Carlos Varea

Carlos Varea
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid | UAM · Department of Biology

Doctor

About

56
Publications
20,311
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423
Citations
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 1995 - present
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (56)
Article
Full-text available
Typifying historical populations using anthropometric indicators such as height, BMI and weight allows for an analysis of the prevalence of obesity and malnutrition. This study evaluates secular changes in height, weight and body mass for men cohorts at 21 years old, born between 1934 and 1954 who were called up between 1955 and 1974, in the city o...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Cohort variation in adult height expresses both the impact of socio-economic change on human biology in a wide temporal perspective and social inequalities within populations. We aimed to test the use of joinpoint regressions to identify periods in which changes in height trends were statistically significant. Methods: Data correspon...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have demonstrated a negative, significant impact on birthweight associated with the current economic crisis in Spain, which has also been reported for other European countries. Effects by parity are not known. Our aim is to compare the trends in low birthweight (LBW) by parity in Spain from 1996 to 2016. Using the National Vital St...
Chapter
Full-text available
The postnatal life cycle of the social mammals, including the nonhuman primates, has three basic stages of development: infant, juvenile, and adult. Human beings are unusual and add a childhood stage after infancy and an adolescence stage after the juvenile stage. The human pattern of life history in both brain and body growth entails a large inves...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Plasticity in the growth of body segments between populations has been researched in relation to migration, temporal change and high-altitude studies. We study the within population variation in body segments, thus controlling for some of the environmental and genetic differences that could be at play in between populations studies. We...
Article
Full-text available
Adult height is the most commonly used biological indicator to evaluate material and emotional conditions in which people grew up, allowing the analysis of secular trends associated with socio-economic change as well as of social inequalities among human populations. There is a lack of studies on both aspects regarding urban populations. Our study...
Chapter
Full-text available
Resumen: El Museo Virtual de Ecología Humana (MVEH) es un recurso educativo promovido por la Asociación para el Estudio de la Ecología Humana (AEEH) y un grupo de investigadores de este campo. El MVEH muestra de forma sencilla, atractiva y rigurosa cómo se origina la diversidad biocultural de nuestra especie, con la cultura como principal agente de...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: en las últimas décadas se ha acumulado una interesante bibliografía sobre los niveles biológicos de vida en España a finales del siglo XIX y durante el siglo XX. La talla ha sido una de las variables más estudiadas: su cambio a nivel nacional y provincial, el impacto de la Guerra Civil y de la posterior dictadura y las diferencias entre l...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: in recent decades, an interesting literature has accumulated regarding the biological living standard in Spain at the end of the 19th Century and during the 20th Century. Adult height has been one of the most studied variables, specifically its temporal change at the national and provincial levels, the impact of the Civil War and the su...
Article
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Objective: to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on the disparities in the prevalence and risk of low birth weight (LBW) according to the maternal socioeconomic profile. Methods: the data analysed corresponds to 1,779,506 single births to Spanish mothers in the years 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015. The temporal changes in available mate...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen El conocimiento del estado actual y direcciones de la Antropología Física española, así como de la percepción que el colectivo profesional de antropólogos en el Estado español tiene de la disciplina, resulta un factor clave para la toma de conciencia y las decisiones sobre las líneas futuras de actuación para la promoción académica, profesi...
Article
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Background: Delayed childbearing is considered a risk factor for maternal-foetal health. As in other higher-income countries, in Spain age at maternity has steadily increased during the last two decades. Aim: To quantify the impact of the delay in the age at maternity on small for gestational age (SGA) categories of <3rd, 3rd-5th and 5th-10th pe...
Conference Paper
La partería tradicional se basa en una prolongada experiencia empírica en muy diferentes entornos ecológicos y culturales que, tras un periodo transicional de capacitación a lo largo del siglo XX, se encuentra en vías de desaparición sustituida por parteras cualificadas. Con la colaboración de la Asociación de Mujeres Parteras Kichwa del Alto Napo...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Birthweight by gestational age charts enable fetal growth to be evaluated in a specific population. Given that maternal profile and obstetric practice have undergone a remarkable change over the past few decades in Spain, this paper presents new Spanish reference percentile charts stratified by gender, parity and type of delivery. They h...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Birthweight by gestational age charts enable fetal growth to be evaluated in a specific population. Given that maternal profile and obstetric practice have undergone a remarkable change over the past few decades in Spain, this paper presents new Spanish reference percentile charts stratified by gender, parity and type of delivery. They...
Chapter
Full-text available
The postnatal life cycle of the social mammals, including the nonhuman primates, has three basic stages of development: infant, juvenile, and adult. Human beings are unusual and add a childhood stage after infancy and an adolescence stage after the juvenile stage. The human pattern of life history in both brain and body growth entails a large inves...
Article
Full-text available
La partería tradicional se basa en una prolongada experiencia empírica en muy diferentes entornos ecológicos y culturales que, tras un periodo transicional de capacitación a lo largo del siglo XX, se encuentra en vías de desaparición sustituida por parteras cualificadas. Con la colaboración de la Asociación de Mujeres Parteras Kichwa del Alto Napo...
Article
Full-text available
El Objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar la expresión fenotípica de los procesos biológicos que ocurren a lo largo del ciclo vital asociadas a la reciente transformación ambiental ligada a la globalización. Para ello se revisan y discuten las evidencias que ligan transformación ambiental con cambios en la expresión fenotípica de procesos biológi...
Article
Full-text available
Resumen El Objetivo del presente trabajo es revisar la expresión fenotípica de los procesos biológicos que ocurren a lo largo del ciclo vital asociadas a la reciente transformación ambiental ligada a la globalización. Para ello se revisan y discuten las evidencias que ligan transformación ambiental con cambios en la expresión fenotípica de procesos...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is growing evidence of the impact of the current European economic crisis on health. In Spain, since 2008, there have been increasing levels of impoverishment and inequality, and important cuts in social services. Aim: The objective is to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on underweight at birth in Spain. Method: Trends i...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is growing evidence of the impact of the current European economic crisis on health. In Spain, since 2008, there have been increasing levels of impoverishment and inequality, and important cuts in social services. Aim: The objective is to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on underweight at birth in Spain. Method: Tre...
