Carlos Silva

Carlos Silva
University of Aveiro | UA · Department of Education and Psychology

PhD In Clinical Psychology

About

264
Publications
63,709
Reads
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1,069
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - present
University of Aveiro
Position
  • Full Profeswsor
Description
  • Coordinator of PsyLab (Laboratory of Experimental and Applied Psychology) of University of Aveiro). Director of Psychology PhD Program.
January 2005 - April 2016
University of Aveiro
Position
  • Full Profeswsor
January 2000 - present
University of Coimbra (Faculty of Medicine)
Position
  • Invited Teacher
Description
  • Biological Rhythms, Performance and Shiftwork. Sleep Disorders: evaluation and treatment. Work ability and psychosocial factors.
Education
September 2001 - July 2002
University of Minho
Field of study
  • Psychology (Agregation)
September 1988 - July 1994
University of Coimbra
Field of study
  • Clinical Psychology (PhD)
September 1984 - October 1984
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Neurosciences (Post Graduation)

Publications

Publications (264)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the work ability of nurses and nursing assistants in relation with the individual characteristics and occupational variables of patient handling tasks in a private hospital. The Work Ability Index and a questionnaire, belonging to the Intervention Evaluation Tool, concerning the professional’s perception...
Article
Full-text available
Acrophobia is a chronic, highly debilitating disorder preventing sufferers from engaging with high places. Its etiology is linked to the development of mobility during infancy. We evaluated the efficacy of various types of movement in the treatment of this disorder within a virtual reality (VR) environment. Four men and four women who were diagnose...
Article
Full-text available
Background Individual differences in one’s perceived vulnerability to infectious diseases are implicated in psychological distress, social and behavioral disease avoidance phenomena. The Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Questionnaire (PVD) is the most extensively used measure when it comes to assessing subjective vulnerability to infectious disea...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although face recognition is a pervasive and important ability in daily life, recognition of unfamiliar faces is difficult and highly error prone. The present study aimed to understand how chronotype and time-of-day (TOD) influence early electrophysiological activity associated with the recognition of faces. Twenty-seven participants (15 morning-ty...
Article
Full-text available
Virtual Reality (VR) has been identified as one of the most promising resources for developing empathy towards stigmatized groups as it allows individuals to experience a situation close to reality from another person's perspective. This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine the impact on empathy, knowledge, and attitudes towards people with sc...
Article
Full-text available
Fear is a powerful emotion that can influence future behavior. This study investigates how fear influences the relationship between vicarious violence at work and employees' work ability. This is a quantitative cross-sectional study. Self-report data were collected from 154 Portuguese nurses who completed an online survey. Statistical significance...
Article
Full-text available
A third version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ III) was developed internationally aiming to respond to new trends in working conditions, theoretical concepts, and international experience. This article aims to present the preliminary validation studies for the Portuguese middle version of COPSOQ III. This is an exploratory cro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Individual differences in one’s perceived vulnerability to disease are implicated in psychological distress, social and behavioral disease avoidance phenomena. The Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Questionnaire (PVD) is the most extensively used measure when it comes to assessing subjective vulnerability to infectious diseases. However...
Article
Psychological aggression perpetrated by customers, coworkers, and supervisors is a behavior frequently experienced in the workplace with negative consequences for an individual’s health. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the personal outcomes of overt workplace psychological aggression and summarize empirical evidence on how to preve...
Chapter
Os campos do design e da saúde, nem sempre parecem estar próximos, do ponto de vista de atuação. Durante vários anos considerou-se que o design surge como sendo um processo de criação de serviços e ou objetos, com base numa linha criativa com enfase na beleza. Com a introdução da noção do design thinking, o processo de criação do designer passou a...
Article
Background and Purpose A violence prevention climate is critical for nurses’ well-being but also for nursing practice and the quality of care. This study examined the reliability and factor validity of the European Portuguese version of the 12-item Violence Prevention Climate Scale (VPCS). Methods Data came from a sample of 120 nurses providing ca...
