wide, retrospective cohort of people who had com...
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Background Safety monitoring of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines is crucial during mass vaccination rollout to inform the choice of vaccines and reduce vaccine hesitancy. Considering the scant evidence directly comparing the safety profiles of mRNA and inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, this territory-wide cohort study aims to compare the...
Article
Background Case reports of severe acute liver injury (ALI) following COVID-19 vaccination are recently described. We evaluated the risks of ALI following COVID-19 vaccines (BNT162b2 or CoronaVac). Methods We conducted a modified self-controlled case series analysis using the vaccination records in Hong Kong with data linkage to electronic medical...
Article
Background Data on the effectiveness of oral antivirals in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 are urgently needed. This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical and virological outcomes associated with molnupiravir or nirmatrelvir–ritonavir use in hospitalised patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 during a pandemic wave domi...
Article
OBJECTIVE Patients with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for fracture risk because of attenuated bone turnover and impaired bone microarchitecture. The comparative effect of warfarin over non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) on incident fractures among patients with type 2 diabetes comorbid with atrial fibrillation (AF) remains to...
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Objectives To highlight the prevalence of sleep problems and identify associated risk factors among a representative sample recruited from the general population of Hong Kong. Design, setting and participants Participants included 12 022 individuals (aged 15 or above) who took part in the Population Health Survey 2014/15, a territory-wide survey c...
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Background: Magnetically controlled growing rods (MCGR) have replaced traditional growing rods (TGR) in the past decade, however, a comparison of their direct costs and treatment outcomes based on real longitudinal data is lacking. This study aims to compare the direct cost and treatment outcomes between TGR and MCGR, whilst incorporating complica...
Article
Data regarding protection against mortality and severe complications after Omicron BA.2 infection with CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccines remains limited. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of severe complications and mortality following 1-3 doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 using electronic health records database. Cases were adults...
Article
OBJECTIVE The Risk Assessment and Management Programme–Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) is a protocol-driven, risk-stratified, and individualized management program offered by a multidisciplinary team in addition to usual care for primary care patients with diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of RAMP-DM for preventing complications...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Healthcare avoidance in the COVID-19 Pandemic has been widely reported. Yet few studies have investigated the dynamics of hospital avoidance behaviour during pandemic waves and inferred its impact on excess non-COVID-19 death toll. OBJECTIVE To measure the impact of hospital avoidance behaviour on excess mortality using emergency depart...
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Background This study aims to evaluate the association between thromboembolic events and hemorrhagic stroke following BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination. Methods Patients with incident thromboembolic events or hemorrhagic stroke within 28 days of covid-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 positive test during 23 February to 30 September 2021 were included...
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Background: The relationship between good early control of thyroid hormone levels after thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease (GD) and subsequent risks of mortality and morbidities is not well known. The aim of this study was to examine the association between thyroid hormone levels within a short interval after surgery and long-term mortality and morb...
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Aim To investigate and quantify the risks of AKI and ALI associated with remdesivir use, given the underlying diseases of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection. Methods This self‐controlled case series (SCCS) study was conducted using electronic hospital records between 23 January 2020 and 31 January 2021 as retrieved from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority which ma...
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Background Because evidence on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in older adults is scarce, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk of adverse events after CoronaVac (Sinovac Biotech) vaccination in adults aged 60 years or older. Methods In this modified self-controlled case series, we enrolled adults aged 60 years or older who had received at l...
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BACKGROUND: Because evidence on the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in older adults is scarce, we aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk of adverse events after CoronaVac (Sinovac Biotech) vaccination in adults aged 60 years or older. METHODS: In this modified self-controlled case series, we enrolled adults aged 60 years or older who had received at...
Article
Background: Postoperative pain following laparotomy for gynaecological diseases is a common problem that requires effective management to ensure patient satisfaction and recovery. Despite the wide use of acupuncture for pain management, knowledge of its efficacy in managing postoperative pain is limited. Previous literature used either acupuncture...
Article
Background Kidney benefits have been demonstrated for both sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1RA) compared with placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to compare the impacts of SGLT2i and GLP1RA on the trend of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and othe...
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Aims: Concern about the cardiovascular safety of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines among individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) may lead to vaccine hesitancy. We sought to assess the association between two COVID-19 vaccines, BNT162b2 and CoronaVac, and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in individuals with es...
Article
Background Observable symptoms of Bell’s palsy following vaccinations may arouse concern over the safety profiles of novel COVID-19 vaccines in the general public. However, there are only a few studies on Bell’s palsy following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination with inconclusive findings. This study aimed to update the previous analysis on the risk of Bell...
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Background: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) have proven cardiovascular benefits in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This self-controlled case series study aims to evaluate whether metformin use and SGLT2i-associated erythrocytosis influence its cardiovascular benefits. Methods: T2D patients with metformin and/or SGLT2i pre...
