Carlos M. Souza

Carlos M. Souza
Amazon Institute of People and the Environment · CGI

Ph.D.

About

167
Publications
67,777
Reads
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9,627
Citations
Introduction
I did my undergraduate degree in Geology, in Brazil, at the Pará State Federal University, an M.Sc. in Soil Science at Penn State University, and a Ph.D. in Geography at the University of California in Santa Barbara. I am an associate researcher at Imazon, focusing on spatial analysis and remote sensing for mapping and monitoring forest changes. In 2010, I received the Skoll Award on Social Entrepreneurship in recognition of the development and operationalization of SAD - the first independent forest monitoring system in Brazil. I also co-founded Terras startup, which develops geospatial Apps for risk analysis, monitoring, and traceability of rural properties. In 2017, I received the Conservation Fellowship from the Mulago Foundation for the work with Terras.
Additional affiliations
May 1992 - present
Amazon Institute of People and the Environment
Education
September 2001 - August 2005
University of California, USA, Santa Barbara
Field of study
  • Remote Sensing
January 1996 - May 1997
Pennsylvania State University
Field of study
  • Geographic Information System
March 1986 - March 1991
Federal University of Pará
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (167)
Article
We propose a new spectral index, the Normalized Difference Fraction Index (NDFI), for enhanced detection of forest canopy damage caused by selective logging activities and associated forest fires. The NDFI synthesizes information from several component fraction images derived from spectral mixture models. Interpretation of the NDFI data is facilita...
Article
Full-text available
Forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon due to selective logging and forest fires may greatly increase the human footprint beyond outright deforestation. We demonstrate a method to quantify annual deforestation and degradation simultaneously across the entire region for the years 2000-2010 using high-resolution Landsat satellite imagery. Combini...
Article
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This paper shows recent progress in our understanding of climate variability and trends in the Amazon region, and how these interact with land use change. The review includes an overview of up-to-date information on climate and hydrological variability, and on warming trends in Amazonia, which reached 0.6–0.7°C over the last 40 years, with 2016 as...
Article
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The Brazilian Amazon is one of the areas on the planet with the fastest changes in forest cover due to deforestation associated with agricultural expansion and infrastructure development. These drivers of change, directly and indirectly, affect the water ecosystem. In this study, we present a long-term spatiotemporal analysis of surface water annua...
Article
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Brazil has a monitoring system to track annual forest conversion in the Amazon and most recently to monitor the Cerrado biome. However, there is still a gap of annual land use and land cover (LULC) information in all Brazilian biomes in the country. Existing countrywide efforts to map land use and land cover lack regularly updates and high spatial...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In this publication we present a historical overview (1980-2020) of the timber sector, with information on the dynamics of the geography of logging in the Amazon and its respective production volumes. In addition to discussing the current management and control devices in the sector. Allowing us to look back to reflect on the future and, thus, make...
Article
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Land cover maps are essential for characterizing the biophysical properties of the Earth’s land areas. Because land cover information synthesizes a rich array of information related to both the ecological condition of land areas and their exploitation by humans, they are widely used for basic and applied research that requires information related t...
Article
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The fast retreat of the tropical Andean glaciers (TAGs) is considered an important indicator of climate change impact on the tropics, since the TAGs provide resources to highly vulnerable mountain populations. This study aims to reconstruct the glacier coverage of the TAGs, using Landsat time-series images from 1985 to 2020, by digitally processing...
Technical Report
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This chapter examines site-specific opportunities and approaches for restoring terrestrial and aquatic systems, focusing on local actions and their immediate benefits. Landscape, catchment, and biome-wide considerations are addressed in Chapter 29. Conservation approaches are addressed in Chapter 27.
Technical Report
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Deforestation, the complete removal of an area’s forest cover; and forest degradation, the significant loss of forest structure, functions, and processes; are the result of the interaction between various direct drivers, often operating in tandem. By 2018, the Amazon biome had lost approximately 870,000 km2 of its original forest cover, mainly due...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses the main drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in the Amazon, particularly agricultural expansion, road construction, mining, oil and gas development, forest fires, edge effects, logging, and hunting. It also examines these activities’ impacts and synergies between them.
Chapter
This Report provides a comprehensive, objective, open, transparent, systematic, and rigorous scientific assessment of the state of the Amazon’s ecosystems, current trends, and their implications for the long-term well-being of the region, as well as opportunities and policy relevant options for conservation and sustainable development.
Article
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As Amazon deforestation rates reach the highest levels observed in the past decade, it is extremely important to direct conservation efforts to regions containing preserved forests with a high risk of deforestation. This requires forecasting deforestation, a complex endeavor due to the interplay of multiple socioeconomic and environmental factors a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key Messages & Recommendations 1) Restoration encompasses a broad suite of objectives related to the practice of recovering biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, such as water quality, carbon sequestration, and peoples' livelihoods. It spans aquatic and terrestrial realms, and goes beyond natural ecosystems to include the recovery of s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Restoration can be applied in many different Amazonian contexts, but will be most effective at leveraging environmental and social benefits when it is prioritized across the Amazon basin or within landscapes and catchments. Here we outline the considerations that are most relevant for planning and scaling restoration across the Amazon.