Article
Full-text available
Policing is a stressful occupation, which impairs police officers' physical/mental health and elicits burnout, aggressive behaviors and suicide. Resilience and coping facilitate the management of job stress policing, which can be operational or organizational. All these constructs are associated, and they must be assessed by instruments sensitive t...
Article
Like previous pandemics, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has direct and indirect effects, including in mental health. To evaluate the immediate psychological impact of COVID-19, we conducted an online survey in Portugal (24–27 March 2020), using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21)...
Article
Full-text available
Research has demonstrated that policing is a stressful occupation and that this stress has a negative impact on police officers’ mental and physical health, performance, and interactions with citizens. Mental health at the workplace has become a concern due to the costs of depression, anxiety, burnout, and even suicide, which is high among police o...
Article
Full-text available
This study focus on the impact of chronic disease over the children’s psychological adjustment, based on the different types of diseases, their characteristics and parents’ perception. The sample is composed of 176 children, aged between 3 and 10 years, distributed in four groups: children with asthma, cancer, uro-nephrological pathology and free f...
Article
Previous studies have highlighted the influence of conditional mating strategies in attractiveness preferences. “Good genes” and dominance cues are perceived as attractive when considering short-term relationships. In contrast, cues for better parenting abilities and trustworthiness are considered more attractive when participants ponder a long-ter...
Article
Individuals of African and Caucasian descent show different chemical signatures in their body odors (BO). Does such biological difference have a perceptual correlate? We tested BO donors and raters of Afro-Portuguese (AP) and Caucasian (C) descent to investigate whether olfactory ratings reveal an ethnic bias and whether olfactory ethnic discrimina...
Article
Full-text available
The social learning theory proposed by Albert Bandura is exclusively revisited as conceptual basis for the learning method of conversational skills training. This theory defines that the human development and functioning result from a reciprocal triadic relationship between internal stimuli, external stimuli, and behavior. Observational learning i...
Article
Objectives: To fully understand the dynamics of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) it is necessary to understand the role of personality. The current understanding of which personality characteristics are associated with IPV victimization is, however, far from comprehensive. Given this gap in the literature, our objective was to examine the associati...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing morningness-eveningness preferences (chronotype), an individual characteristic that is mirrored in daily mental and physiological fluctuations is crucial given their overarching influence in a variety of domains. The current work aimed to investigate the best factor structure of an instrument recently presented to asses this variable: the...
Article
Full-text available
Our work aimed to provide a validated reduced form of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire to Portuguese adolescents (ages: 12-14 years). Using the dataset from the initial validation study of the full questionnaire (19 items) to Portuguese adolescents, we derived a 10-item reduced form – aMEQ-R (Phase 1); this was the smallest set of items th...
Article
Full-text available
This work reports the initial psychometric characterization of the Morningness-Eveningness-Stability-Scale improved (MESSi) for Portuguese young-adults (N=466). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed a three-factor model (i.e., Morning Affect, Eveningness and Distinctness) in our data, as originally proposed. Furthermore, construct validity evide...
Article
Executive control and its modulation of attentional mechanisms allow us to detect and adapt to conflicting information. According to recent studies, executive control functions may be modulated by unconsciously perceived information, although the available evidence is not consistent. In this study, we used a Flanker Task and employed Chromatic Flic...
Article
Accurate identification of encoded contextual details depends on recapitulation processes during retrieval. Encoding and retrieval conditions are known to influence the sensory material stored and its recapitulation, however, little is known about such processes in olfaction. Here, we capitalized on the uniqueness of body odors which, similarly to...
Article
Sexual dimorphism has been proposed as one of the facial traits to have evolved through sexual selection and to affect attractiveness perception. Even with numerous studies documenting its effect on attractiveness and mate choice, the neurophysiological correlates of the perception of sexual dimorphism are not yet fully understood. In the present s...
Poster
The number of studies analyzing the emotional interference based on communicational prosody is reduced. This gap is due to the complexity of auditory stimuli, and the difficulty to ensure that every word that is said triggers a congruent emotional response. This study aimed to constitute a database of emotional words in audio format. 120 visual for...