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Background Post-marketing pharmacovigilance data are scant on the safety of Covid-19 vaccines among people with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with ordinary vaccine recipients. We compared the post-vaccination adverse events of special interests (AESI), accident and emergency room (A&E) visit, and hospitalization between these two groups. M...
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LINKED CONTENT This article is linked to Wong et al papers. To view these articles, visit https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.16894 and https://doi.org/10.1111/apt.16921
Article
Objective: We aimed to characterize SGLT2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) -associated post-operative diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods: We analyzed a territory-wide cohort of type 2 diabetes patients who underwent operations during 2015-2020. Patients who had SGLT2i prescriptions within 6 months before operations were assigned to...
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Background: Post-marketing pharmacovigilance data are scant on the safety of Covid-19 vaccines among people with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with ordinary vaccine recipients. We compared the post-vaccination adverse events of special interests (AESI), accident and emergency room (A&E) visit, and hospitalization between these two groups....
Preprint
Background Evidence evaluating real-world effectiveness of oral antivirals against Omicron variants is lacking. Methods An unselected, territory-wide cohort of all initially non-hospitalized patients with an officially registered diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection between 26th February and 3rd May 2022 during the Omicron BA.2.2 wave in Hong Kong, w...
Preprint
Background Real-world evidence on the effectiveness of oral antivirals in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients is urgently needed. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the clinical and virologic outcomes associated with molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir/ritonavir use in COVID-19 patients during a pandemic wave dominated by the Omicron BA.2 va...
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Full-text available
Background The World Health Organization has defined a list of adverse events of special interest (AESI) for safety surveillance of vaccines. AESI have not been adequately assessed following COVID-19 vaccination in patients with cancer contributing to vaccine hesitancy in this population. We aimed to evaluate the association between BNT162b2 and Co...
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Importance: COVID-19 has required universities to rapidly develop vaccination policies for students and staff, yet little is known about the preferences of these individuals toward vaccination. Objective: To quantify student and staff preferences for COVID-19 vaccination at a university in Hong Kong. Design, setting, and participants: A cross-...
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Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major non-communicable disease with an increasing prevalence. Undiagnosed DM is not uncommon and can lead to severe complications and mortality. Identifying high-risk individuals at an earlier disease stage, that is, pre-diabetes (pre-DM), is crucial in delaying progression. Existing risk models mainly rely...
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Objectives: This retrospective cohort study aims to explore head-to-head clinical outcomes and complications associated with tocilizumab or baricitinib initiation among hospitalized COVID-19 patients receiving dexamethasone. Methods: Among 10,445 COVID-19 patients hospitalized between January 21st 2020 and January 31st 2021 in Hong Kong, patients w...
Article
Objectives: There was initially insufficient understanding regarding suitable pharmacological treatment for pediatric Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) was originally used for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. It was also used in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrom...
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Background Evidence has indicated that depression and obesity were associated with functional disability, independently. However, little is known about the detrimental impact of comorbid depression and obesity, as well as its transition on functional disability. This study investigated the association of baseline depression-obesity status and its d...
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Background: Several studies reported hematological abnormalities after vaccination against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated the association between COVID-19 vaccines (CoronaVac and BNT162b2) and hematological abnormalities. Methods: We conducted nested case-control and self-controlled case series (SCCS) analyses using the da...
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Background Stimulation of immunity by vaccination may elicit adverse events. There is currently inconclusive evidence on the relationship between herpes zoster related hospitalization and COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inactivated virus (CoronaVac, Sinovac) and mRNA (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Fosun Pharma) COVID-19 vaccin...
Article
Background Concerns regarding the autoimmune safety of COVID-19 vaccines may negatively impact vaccine uptake. We aimed to describe the incidence of autoimmune conditions following BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination and compare these with age-standardized incidence rates in non-vaccinated individuals. Methods This is a descriptive cohort study con...
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Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Stimulation of immunity by vaccination may elicit adverse events. There is currently inconclusive evidence on the relationship between herpes zoster related hospitalization and COVID-19 vaccination. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inactivated virus (CoronaVac, Sinovac) and mRNA (BNT162b2, BioNTech/Fosun Pharma) COVID-19 vacci...
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Introduction: More than half of diabetes mellitus (DM) and pre-diabetes (pre-DM) cases remain undiagnosed, while existing risk assessment models are limited by focusing on DM only (omitting pre-DM) and often lack lifestyle factors such as sleep. This study aimed to develop a non-laboratory risk assessment model to detect undiagnosed DM and pre-DM...
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Objectives Although clinical data have shown that the BNT162b2 vaccine, which is widely used in many countries, is safe and effective as a protection against the Covid-19 infection, extant research in adverse reactions using real-world data of various socio-demographic characteristics is scant. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study to com...