Technical Report
Full-text available
Human activities destroy biodiversity and disrupt the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at different levels. This chapter provides sustainable approaches to address some of the biggest threats to the Amazon’s biodiversity and ecosystems, i.e., deforestation, damming of rivers, mining, hunting, illegal trade, drug production and traf...
Chapter
Full-text available
Human activities destroy biodiversity and disrupt the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at different levels. This chapter provides sustainable approaches to address some of the biggest threats to the Amazon’s biodiversity and ecosystems, i.e., deforestation, damming of rivers, mining, hunting, illegal trade, drug production and traf...
Chapter
Full-text available
Key Messages & Recommendations 1) Restoration encompasses a broad suite of objectives related to the practice of recovering biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, such as water quality, carbon sequestration, and peoples' livelihoods. It spans aquatic and terrestrial realms, and goes beyond natural ecosystems to include the recovery of s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Restoration can be applied in many different Amazonian contexts, but will be most effective at leveraging environmental and social benefits when it is prioritized across the Amazon basin or within landscapes and catchments. Here we outline the considerations that are most relevant for planning and scaling restoration across the Amazon.
Article
Full-text available
Estimates of the area of land cover classes or land change are frequently calculated from land cover classification maps by counting the pixels labeled as each class in the map. This procedure is known to produce biased estimates of area for many widely used classification algorithms, including random forests. Poststratification estimation using th...
Article
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Over the past 40 years, roads have been the main driver behind the State of Acre’s occupation and development. However, the expansion of roads, has often been associated with the advance of deforestation, habitat fragmentation, and social conflicts. There are no up-to-date data available on the current extent of Acre’s road network nor its environm...
Article
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Secondary vegetation (SV) from land abandonment is a common transition phase between agricultural uses following tropical deforestation. The impact of SV on carbon sequestration and habitat fragmentation across tropical forest frontiers therefore depends on SV dynamics and demographics. Here, we used time series of annual MapBiomas land cover data...
Article
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The availability of freshwater is becoming a global concern. Because agricultural consumption has been increasing steadily, the mapping of irrigated areas is key for supporting the monitoring of land use and better management of available water resources. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically detect and map center pivot irrigation sys...
Method
Full-text available
Neste documento apresentamos os procedimentos metodológicos da sétima versão do SEEG para calcular as estimativas anuais de emissões de gases de efeito estufa (GEE) no Brasil parao setor de mudança de uso da terra e florestas, no período de 1990 a 2018. O cálculo das estimativas de emissões foi baseado no método dos Inventários Brasileiros de Emiss...
Article
Anthropogenic and natural forest disturbance cause ecological damage and carbon emissions. Forest disturbance in the Amazon occurs in the form of deforestation (conversion of forest to non‐forest land covers), degradation from the extraction of forest resources, and destruction from natural events. The crucial role of the Amazon rainforest in the h...
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The rapid growth of satellites orbiting the planet is generating massive amounts of data for Earth science applications. Concurrently, state-of-the-art deep-learning-based algorithms and cloud computing infrastructure have become available with a great potential to revolutionize the image processing of satellite remote sensing. Within this context,...
Conference Paper
Forest degradation and natural disturbance have been the primary types of forest disturbance in the Amazon between 1995 and 2017, affecting 434,500 km2(±22,100) of forest compared to 327,900 km2(±15,400) from deforestation. While forest degradation and natural disturbance cause ecological damage, biodiversity loss and carbon emissions, policies aim...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
RESUMO A vegetação secundária (VS) exerce funções estratégicas para os ecossistemas atuando na fixação do carbono, manutenção da biodiversidade, manutenção do regime hidrológico e recuperação do solo. Por isso, sua proteção e monitoramento são fundamentais. Fontes de informações geoespaciais em larga escala sobre VS são poucas. Porém, duas iniciati...
Article
A pesquisa teve como objetivo compreender a possível relação entre secularização, Estado e Ensino Profissional. No procedimento metodológico, procurou articular dialeticamente as dimensões local, estadual e nacional a respeito do ensino profissional. As fontes incluíram jornais, legislação educacional e mensagens de governadores. A análise e result...
Conference Paper
The human-induced changes in the earth's surface have caused significant transformations on land cover regarding the structure and functioning of ecosystems, with severe implications for the environmental sustainability and people's livelihood. Thus, our ability to detect these changes constitutes a major research challenge, in both the environment...
Book
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Mapeamento realizado pelo Instituto do Homem e Meio Ambiente da Amazônia (Imazon), identificou diversas Áreas de Proteção (AP’s) que correm risco de desmatamento por conta da expansão de imóveis rurais privados. Contraditoriamente, essa expansão está registrada no Cadastro Ambiental Rural (CAR). As informações foram levantados a partir do cruzament...