Poster
The number of errors in eyewitness testimony is very large and can have catastrophic social consequences, when an innocent is convicted. The present study aimed to identify psychophysiological markers of performance in lineup identification based on facial electromyography. Since criminals are emotionally negative and salient for eyewitnesses, a gr...
Poster
O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar de que forma os níveis de autoaversão (sentimentos de repulsa dirigidos para o próprio) podem influenciar a memória para estímulos emocionais e os correlatos psicofisiológicos deste processo, através do registo de ECG. Era pedido aos participantes que memorizassem e posteriormente recordassem faces de a...
Poster
Biological functions, such as deep body temperature, vary rhythmically throughout the day and in synchrony with the individual's chronotype. The same happens with cognitive functions such as attention, or memory. While participants performed the encoding phase of a memory task, the ECG was recorded with the objective of examining the effect of the...
Poster
Although many investigations have focused on the relationship between circadian typology and cognitive performance, little is known about its influence on specific cognitive tasks such as facial recognition. In this study, eye movement measures were used to explore the effect of chronotype and time-of-day on participants’ performance in a relationa...
Poster
Full-text available
The executive control of attention is crucial to detect and deal with interference or conflict, even, reportedly, at an unconscious level. Recent research on the effects of videogames suggests improvements in the attentional skills of videogame players (VGPs), compared to non-videogame players (NVGPs). However, no study has yet investigated whether...
Article
Many studies have indicated that the chemical cues from body odors (BOs) of donors experiencing negative emotions can influence the psychophysiological and behavioral response of the observers. However, these olfactory cues have been used mainly as contextual information for processing visual stimuli. Here, for the first time, we evaluate how emoti...
Article
Immigrant students attending schools in the host country have different cognitive, cultural and linguistic backgrounds that might influence their inclusion process. This process is enhanced by success attained in academic context and by psychological adaptation. Academic difficulties and limited proficiency could motivate psychological distress and...
Article
The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive review of psycho-education in adults with formally diagnosed anxiety disorders, assessing its effectiveness in reducing the severity of anxiety symptoms, psychological distress, depression and pain, and improving quality of life and satisfaction with treatment. A systematic search was conducted usi...
Article
The privileged processing of threat stimuli, even in the absence of visual awareness, has been associated with a subcortical superior colliculus (SC)—pulvinar pathway to the amygdala, bypassing the visual cortex. However, this has been heavily disputed by studies showing that cortical activity cannot be ruled out in fear processing. A recent study...
Article
Full-text available
A necessidade de avaliação e monitorização dos factores de risco de natureza psicossocial tem sido estabelecida como uma prioridade pelos organismos internacionais e definida como uma meta ao nível nacional no âmbito das políticas de Segurança e Saúde do Trabalho. Os modelos e métodos de avaliação são diversos e frequentemente multidimensionais. Em...
Article
Neste artigo, mencionamos as estratégias terapêuticas que julgamos mais apropriadas ao tratamento do medo de alturas. Comparamos vários estudos que usaram várias técnicas e referimos a nossa experiência clínica e de investigação. Considerámos, igualmente, os novos tratamentos que usam ambientes de realidade virtual para o tratamento da acrofobia. A...
Article
Full-text available
Neste artigo, mencionamos as estratégias terapêuticas que julgamos mais apropriadas ao tratamento do medo de alturas. Comparamos vários estudos que usaram várias técnicas e referimos a nossa experiência clínica e de investigação. Considerámos, igualmente, os novos tratamentos que usam ambientes de realidade virtual para o tratamento da acrofobia. A...
Chapter
Full-text available
Studying music is associated with improving the quality of life for those who practise it, while providing a range of opportunities and experiences (Johnson and Memmott 2006). These stem from the process of teaching and learning music and can enhance people’s abilities to achieve positive musical experiences (Reimer 1999). Thus, music provides a va...
Article
Objective: The association between sleep quality and quality of life (QoL) in clinical samples diagnosed with sleep disorders, mental disorders, or other medical conditions has been widely investigated. However, few studies focused on this relationship in samples of mostly young and healthy adults. This study analyzed the associations between slee...