Article
Background: Case reports of carditis after BNT162b2 vaccination are accruing worldwide. Objective: To examine the association of BNT162b2 and CoronaVac (Sinovac) vaccination with carditis. Design: Case–control study with hospital control participants. Setting: Territory-wide, public health care database with linkage to population-based vaccination...
Article
OBJECTIVE: CoronaVac (Sinovac) Covid-19 vaccine has recently been approved for emergency use by the World Health Organization. However, data on its reactogenicity in real-world settings is scant. This study aimed to compare self-reported post-vaccination adverse reactions between CoronaVac and Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech). METHODS: We adopted a pros...
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AimThis study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between metformin use and clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Methods Patients with T2DM with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and admitted between January 21, 2020, and January 31, 2021 in Hong Kong were i...
Article
Background: Thyroiditis and Graves' disease have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. We evaluated the risks of adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination among patients treated for hypothyroidism. Methods: In this retrospective population-based cohort study of Hong Kong Hospital Authority electronic health records with Department of Health...
Article
Objective CoronaVac (Sinovac) Covid-19 vaccine has recently been approved for emergency use by the World Health Organization. However, data on its reactogenicity in real-world settings is scant. This study aimed to compare self-reported post-vaccination adverse reactions between CoronaVac and Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech). Methods We adopted a prosp...
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Objectives To assess the psychometric performance of proxy-reported EQ-5D-Y-5L (Y-5L) in comparisons with EQ-5D-Y-3L (Y-3L) administered by caregivers of patients with juvenile (JIS) or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods A consecutive sample of caregivers of JIS or AIS patients were recruited. Redistribution property, ceiling effects,...
Article
Background New antidiabetic agents (sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor [SGLT2i] and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist [GLP-1RA]) and metabolic surgery have protective effects on metabolic syndromes. Objectives To compare the changes of metabolic parameters and costs among patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes undergoing metabolic...
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Objectives: Although clinical data have shown that the BNT162b2 vaccine, which is widely used in many countries, is safe and effective as a protection against the Covid-19 infection, extant research in adverse reactions using real-world data of various socio-demographic characteristics is scant. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study to c...
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Full-text available
Prior research using electronic health records for Covid-19 vaccine safety monitoring typically focuses on specific disease groups and excludes individuals with multimorbidity, defined as ≥2 chronic conditions. We examine the potential additional risk of adverse events 28 days after the first dose of CoronaVac or Comirnaty imposed by multimorbidity...
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Accruing evidence suggests an increased risk of myocarditis in adolescents from messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccines. However, other potential adverse events remain under-researched. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adolescents aged 12 – 18 with a territory-wide electronic healthcare database of the Hong Kong population linked with populatio...
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Background: Electronic measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) may facilitate timely and regular assessments in routine clinical practice. This study evaluated the validity and psychometric properties of an electronic version of the EQ-5D-5L (e-EQ-5D-5L) in Chinese patients with chronic knee and/or back problems. Methods: 151 Chine...
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Developed as an antidiabetic drug, recent evidence suggests that several sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), especially canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, may exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities in selected cancer types, including an inhibition of tumor growth and induction of cell death. When used in combination with...
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Background and objectives Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have poorer prognosis. Inconclusive evidence suggested dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4i) might reduce inflammation and prevent Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) entry hence further evaluation on DPP4i is nee...
Article
Background Evidence is limited in comparing treatment modification by substitution or add‐on of glucose‐lowering medications in patients with type 2 diabetes. This observational study aims to compare switching versus add‐on of incretin‐based drugs among patients with type 2 diabetes on background sodium‐glucose cotransporter‐2 inhibitors (SGLT2i)....
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Objectives To investigate the relationship between COVID-19 full vaccination (two completed doses) and possible arthritis flare. Methods Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were identified from population-based electronic medical records with vaccination linkage and categorised into BNT162b2 (mRNA vaccine), CoronaVac (inactive virus vaccine) an...
Preprint
Background Concerns regarding the autoimmune safety of COVID-19 vaccines may negatively impact vaccine uptake. We aimed to describe the incidence of autoimmune conditions following BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccination and compare these with age-standardized incidence rates in non-vaccinated individuals. Methods This is a descriptive cohort study cond...
Article
Background The Framingham Risk model estimates a person's 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Purpose We aimed to calculate the change in sex-age specific Framingham CVD risk in the Hong Kong Population Health Survey (PHS) 2014/15 in comparison with the survey in 2003–05 (PHS2003/2004 & Heart Health Survey (HHS) 2004/2005). Methods Subject...
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with excess mortality and reduced emergency department attendance. However, the effect of varying wave periods of COVID-19 on in-hospital mortality and length of stay (LOS) for non-COVID disease for non-COVID diseases remains unexplored. Methods: We examined a territory-wide observational coh...