Carlos Rossa

Carlos Rossa
Carleton University

PhD PEng

About

82
Publications
23,459
Reads
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893
Citations
Introduction
Additional affiliations
July 2021 - present
Carleton University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 2017 - June 2021
Ontario Tech University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
Full-text available
Percutaneous needle insertion is amongst the most prevalent clinical procedures. The effectiveness of needle-base interventions heavily relies on needle targeting accuracy. However, the needle interacts with the surrounding tissue during insertion and deflects away from its intended trajectory. To overcome this problem, a significant research effor...
Article
Full-text available
Series elastic actuators (SEA) have been gaining increasing popularity as a mechanical drive in contemporary force-controlled robotic manipulators thanks to their ability to infer the applied torque from measurements of the elastic element's deflection. Accurate deflection control is crucial to achieve a desired output torque and, therefore, unmode...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a growing interest in developing electric impedance sensing surgical tools for tissue identification during surgery. A key facet of this development is identifying distinct features that can be used to identify tissues from one another. This paper explores several feature extraction techniques and classification methods applied to el...
Article
Full-text available
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the leading intervention for removing large or irregularly shaped kidney stones. It involves gaining access to the kidney through a small incision in the patient's back, through which a nephroscope is steered towards the stones. Despite decades of clinical prevalence, PCNL remains a complex procedure to learn...
Article
Full-text available
This letter outlines the modelling, design, and experimental validation of a novel power-efficient actuator for an active ankle-foot orthosis (AAFO). The actuator is based on a new principle of discrete non-linear stiffness. Two or more linear springs are discretely compressed at specified displacement intervals to reduce the peak mechanical power...
Article
Full-text available
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a procedure used to treat kidney stones. In PCNL, a needle punctures the kidney through an incision in a patient’s back and thin tools are threaded through the incision to gain access to kidney stones for removal. Despite being one of the main endoscopic procedures for managing kidney stones, PCNL remains a di...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, a novel optimization method named reference point-based particle sub-swarm optimization (RPB-PSWO) is presented. RPB-PSWO utilizes the particle position update method of PSO and with the non-dominance and diversity selection methods of NSGA-II. The multi-objective optimizer utilizes a reference point-based system to allocate particle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An active ankle foot orthosis (AAFO) is an assistive device that applies plantarflexion and dorsiflexion assistance to the ankle joint by means of a compliant actuator. The device must apply sufficient torque assistance to track the desired ankle trajectory. However, torque disturbances are prevalent throughout the gait cycle. Accurately modelling...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the leading treatment for large or irregularly shaped kidney stones. Nevertheless , gaining access to the kidney remains a challenging component of the procedure with a steep learning curve. As a result, the procedure would benefit from robotic assistance to partially or fully automate this critical component of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One of the many challenges in autonomous robots is that they can enter an error state and are unable to continue operation without human intervention. Sensors installed on the robot enable proprioception and could help the robot understand its error configuration. This paper proposes a method to determine from these sensor measurements, which are m...
Article
Full-text available
High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) is an internal based radiation treatment for prostate cancer. The treatment can deliver radiation to the site of dominant tumor growth within the prostate. Imaging methods to delineate the dominant tumor are imperative to ensure the maximum success of HDR. This paper investigates the feasibility of using electrica...
Article
Full-text available
The sustained increase in new cases of COVID-19 across the world and potential for subsequent outbreaks call for new tools to assist health professionals with early diagnosis and patient monitoring. Growing evidence around the world is showing that lung ultrasound examination can detect manifestations of COVID-19 infection. Ultrasound imaging has s...
Article
Full-text available
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is a procedure used to treat patients with large or irregularly shaped kidney stones. Surgical instruments are inserted through a small incision to access the kidney and remove the calculi. Surgeons who have less experience with the procedure manifest significantly higher rates of complications due to the procedure’s st...
