Carlos Ventura

Carlos Ventura
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Department of Civil Engineering

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312
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Publications

Publications (312)
Article
Full-text available
In Structural Health Monitoring understanding the effect of the environment on the modal properties of structures is essential. In this study, we evaluate the influence of changes in ambient conditions on the natural frequencies of three real large-scale structures: A 9-story reinforced concrete (RC) building and two sixteenth century churches of a...
Article
Damage diagnosis based on global structural vibrations critically depends on the sensor layout, in particular when a small number of sensors is used for large structures under unknown excitation. This paper proposes a sensor placement strategy that yields an optimized sensor layout with maximum damage detectability in selected structural components...
Article
With the increasing application of long-term dynamic monitoring systems to civil engineering structures, automated operational modal analysis (OMA) has become a fascinating research area for structural health monitoring. In recent years, different automated approaches based on the existing parametric or nonparametric OMA algorithms have been develo...
Article
Full-text available
In seismic structural health monitoring (SHM), a structure is normally instrumented with limited sensors at certain locations to monitor its structural behavior during an earthquake event. To reconstruct the responses at non-instrumented locations, an effective regression method has to be used given the measured data from the sensed locations. In a...
Article
Seismic reliability analysis is important for performance evaluation and structure design of novel structural systems since it can consider inherent uncertainties in seismic actions and structural properties. In this paper, seismic reliability analyses were performed on an innovative high‐rise concrete‐timber (FaB) hybrid structural system. The FaB...
Article
Seismic performance evaluations of offshore platforms are of socio-economic importance, but could be more reliable in scope if probabilistic methods are employed. Probabilistic seismic demand models (PSDMs) for fixed pile-founded offshore platforms in the Persian Gulf have been developed that use probabilistic seismic demand analysis (PSDA). PSDA r...
Article
A novel wood-concrete system that can be used for high-rise construction in seismically active regions is presented and analysed. The hybrid system is achieved by substituting two out of every three concrete floors and walls in a conventional coupled core wall concrete building with prefabricated light-frame wood modules. To demonstrate the system’...
Article
This paper derives a formula to determine the minimum detectable damage based on ambient vibration data. It is a key element to analyze which damage scenarios can be detected before a monitoring system is installed. For the analysis, vibration data from the reference structure as well as a finite element model are required. Minimum detectability is...
Article
Monitoring and predicting seismic responses of a civil structure can be used to assess its behavior under dynamic loading and to determine its structural health condition. In practice, the employed number of sensors is generally limited by the cost and functionality issues. This paper develops a practical solution of four-stage procedures, focusing...
Article
In 2004 , the provincial government of British Columbia in Canada initiated a seismic retrofit program to quantify the seismic risk and to implement a seismic mitigation plan over 750 school buildings located in high seismic hazard regions of the province. The current phase of the program focuses on conducting a series of full‐scale shake‐table tes...
Article
To better study the seismic performance of a novel high-rise timber-concrete (FaB) hybrid structural system, two non-linear simplified analytical models (i.e., Fixed Model and Controlled Model) are proposed in this paper. The timber-concrete FaB hybrid system mainly consists of a concrete frame-tube structure with large story height as the main str...
Article
In structural health monitoring (SHM), measuring and evaluating structural dynamic responses are critical for safety management of civil infrastructures. Particularly, online forecasting of the structural responses under extreme external loading conditions (e.g., earthquakes) takes a significant role in SHM to provide early warning and ensure safe...
Article
The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer built into a smart meter (SM) has a nominal digital resolution of 16 bits. However, this resolution collapses to 7 bits of information per sample when used in an urban environment. This collapse in resolution limits the sensitivity required to effectively operate the earthquake early warning p...
Chapter
Selecting the right sensor locations is pivotal for the effectiveness of vibration-based damage detection as part of structural monitoring under unknown excitation. Traditional optimization criteria aim to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and information content carried by ambient vibrations, or to identify modal parameters with minimal uncertain...
Chapter
This paper describes a series of ambient vibration tests and modal analysis conducted on Guayaquil Metropolitan Cathedral, located in Guayaquil, Ecuador. The Guayaquil Cathedral is composed of the reinforced concrete frames and masonry infills, constructed in mid 1920s. Modal response analysis was performed to identify the dynamic properties of the...