Book
Full-text available
As Áreas Protegidas (APs) da Amazônia prestam inúmeros serviços ambientais em escala local, regional e continental. Entre esses serviços estão a conservação de florestas e de ecossistemas aquáticos e não florestais como savanas e campos naturais; a preservação de habitats de milhares de espécies vegetais e animais, os quais funcionam como um acervo...
Article
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Manuais escolares, mediações tecnológico-pedagógicas da Escola Moderna School textbooks, technological-pedagogical mediations of Modern School Manuales escolares, mediaciones tecnológico-pedagógicas de la Escuela Moderna Manuali scolastici, mediazioni pedagogico-tecnologiche dela Scuola Moderna
Article
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Este artigo refere-se ao Aprendizado Agrícola Borges Sampaio, instituição de ensino técnico que preparava trabalhadores para as lavouras, criada em Uberaba (MG), em 1916. Foram levantados alguns aspectos da história da instituição, tendo como referência as políticas públicas direcionadas a esta modalidade de ensino. As fontes utilizadas foram as me...
Article
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Com este estudo, buscou-se explorar os impactos da migração e da expansão educacional nos índices de analfabetismo no Brasil. No processo de desenvolvimento nacional no período de 1950-1960, a industrialização e urbanização atraíram para a cidade uma massa de população campesina que, até então, superava a população urbana, caso se considerasse o Su...
Article
This paper introduces and tests a geostatistical spatiotemporal hurdle approach for predicting the spatial distribution of future deforestation (one to three years ahead in time). The method accounts for neighborhood effects by modeling the auto-correlation of occurrence and intensity of deforestation, using a spatiotemporal geostatistical specific...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The MapBiomas initiative was formed in 2015 by universities, NGOs, and Companies to develop a fast, reliable, and low-cost methodology to produce an annual temporal series of land cover and land use maps of Brazil from 1985 to 2017. Collection 1, which consisted of the first step of the mapping process, was done from 2008 to 2015 and only focused o...
Article
Full-text available
Concerted political attention has focused on reducing deforestation, and this remains the cornerstone of most biodiversity conservation strategies. However, maintaining forest cover may not reduce anthropogenic forest disturbances, which are rarely considered in conservation programmes. These disturbances occur both within forests, including select...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate tropic deforestation monitoring using time series requires methods which can capture gradual to abrupt changes and can account for site-specific properties of the environment and the available data. The generic time series algorithm BFAST Monitor was tested using Landsat time series at three tropical sites. We evaluated the importance of h...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Neste documento, analisamos as estimativas de emissões do setor de Mudança de Uso da Terra (MUT) que foram geradas pelo Sistema de Estimativas de Emissões de Gases de Efeito Estufa (SEEG) para o período de 1990 a 2013. O projeto SEEG é uma iniciativa do Observatório do Clima (OC) – uma rede de instituições da sociedade civil. As emissões do SEEG...
Article
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Although vast literature exists on the drivers of tropical deforestation and its ecological consequences, less is known about how patterns of forest fragmentation emerge in the first place. The purpose of this paper is to address this issue for the Brazilian portion of the Amazon basin by analyzing the social processes generative of five specific p...
Article
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Brazilian environmental law imposes more restrictions on land-use change by private landowners in riparian forests than in non-riparian forest areas, reflecting recognition of their importance for the conservation of biodiversity and key ecosystem services. A 22-year time series of classified Landsat images was used to evaluate deforestation and fo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Em 2009, o governo brasileiro lançou a Política Nacional sobre Mudanças Climáticas (PNMC) para evitar o agravamento das mudanças climáticas que já vêm ocorrendo segundo o Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas (IPCC da sigla em Inglês) das Nações Unidas. A PNMC estabeleceu a meta de reduzir entre 36,1% e 38,9% suas emissões projetadas...
Chapter
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O governo brasileiro está executando um am¬bicioso plano de expansão de produção de energia que inclui a construção de 30 hidrelétricas (UHE) na Amazônia até 2023. Este plano e sua execução têm sido questionados em vários aspectos. Especialistas têm argumentado que parte da expansão é desnecessária, pois parte da demanda poderia ser reduzida com o...
Article
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The Brazilian tropical moist forest biome (BTMFB) is experiencing high rates of deforestation and fire. Previous studies indicate that the majority of fires occur close to roads, however they did not consider the network of unofficial roads and navigable rivers, nor inter-state and inter-annual variability. We examine 8 years of Moderate Resolution...
Article
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A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation
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This article addresses the emergence of road networks and forest fragmentation in Central Amazônia, which has been impacted by both spontaneous and planned settlement. The first objective of the article is to broaden the discussion of fragmentation by addressing social processes that generate it through the construction of roads. Roads impact land...
Article
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Tropical forests are diminishing in extent due primarily to the rapid expansion of agriculture, but the future magnitude and geographical distribution of future tropical deforestation is uncertain. Here, we introduce a dynamic and spatially-explicit model of deforestation that predicts the potential magnitude and spatial pattern of Amazon deforesta...