Article
Design and development of robotic-assistance must consider the abilities of individuals with disabilities. In this paper, a 8-DOF kinematic model of the upper limb complex is derived to evaluate the reachable workspace of the arm during interaction with a planar robot and to serve as the basis for rehabilitation strategies and assistive robotics. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tissue classification from electrical impedance spectroscopy has several applications in diagnosis, surgical planning, and minimally invasive surgery. The method involves applying an alternating current to the sample and measuring its electric impedance at various frequencies. The spectrum is fit to an equivalent electric circuit that mimics the sh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive medical imaging procedure. Image reconstruction in EIT is difficult because it involves solving a non-linear and ill-posed mathematical problem. One of the most commonly implemented inverse approaches is usually a variation of the Newton Raphson algorithm. However, this approach is not guarant...
Article
Full-text available
The design of rehabilitation devices for patients experiencing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) requires a great deal of attention. This paper aims to develop a comprehensive model of the upper limb complex to guide the design of robotic rehabilitation devices that prioritize patient safety, while targeting effective rehabilitative treatment. A 9 d...
Chapter
Full-text available
Haptic force feedback in teleoperated robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is difficult to implement with traditional force sensors at the tool tip. A novel approach to displaying forces to the user is explored using electric impedance spectroscopy with an electrode embedded needle. To give substance to the proposed method, user trials were co...
Article
Full-text available
Immersive virtual environments combined with kinaesthetic and/or tactile haptic feedback are becoming an essential building block of simulator training in a variety of applications. This paper aims to illustrate the interest of hands-on training simulation with haptic feedback. We review the recent application domains and we expose the progress and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Series elastic actuators with passive compliance have been gaining increasing popularity in force-controlled robotic manipulators. One of the reasons is the actuator's ability to infer the applied torque by measuring the deflection of the elastic element as opposed to directly with dedicated torque sensors. Proper deflection control is pinnacle to...
Article
Full-text available
Some tumours may not be detected by ultrasound during biopsy, but recent evidence has shown that different tissues can be discerned by electric impedance. This paper explores the application of vibrotactile feedback in an electrode embedded needle to help classify tissue during fine-needle aspiration biopsy from bioimpedance measurements. The proce...
Article
Full-text available
Robotic surgery and surgical simulation provide surgeons with tools that can improve the health outcomes of their patients. The limiting factor in many of these systems, however, is the haptic system which needs to render high impedance without compromising transparency or stability. To address this issue, we constructed a 3-Degree-of-Freedom hapti...
Article
Rehabilitative and assistive practices usually elicit intense and repetitive exercises. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in robotic systems as they are robust and cost-effective in comparison to conventional physical motor-therapy with a therapist. These robots have applications in therapeutic and in-home environments, where there is a n...
Article
Full-text available
Haptic devices containing passive actuators, such as controllable brakes or dampers, are an attractive alternative to their motor-driven counterparts due to intrinsic stability and improved impedance bandwidth. Passive actuators cannot generate energy, and, therefore, the output force can only oppose the applied velocity. In the same way, the kinem...
Article
Full-text available
Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy is the standard surgical procedure used to remove large kidney stones. PCNL procedures have a steep learning curve; a physician needs to complete between 36-60 procedures, to achieve clinical proficiency. Marion Surgical K181 is a virtual reality surgical simulator, which emulates the PCNL procedures without compromising...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Haptic force feedback in teleoperated robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery is difficult to implement with traditional force sensors at the tool tip. A novel approach to displaying forces to the user is explored using electric impedance spectroscopy with an electrode embedded needle. To give substance to the proposed method, user trials were co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) has proven to be an efficient control method, however, the tuning of its parameters is a complicated endeavour. This paper explores the use of reference point based dominance in the traditional multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) to perform the parameter tuning. The algorithm...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Stability and transparency are key design requirements in haptic devices. Transparency can be significantly improved by replacing conventional electric motors with passive actuators such as brakes or dampers. Passive actuators can display a wide range of impedance and since they can only dissipate energy, stability is guaranteed. However, passive h...