Article
The Shanghai Tower is presently the tallest structure in China and one of the super tall buildings in the world. To get a quick and direct insight into the overall dynamic behavior of this complex structure, a lumped-mass finite element model based on macro beam theory was developed. Next, an in-depth sensitivity analysis was performed on this base...
Conference Paper
Focusing on the construction of tall wood buildings in dense urban cities, an innovative concrete-wood hybrid structural system has been proposed and studied since 2016. Such hybrid system is mainly composed of two parts: a concrete frame-tube structure with slabs at every third story as the main structure for lateral resistance and stiffness, and...
Article
This paper presents fragility curves for conventional low-rise light-frame wood buildings in southwestern British Columbia, Canada, for long duration subduction earthquakes. Computational models of four representative two-story houses (two engineered and two non-engineered) are developed and validated using full-scale shake table testing data. Dama...
Article
Effective methods for vibration-based damage diagnosis in building structures are based on the estimation of structural deflections from identified modal flexibility (MF) matrices. However, most of the existing methods and previous studies that use MF-based deflections were developed by considering the case of buildings that can be modeled as plana...
Article
A single degree of freedom model is presented for calculating the free-field seismic response of bridge embankments due to horizontal ground shaking using equivalent linear analysis and a design response spectrum. The shear wave velocity profile, base flexibility, 2D shape and damping ratio of the embankment are accounted for in the model. A step-b...
Article
Fault detection and isolation in stochastic systems is typically model-based, meaning fault-indicating residuals are generated based on measurements and compared to equivalent mathematical system models. The residuals often exhibit Gaussian properties or can be transformed into a standard Gaussian framework by means of the asymptotic local approach...
Article
Damage diagnosis is a fundamental task for structural health monitoring (SHM). With the statistical sensitivity-based damage localization approach, a residual vector is computed from vibration measurements in the reference and the damaged state. The residual is analyzed statistically in hypothesis tests with respect to change directions defined by...
Article
Characterized by discontinuous vertical elements and high aspect ratios, multi-story traditional timber pagodas in Southeast Asia have been of interest to many researchers. Combined with shake table tests on a one-fifth scaled seven-story traditional timber pagoda, this paper investigates the effect of rocking on the seismic behavior of multi-story...
Article
Full-text available
Can we encourage people to prepare for a natural disaster by altering the way that scientific information about risk is presented? In assessing the risk posed by a particular hazard, people tend to be guided more strongly by their emotional reactions than by logical or statistical analysis; human beings are driven to protect themselves from risks t...
Article
This paper studies the seismic performance of a six-story mid-rise woodframe building under long duration ground motions. The prototype structure was designed by using a performance-based seismic design (PBSD) approach and tested on a shake table at full-scale as part of the NEESWood Project. A three-dimensional finite element model of the structur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In multi-dataset identification with the classic Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique, the global mode shapes are obtained by identifying the mode shape parts of different patches separately. Then, the estimated mode shape parts are merged to form the global mode shapes by using the reference mode shape components. However, the presence o...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents a province-wide seismic monitoring network: the British Columbia Smart Infrastructure Monitoring System (BCSIMS), which encompasses a comprehensive Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system and a Strong Motion Network (SMN). The SHM network currently involves 14 bridges, 1 tunnel, 1 building and 11 public schools. Real-time read...
Article
This paper investigates the effect of earthquake ground motion duration on the design and collapse risk of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings from 6 to 30 stories. Both design and collapse levels of shaking were considered through nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis. At the design level of shaking, it was found that (1) maximum interstory...
Chapter
The University of British Columbia (UBC) and the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure in Canada, have been instrumenting key structures in recent years to provide confirmation of their seismic capacity, assist in focusing retrofit efforts, detect damage from any cause, and provide rapid damage assessment of those structure...
Book
This book features chapters based on selected presentations from the International Congress on Advanced Earthquake Resistance of Structures, AERS2016, held in Samsun, Turkey, from 24 to 28 October 2016. It covers the latest advances in three widely popular research areas in Earthquake Engineering: Performance-Based Seismic Design, Seismic Isolation...