Chapter
Full-text available
Low birth weight is the main determinant of infant mortality, affects the healthy development of the newborn, and determines the differential risk of developing chronic diseases in advanced stages of the life cycle. In Spain, as in other Western countries, low birth weight and prematurity have increased significantly in recent years. Therefore, to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
El 18 de julio de 1936 se produjo en España un golpe militar contra el gobierno de la República que tuvo como consecuencia una Guerra Civil (1936-1939) que desembocó en una dictadura de 40 años liderada por el General Franco. Se calcula que durante la guerra civil y los primeros 10 años de dictadura al menos 175.000 personas fueron ejecutadas lejo...
Article
Objectives Among the ancestral characteristics of the primate group to which Homo sapiens belongs we find a pattern of daytime physical activity, but one notable exception is birthing which usually begins with night-time labor. In populations with a moderate or high level of medicalized labor, there is evidence that the medical preferences interfer...
Article
Describe the impact of teen pregnancy on later ovarian activity and metabolic hormones considering the concentration of current levels of ovarian steroids and leptin in a sample of Mexican females. Cross-sectional study in the maternity of the General Hospital of Atlacomulco and campus of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico. 71women be...
Article
Full-text available
For most of our history as a species, maternal constraint was the main environmental factor affecting biological status at birth. However, the great increase in medical intervention in the20th Century coincided first with an extraordinary reduction in perinatal mortality and later with an increase in preterm and low birth-weight babies. Herein, we...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMEN Como aproximación integradora a nuestra especie (en sus dimensiones evolutivas, ecológicas y bioculturales), la Antropología Física (o Biológica) ha realizado aportaciones al conocimiento de aspectos clave de nuestra biología, orígenes, evolución y variación a través del tiempo y el espacio, mediante el estudio de poblaciones humanas pasada...
Article
Objectives To find the variability in women's appearance at three moments of their life cycle and its relationship with practices aiming at weight loss, analysing the efficacy of this behaviour. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Women from the Community of Madrid who formed part of an investigation by the Unit of Anthropology of the Department of B...
Article
Full-text available
Human extreme encephalization and its final accomplishments (consciousness and language) are the result of a long evolutionary process of adaptive adjustment of life history variables in the framework of Primate evolution. Deep evolutionary roots shaped the great biological plasticity, social learning and cultural innovation characterizing modern h...
Article
Full-text available
Based on previous findings showing both better birth outcomes in migrant than in Spanish women and different rates of medical intervention according to mother's origin, we hypothesize that mode of delivery decisions to solve similar problems differ according to ethnic origin. Ethnic differences for maternal characteristics, medical intervention, an...
Article
Full-text available
Low birth weight and preterm babies have been increasing in Spain since 1980, coinciding with important changes in the social and demographic structure of childbearing populations—including the contribution of a 25% of foreign mothers—and with increasing medical intervention in births. This study, based on 5,990,613 births, compares the temporary t...
Conference Paper
A petición de las agrupaciones de familiares, entre los meses de mayo y julio del 2009 y agosto y octubre del 2011 fueron llevadas a cabo en el parque de La Carcavilla, antiguo cementerio de la ciudad de Palencia, las exhumaciones de los represaliados durante la Guerra Civil española y primer franquismo. Fueron recuperados cerca de cien esquele...
Article
Previous studies generally agree that in Homo sapiens births without medical intervention occur mostly at night, although with a less accentuated pattern than in other primate species. The present study has three main objectives: (a) to establish the hourly pattern of births in a modern medicalized population, (b) to explore the association between...
Article
Full-text available
El objetivo de este estudio es detectar si existen diferencias entre las frecuencias de prematuridad, bajo peso, muy bajo peso y macrosomía entre los recién nacidos de las mujeres marroquíes, ecua-torianas, colombianas, rumanas y chinas que viven en la Comunidad de Madrid y las mujeres españolas, así como identificar los factores maternos que expli...
Article
Full-text available
To find the variability in women's appearance at three moments of their life cycle and its relationship with practices aiming at weight loss, analysing the efficacy of this behaviour. Cross-sectional. Women from the Community of Madrid who formed part of an investigation by the Unit of Anthropology of the Department of Biology of the Autonomous Uni...
Article
Full-text available
Menopause is associated with the general ageing process and marks the end of follicular depletion, a process that begins in the intrauterine stage and lasts throughout the lifetime of women until their reproductive senescence. Controversy persists about whether the age at menopause is sensitive to the ecological determinants prevailing during the l...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in dietary patterns and a decrease in physical activity have occurred in Western countries. These are factors in the variation in body composition observed in populations, characterized by a progressive accumulation of fat with age and a consequent increase in the risk of suffering from common chronic illnesses such as obesity, cardiovascul...
Article
Full-text available
To describe present day dietary habits, and how and why they may have changed over the lifetimes. Cross-sectional. 1037 lower middle-class women, resident in Alcobendas (Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain), and born between 1933 and 1953. All the women participating in a Women Health Program organized by the Alcobendas Municipality. 21.9% of the...
Article
Full-text available
The determinants of modern contraceptive use in traditional populations are analysed in married women aged 30-44 living in the province of Marrakech (Morocco). Women who have never used contraception have smaller family sizes than those who do: the number of live children (or live births) is the variable with maximum predictive power on contracepti...
Article
This paper analyses the relationship between polygyny and female fertility in the province of Marrakech (Morocco) taking into account the effect of the previous marital instability (number of marriages) and the possible association between female sterility and type of marriage. In the analysed population, polygyny increases in the small towns. Poly...
Article
Reproductive patterns were studied from data collected in 1,450 Berber households in the province of Marrakesh, Morocco in 1984. Women aged 45-49 years had a mean of 8.9 pregnancies to achieve 5.7 living children. Social influences on fertility rates show the importance of tradition, particularly through time-dependent variables such as age at marr...
Article
A sample of 842 rural women from Morocco (Amizmiz, Marrakech) was used to examine the relationship between a number of biosocial variables and fertility patterns. For women still in their reproductive years there were significant correlations between family size and woman's age, age at marriage and years of marriage. Among women with completed fami...
Article
The interaction between age at menarche, adolescent motherhood, and subfecundity were evaluated in 496 Moroccan women 25–54 years of age from the province of Marrakech. Since this population is characterized by later sexual maturation and early marriage, significantly increased subfecundity, measured by the waiting time to first live birth and the...