Article
In this paper, we design a set of 2D needle steering controllers used to minimize the 3D deflection of a flexible, bevel-tipped needle. The controllers are based on a nonlinear design tool known as integrator-backstepping. The needle's deflection is split into its two 2D planar problems, each of which is then governed by its own, separate controlle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Series elastic actuators have proven to be an elegant response to the issue of safety around human-robot interaction. The compliant nature of series elastic actuators provides the potential to be applied in robot-aided rehabilitation for patients with upper and lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. This paper proposes a new series elastic actuator t...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a 3D automated needle steering system is presented that can enhance the performance of needle-based procedures. The system comprises a nonholonomic needle steering model and a nonlinear controller for 3D needle steering. First, a reduced-order needle steering model is presented. Next, a geometric reduction procedure is carried out to...
Article
Long flexible needles used in percutaneous procedures such as biopsy and brachytherapy deflect during insertion, thus reducing needle tip placement accuracy. This paper presents a surgeon-in-the-loop system to automatically steer the needle during manual insertion and compensate for needle deflection using an event-triggered controller. A reduced-o...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper presents a physical simulator for needle steering in brachytherapy. As the user inserts the needle in a phantom tissue, images of the needle and prostate shape reconstructed from 2D transverse ultrasound images are displayed online in a semi-transparent mirror. During insertion, the user sees the images as if they were floating inside th...
Article
Full-text available
Needle insertion is a common minimally invasive medical procedure used for therapy and diagnosis. Among the therapeutic procedures is prostate brachytherapy, during which needle insertion is applied to implant radioactive seeds within the prostate. During insertion, the needle tends to deflect from a desired straight path, thus causing misplacement...
Article
Full-text available
Robotic-assisted needle steering can enhance the accuracy of needle-based interventions. Application of current needle steering techniques are restricted by the limited deflection curvature of needles. Here, a novel steerable needle with improved curvature is developed and used with an online motion planner to steer the needle in curved paths insid...
Article
Full-text available
In prostate brachytherapy, radioactive seeds are implanted into the prostate for treatment of early-stage localized cancer. A major issue is seed displacement due to needle deflection, which is difficult to control as the needle is inserted manually. To address the problem and automate needle insertion, robotic systems, mathematical models for esti...
Article
Full-text available
Needle deflection during certain minimally invasive percutaneous procedures, such as prostate biopsy or brachytherapy, is undesired and can be reduced through the use of feedback control. This paper uses a depth-dependent reduced-order 3D nonholonomic model of needle tip motion to propose a needle deflection controller that works in a surgeon-in-th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Telerobotic manipulation allows patients living with upper limb impairments to interact with a variety of environments and accomplish through teleoperation daily activities such as playing, feeding, self-care, and leisure, that would otherwise be difficult to perform. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear mapping between the patient's range of moti...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a sliding-based method for steering beveled-tip needles in a 3D environment. The controller determines the needle roll angle using the needle tip position deviation, obtained from ultrasound images, and its first time derivative. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed using 3D unicycle model for the needle, as a res...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Robotics-assisted needle steering can enhance the performance of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy, brachytherapy, and drug delivery. We present an automated needle steering system capable of steering needles in 3D toward targets in tissue while avoiding anatomical obstacles. The system comprises a nonholonomic model of needle steerin...
Patent
Full-text available
A hand-held device for assisted steering of a percutaneously inserted needle comprises a handle, an actuation unit, and a haptic feedback unit. A computer-implemented system calculates a needle shape and position based on one or a combination of analysis of ultrasound images and determination of needle insertion parameters based on electronic signa...
Article
Full-text available
Global modelling has traditionally been the approach taken to estimate needle deflection in soft tissue. In this paper, we propose a new method based on local data-driven modelling of needle deflection. External measurements of needle-tissue interactions are collected from several insertions in ex-vivo tissue to form a cloud of data. Inputs to the...
Article
Full-text available
Robotics-assisted needle steering can enhance targeting accuracy in percutaneous interventions. This paper presents a novel dynamical model for robotically controlled needle steering. This is the first model that predicts both needle shape and tip position in soft tissue and accepts needle insertion velocity, needle 180� degree axial rotation, and...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of needle-based interventions depends on the accuracy of needle tip positioning. Here, a novel needle steering strategy is proposed that enhances accuracy of needle steering. In our approach the surgeon is in charge of needle insertion to ensure the safety of operation, while the needle tip bevel location is robotically controlled t...