Article
There is an ever-increasing demand to assess integrity of the old platforms in which seismic fragility curves need to be developed for the integrity analysis in case of earthquake. Therefore, in this paper, an analytical approach is presented to develop seismic fragility curves of an existing jacket type offshore platform in the Persian Gulf. The m...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The present study investigated the dynamic behaviour of an irregular 32-storey reinforced concrete, Vancouver-style, high-rise, podium tower by assessing the influence of the floor diaphragm modelling stiffness assumptions on the structure’s modal properties. The state-of-the-art diaphragm modelling approaches and their effect on structures’ dynami...
Article
This paper studies the effects of long duration ground motion on three conventional low-rise light-frame wood houses with different sheathing configurations. These are two-story residential houses built with an oriented strand board (OSB) wall system and stucco sheathing, an OSB wall system without stucco, and a horizontal board sheathing wall syst...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper a modal flexibility-based approach for damage diagnosis is presented and discussed. Modal flexibility matrices of structural systems can be derived from vibration tests and changes in these matrices can be associated to structural damage. One of the main challenges is to apply modal flexibility-based methods on real-life civil structu...
Article
The Shanghai Tower is a newly built 127-story and 632 m high super tall building. As of April 2017, it was ranked as the second tallest building in the world. Its main structural system is a mega-frame-tube-outrigger system with six outrigger trusses along the height. Due to its unique structural configuration, a series of field and laboratory mode...
Article
Low-rise reinforced concrete (RC) frames with brick masonry infill walls up to five stories high have been used for housing construction in Nepal since the late 1980s. Many buildings of this type were damaged and/or collapsed in the 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (M 7.8), even in areas characterized with moderate shaking intensity such as Kathmand...
Article
Since the collapse of the WTC towers in September 2001, concern about the protection of buildings and infrastructures against blast loads has increased significantly. Comprehensive experimental and numerical studies of blast loading effects on buildings have been carried out in recent years, whereas for bridge engineers, blast-resistant design is s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Damage localization in civil or mechanical structures is a subject of active development and research. In this paper, vibration measurements and a finite element model are used to locate loss of stiffness in a steel frame structure at the University of British Columbia. Damage localization is not very well developed so far and few methods show prom...
Article
The effects of ground motion directionality on seismic response of buildings are at the center of ongoing debate among earthquake engineering professionals and researchers. This has prompted a renewed interest to have a better understanding of directionality effects of near-field pulse-like ground motions on seismic response of tall buildings to fu...
Chapter
This paper is part of long-term research project, and the main intension of this paper to estimate the stiffness of a concrete core wall of 18-story timber based structure. The 53-meter tall structure has been constructed at the campus of the University of British Columbia in 2016, and it is currently used as a student resident. The building is the...
Chapter
This paper presents the results of an Ambient Vibration Test (AVT) conducted in March 2015 on the Health Sciences Parkade at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. A similar test was conducted in March 2014 before the Parkade was subjected to different interventions for seismic retrofit purpose between July and October 2014. Natur...
Article
This paper describes the architecture of a comprehensive seismic monitoring system developed in 2009 by the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoT) and the University of British Columbia, Canada. The main purpose of the BCSIMS project is to instrument and monitor key structures to provide confirmation of their seismic c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Earthquake recording stations, seismographs and/or strong-motion instruments, located on underlying soils are generally installed without comprehensive knowledge or testing of the underlying geologic material in Canada and Chile. To remedy this issue, various in situ geophysical methods are applied to evaluate the underlying ground conditions at ea...
Article
Full-text available
Two columns tested in shake table under several records suffered damage for the design earthquake and the damage increased after the following records. To predict the test results, a damage accumulation (DA) and a low cyclic fatigue (LCF) models, both based on strain responses, were incorporated to a fiber finite element model (FFEM2) demonstrating...
Conference Paper
p>The performance based design provisions of the 2014 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CSA S6-14) have been applied to assess the seismic design of a three-span prestressed reinforced concrete bridge in Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Response spectrum and nonlinear time- history analyses of the bridge at 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of ex...
Article
Liquefaction potential and lateral spreading are generally evaluated in engineering practice using deterministic procedures based on a design magnitude, M, and an associated Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA. In a probabilistic ground motion environment, a wide range of magnitudes contribute to the PGA. A common solution adopted to cope with the proble...