Poster
Errors in eyewitness testimony are frequent and problematic, due to the ethical and social impact of false positives. As an attempt to reduce the number of errors, it has been suggested that identification markers based on methodologies like ERPs should be developed. Twenty-nine participants viewed crime videos, each followed by an interference tas...
Poster
The influence of the synchrony effect (congruence between chronotype and time-of-day) on the mnesic and attentional performance is well documented. However, studies that relate the synchrony effect with identification performance on lineups are few and focused on recognition. Thirty-four participants watched eight theft videos, each followed by an...
Conference Paper
Sexual dimorphism, which corresponds to the phenotypic difference between males and female from the same species, is one of the main factors that was proven to influence facial attractiveness in humans. Although there are several studies about the impact of sexual dimorphism perception in mate choice, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms ar...
Poster
Full-text available
OUR AIM: To contribute to the understanding of the relation between chronotype, sleep and sports performance in elite football players.
Article
A recent study claimed face skin color as a sexually dimorphic variable that influences attractiveness preferences in mate choice. Thereby, skin color may assume the role of a mate quality signal influencing attractiveness preferences. As body odor is linked to attractiveness, this study aimed to explore whether the odors of men with more masculine...
Article
Full-text available
As exigências laborais parecem aumentar cada vez mais, fazendo com que as condições de saúde mentais e físicas dos trabalhadores se tornem cada vez mais precárias o que, por sua vez, tem grande influência negativa na capacidade para o trabalho e nas funções executivas. Esta investigação foi orientada para a compreensão fenomenológica das correlaçõe...
Article
The labor requirements seem to be increasing more and more, causing the physical and mental health of workers to become increasingly precarious which, in turn, has a great negative influence on work ability and executive functions. This research aims at understand the phenomenological correlations between the variables studied, giving an important...
Article
Recent research on cognitive and academic performance assessment of immigrant students evidences inconsistencies in teachers’ practice regarding performance assessment of L2 students. We aim to verify whether students classified by schools as having different proficiency levels in accordance to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languag...
Article
The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal has been widely used to study the physiological substrates of emotion. However, searching for better filtering techniques in order to obtain a signal with better quality and with the maximum relevant information remains an important issue for researchers in this field. Signal processing is largely performed for EC...
Article
Snakes and spiders constitute fear-relevant stimuli for humans, as many species have deleterious and even fatal effects. However, snakes provoked an older and thus stronger evolutionary pressure than spiders, shaping the vision of earliest primates towards preferential visual processing, mainly in the most complex perceptual conditions. To the best...
Article
Research investigating the effect of lighting and viewpoint changes on unfamiliar and newly learnt faces has revealed that such recognition is highly image dependent and that changes in either of these leads to poor recognition accuracy. Three experiments are reported to extend these findings by examining the effect of apparent age on the recogniti...
Article
In the current political and economic situation, the Public Administration has been facing several adjustments to adapt to the demands of the society, changing its modus operandi, whether its the change of tasks, schedules, or performance review, which might affect negatively job satisfaction among workers in this activity. It's known that Internal...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to work proved to be a good predictor of work performance. This capacity has been affected by psychosocial factors at work, especially mental health. OBJECTIVE: To explore and identify the relationship between psychosocial factors of health and well-being at work and mild mental disturbance and sociodemographic factors, as well as to de...
Article
DOI 10.1186/s12913-016-1423-5. OPEN ACESS: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4943498/ Background: Poor sleep and insomnia symptoms (e.g., difficulties in initiating or maintaining sleep, early morning awakenings, light sleep) are amongst the most common sleep complaints in adult’s populations, and especially in older ages. The Basic Sc...
Article
Background: Morningness-eveningness, also known as chronotype, reflects demonstrable inter-individual differences in the peak timings (but not in the amount) of several circadian rhythms. The Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) by Smith et al. (1989) [1] is one of the most widely used tools to access it. It has been long used in research in Port...
Chapter
Full-text available
The present work is part of a larger ongoing research project and it specifically aims to scrutinize whether diurnal-type (morningness- eveningness) and time-of-day have an impact (synchrony effect) on the results obtained by primary school children in standardized measures assessing reading skills and difficulties. Morning- and evening-type childr...