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Projects (4)
Project
Goal: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph/special_issues/biological_nutritional_inequality The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH) welcomes submissions for a Special Issue under the section of Children’s Health, focusing on “Biological Living Standards and Nutritional Health Inequality in Transition to the Developed World”. This Special Issue aims to publish manuscripts on the dynamics of biological living standards and nutritional health in human populations in social and economic transition. The historical experience of the industrialized and urbanized western world can be useful for the poorest populations today. We welcome the submission of manuscripts that explore the short- and long-term effects of the environment on biological well-being, using the main anthropometric indicators by generational cohorts. The goal is to cover aspects of height and body mass evolution at different stages of the life cycle, mainly on the basis of data from children and adolescents from both the remote and recent past. Analyses of the social height gap and rural–urban and intra-urban differences in biological well-being are of special interest. Studies that analyze the impact of nutritional crises and of the prevalence of malnutrition on the evolution of stature and other anthropometric or physiological variables are welcome. Likewise, comparative studies of countries, regions, social classes, and different socioeconomic circumstances are of interest. We encourage research papers in disciplines such as anthropology, public health, history, economics, and sociology. Submissions should include original articles, brief reports, or critical reviews (systematic reviews or meta-analyses). We especially encourage submission of papers that report on: • Nutritional Health • Inequality • Anthropometric Indicators • Human Height • Body Mass Index • Biological Well-Being • Living Standards • Child Growth • Determinants of Height • Low Birth Weight • Sexual Dimorphism • Obesity • Nutritional Transition All manuscripts will be subject to the journal’s normal peer review process. For further reading, please refer to hhttps://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph/special_issues/biological_nutritional_inequality. If you have any questions, please contact me at cici.zhou@mdpi.com or ijerph@mdpi.com. IJERPH is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public
Project
The socioeconomic complexity of a large city confers a special interest to the study of the inequalities in the biological standard of living (BSL). Between the XIXth and the XXIth centuries, the city of Madrid underwent important political, social and economic changes. We are currently assembling long-term series of anthropometric and socioeconomic data to assess the impact of these changes on the trend and inequalities of the BSL of the Madrid population.
Project
A documentation project with Amazonian kichwa midwives. Interdisciplinary research (Anthropological linguistics - Visual anthropology - Biological anthropology) The project started in May 2016 under seed funding II of the Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam and was still awaiting approved funds and equipment when the institutional support was without any justification completely withdrawn in 2017 by the new administration