Article
The site amplification factors in the 2015 edition of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC 2015) for South Western British Columbia (SWBC) were developed using only the single site term associated with the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for crustal sources. The seismic hazard in SWBC is derived from three source types; crustal, subd...
Article
This paper evaluates the commonly used substructuring method for analysis of bridge systems where the bridge is divided into two sub-systems: the bridge superstructure and the substructure including the pile foundations, abutments, and soil. Modeling of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) in the system is simplified by replacing the pile foundatio...
Article
A series of in-plane shear tests were carried out on twenty-one steel roof deck diaphragms. This test program was initiated and designed to evaluate the seismic inelastic response of steel roof decks with different thicknesses and different types of deck-to-frame connections: nails and arc spot welds. Self-drilled screws were used for sheet side la...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the action of pile groups in resisting lateral loading is usually based on analysis, field and centrifuge tests of small pile groups. The interaction between piles in these groups is modelled by modifying the lateral resistance p–y curves developed for a single pile using row dependent reduction factors or a group factor for the entire...
Chapter
Built in 1993, the French Creek Bridge is located on highway 19 on Vancouver Island, BC, Canada. The bridge is part of the British Columbia Smart Infrastructure Monitoring System (BCSIMS), funded by the Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoTI) BC, Canada. The BCSIMS is a real-time seismic monitoring program that continuously assesses th...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents the detailed experiment setups and data analysis results of the ambient vibration testing of two irregular high-rise buildings done by a joint research team from the University of British Columbia and Tongji University. Two full-scale tests were conducted in May 2015 at the Siping Campus of Tongji University, Shanghai, China. Th...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Shanghai Tower is one of the super-tall buildings under construction in the world and will be the tallest structure in China after completion. The building stands approximately 632 m and has 128 stories. It was designed with a double curtain wall system, where a triangular outer facade gradually shrinks and twists clockwise at approximately 120...
Chapter
Constructed in 1983, the Portage Creek Bridge is a three span highway bridge located in Victoria, British Columbia (BC), Canada. This bridge is a part of a smart seismic monitoring program, British Columbia Smart Infrastructure Monitoring System (BCSIMS), which funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (MoTI), Can...
Chapter
In this paper the effects of measuring noise and number of samples is studied on the stochastic subspace damage detection (SSDD) technique. In this technique, i.e., SSDD, the need of evaluating the eigenstructure of the system is circumvented, making this approach capable of dealing with real-time measurements of structures. In previous studies, th...
Article
A blind comparison of independent invasive (downhole, standard penetration, bender element) and non-invasive microtremor shear-wave velocity (VS) profiling is presented for 11 strong-motion stations in central and southern Chile that recorded the 2010MW 8.8 Maule earthquake. For the majority of stations, site classification based on average VS in t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bridge designers have adopted simple approximate methods to take into account soil-structure-interaction (SSI) in dynamic analysis of bridge systems. The most popular one is the substructuring method in which the response of the foundation soil and its interaction with the pile foundation and the abutment system are represented by a set of one-dime...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure and the University of British Columbia, Canada, have recently embarked on a program to instrument key structures to provide confirmation of seismic capacity, assist in focusing retrofit efforts, detect damage from any cause and provide rapid damage assessment of those structures fol...
Book
Comprehensively covers the basic principles and practice of Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). Covers all important aspects that are needed to understand why OMA is a practical tool for modal testing Covers advanced topics, including closely spaced modes, mode shape scaling, mode shape expansion and estimation of stress and strain in operational res...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Numerical simulation of large scenario earthquakes is at the forefront of seismic hazard analysis, with the potential to replace use of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) in future. Three-dimensional finite-difference numerical simulation of earthquake wave propagation has been used to predict long-period (≥ 2 s) ground motions of potential...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sliding shear is often the governing failure mechanism in ductile reinforced masonry (RM) squat shear walls in low-rise buildings designed according to seismic design provisions of the Canadian masonry design standard CSA S304. Results of previous experimental studies also indicate that even for squat shear walls that experience flexural yielding,...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the most important principles for each time-domain technique commonly used in OMA and illustrate how they work. This chapter deals with the core of OMA – the identification – where the modal parameters are estimated using time-domain techniques.