Article
Full-text available
This work proposes a real-time estimator for needle tip deflection and needle shape during needle insertion into soft tissue. The estimator is based on an adaptive quasi-static mechanics-based model for needle-tissue interactions. The model uses Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to model the needle as a cantilever beam that experiences loads imposed by t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Brachytherapy is a widely used treatment for patients with localized cancer where high doses of radiation are administered to cancerous tissue by implanting radioactive seeds into the prostate using long beveled-tip needles. Accurate seed placement is an important factor that influences the outcome of the treatment. In this paper, we present and st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prostate brachytherapy is a current technique used to treat cancerous tissue in the prostate by permanently implanting radioactive seeds through the use of long flexible needles. This paper proposes a real-time method to predict the shape of a flexible needle inserted into soft tissue using axial Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) image segmentation and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we develop a needle steering strategy designed to reduce the out-of-plane deflection of a flexible, bevel-tipped needle for clinical needle insertion applications. This is performed through an integrator-backstepping approach. Integrator-backstepping is a nonlinear feedback controller design that divides the entire system into a sequ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In many subcutaneous needle insertion procedures , measuring needle deflection is necessary in order to accurately guide the needle towards inner body targets. Typically , needle deflection measurement are obtained from 2D ultrasound images, which can only provide the needle tip position , however, having knowledge about the needle tip heading (ori...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Needle insertion is commonly used in procedures such as prostate brachytherapy or biopsy. In prostate brachytherapy, the success of the procedure depends on the accurate placement of needles in their pre-planned target location. In order to steer the needle towards a defined target, past research has used ultrasound-image-based needle localization...
Article
Full-text available
In percutaneous needle insertions, cutting forces at the needle tip deflect the needle and increases targeting error. Thus, modelling needle-tissue interaction in biological tissue is essential for accurate robotics-assisted needle steering. In this paper, dynamics of needle tip interaction with inhomogeneous biological tissue is described and the...
Article
Full-text available
This paper represents a sliding based controller for steering beveled-tip needles to stationary locations in soft tissue in a 2D environment by performing appropriate switches of bevel orientation by 180� degree axial rotations while the needle is being inserted. Assuming the rotation velocity to be large enough with respect to insertion velocity,...
Article
Full-text available
Brachytherapy is a cancer treatment procedure where long flexible needles are steered towards an inner body target in order to deliver radioactive seeds that destroy the cancer cells. Controlling the trajectory of the needle is very challenging as interaction with surrounding tissues causes it to deviate from a straight path during insertion. In th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Robotics-assisted needle steering can enhance the accuracy of needle-based medical interventions, especially when the designated target locations are obscured by obstacles. However, the steering techniques using standard needles are not capable of achieving high curvatures and cannot follow tightly curved paths inside tissue. In this work, we intro...
Article
Full-text available
In needle-based medical procedures, beveled tip flexible needles are steered inside soft tissue to reach the desired target locations. In this paper, we have developed an autonomous image-guided needle steering system that enhances targeting accuracy in needle insertion while minimizing tissue trauma. The system has three main components. First is...
Article
Full-text available
In many types of percutaneous needle insertion surgeries, tissue deformation and needle deflection can create significant difficulties for accurate needle placement. In this paper, we present a method for automatic needle tracking in 2D ultrasound (US) images, which is used in a needle–tissue interaction model to estimate current and future needle...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we present a model for needle deflection estimation in soft tissue. The needle is modeled as a vibrating compliant cantilever beam that experiences forces applied by the tissue as it is inserted. Each of the assumed vibration modes are associated with a weighting coefficient whose magnitude is calculated using the minimum potential en...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This paper proposes a method to predict the deflection of a flexible needle inserted into soft tissue based on the observation of deflection at a single point along the needle shaft. Methods: We model the needle-tissue as a discretized structure composed of several virtual, weightless, rigid links connected by virtual helical springs wh...