Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert
University of Desarrollo | UDD · Centro de Investigación en Complejidad Social (CICS)

Ph.D. University of Cambridge

About

44
Publications
11,433
Reads
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1,169
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2010 - December 2011
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2010 - March 2015
University of Desarrollo
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (44)
Article
Full-text available
We develop an endogenous fertility model of social strati…cation with two hereditary classes: a warrior elite and a peasantry. Our model shows that the extra cost warriors must incur to raise their children and to equip them for war is the key determinant of (1) the relative sizes of both classes, and (2) the warriors'economic privileges in terms o...
Article
Full-text available
We model the dynamic effects of external enforcement on the exploitation of a common pool resource. Fitting our model to experimental data we find that institutions influence social preferences. We solve two puzzles in the data: the increase and later erosion of cooperation when commoners vote against the imposition of a fine, and the high deterren...
Article
We model the coevolution of behavioral strategies and social learning rules in the context of a cooperative dilemma, a situation in which individuals must decide whether or not to subordinate their own interests to those of the group. There are two learning rules in our model, conformism and payoff-dependent imitation, which evolve by natural selec...
Article
Full-text available
In the past few decades, constitution-making processes have shifted from being undertakings performed by elites and closed off from the public to ones incorporating democratic mechanisms. Little is known, however, about the determinants of voluntary public participation and how they affect the outcomes of the deliberative process in terms of conten...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social relationships are pivotal for human beings. Yet, we still lack a complete understanding of the types and conditions of social relationships that facilitate learning among children. Here, we present the results of a study involving 855 elementary school children from 14 different public schools in Chile designed to understand their social lea...
Article
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From an evolutionary perspective, phenotypic, social, and environmental factors help to shape the different costs and benefits of pursuing different reproductive strategies (or a mixture of them) from one individual to another. Since men’s reproductive success is mainly constrained to women’s availability, their mating orientations should be partia...
Article
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In both sexes, aggression has been described as a critical trait to acquire social status. Still, almost uniquely in men, the link between aggressiveness and the genetic background of testosterone sensitivity measured from the polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene has been previously investigated. We assessed the relevance of the AR gene...
Article
Governance regimes that assign exclusive access to support collective action are increasingly promoted to manage common‐pool resources under the premise that they foster environmental stewardship. However, experimental evidence linked to existing policies, to support this premise is lacking. Overlapping access policies in small‐scale fisheries prov...
Article
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The effort to understand the genetic basis of human sociality has been encouraged by the diversity and heritability of social traits like cooperation. This task has remained elusive largely because most studies of sociality and genetics use sample sizes that are often unable to detect the small effects that single genes may have on complex social b...
Article
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Altruism (a costly action that benefits others) and reciprocity (the repayment of acts in kind) differ in that the former expresses preferences about the outcome of a social interaction, whereas the latter requires, in addition, ascribing intentions to others. Interestingly, an individual's behavior and neurophysiological activity under outcome-ver...
Article
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The decision to allocate time and energy to find multiple sexual partners or raise children is a fundamental reproductive trade-off. The Strategic Pluralism Hypothesis argues that human reproductive strategies are facultatively calibrated towards either investing in mating or parenting (or a mixture), according to the expression of features depende...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the past few decades, constitution-making processes have shifted from closed elite writing to incorporating democratic mechanisms. Yet, little is known about democratic participation in deliberative constitution-making processes. Here, we study a deliberative constituent process held by the Chilean government between 2015 and 2016. The Chilean p...
Article
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The Male Warrior Hypothesis (MWH) establishes that men’s psychology has been shaped by inter-group competition to acquire and protect reproductive resources. In this context, sex-specific selective pressures would have favored cooperation with the members of one’s group in combination with hostility towards outsiders. We investigate the role of dev...
Preprint
Social networks are pivotal for learning. Yet, we still lack a full understanding of the mechanisms connecting networks with learning outcomes. Here, we present the results of a large scale study (946 elementary school children from 45 different classrooms) designed to understand the social strategies used by elementary school children. We mapped t...
Article
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Objective: There is evidence that competitive conflicts are the main form of intrasexual competition among men. The capacity to recognize visual cues of fighting ability in competitors is thought to be an important characteristic that allows men to avoid the costs of contest competition. However, for an accurate comparison to take place, individual...
Article
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Collective memory and attention are sustained by two channels: oral communication (communicative memory) and the physical recording of information (cultural memory). Here, we use data on the citation of academic articles and patents, and on the online attention received by songs, movies and biographies, to describe the temporal decay of the attenti...
Article
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We present a spatial agent-based model of the emergence and proliferation of premodern complex societies in an isolated region initially inhabited by simple societies. At the intrasocietal level, the model integrates scalar stress, social fission, sociocultural evolution, societal collapse, and Malthusian-Ricardian demographic dynamics. At the geog...
Chapter
Human social skills are widely studied among very different disciplines. In this chapter, we review, discuss, and relate evidence concerning the process of valuing others’ perspectives, preferences, and behaviors from an economic, psychological, and neurobiological viewpoint. This process of valuing others (or other-regarding preferences) can be un...
Article
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We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination...
Article
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During social bargain, one has to both figure out the others' intentions and behave strategically in such a way that the others' behaviors will be consistent with one's expectations. To understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors, we used electroencephalography while subjects played as proposers in a repeated Ultimatum Game...
Article
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A system is said to be meritocratic if the compensation and power available to individuals is determined by their abilities and merits. A system is topocratic if the compensation and power available to an individual is determined primarily by her position in a network. Here we introduce a model that is perfectly meritocratic for fully connected net...
Article
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ABSTRACT. We explore the external validity of a common pool resource (CPR) laboratory experiment. The experimental subjects were artisanal fishers who exploit benthic resources on the coast of Chile. A first set of subjects was recruited from fishers’ unions that comanage their resources through territorial user right areas. These unions differ in...
Article
Full-text available
We present a microeconomic model of social stratification, which includes an endogenous fertility component. In the model, egalitarian and stratified societies coexist. The latter are divided into two hereditary classes: a warrior elite and a productive class. The model entails that the extra cost warriors must incur to train and equip their childr...
Article
Full-text available
Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elemen...
Article
Public schools in Chile receive a per-student subsidy depending on enrollment, and are managed by local governments that operate under soft budget constraints. In this paper, we study the effects of this system on per-student expenditures. Per-student expenditures on rural areas are 30% higher than in urban areas. We find that about 75% of this dif...
Article
Within a standard stochastic evolutionary framework, we study the evolution of morality, both at the level of behavior and at the level of codes of behavior. These moral codes involve sanctioning deviant agents. We provide conditions under which the presence of any small degree of inter-group selection allows the emergence of moral codes which impr...
Article
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Gratuitous cooperation (in favour of non-relatives and without repeated interaction) eludes traditional evolutionary explanations. In this paper we survey the various theories of cooperative behaviour, and we describe our own effort to integrate these theories into a self-contained framework. Our main conclusions are as follows. First: altruistic p...
Article
Whenever a company implements a group-based incentive plan for the first time, free-riding may destroy trust among employees and harm performance. We propose a static model to describe how employees make the decision of whether to cooperate or not, which considers material rewards and social preferences. Given the deep uncertainty involved, we conj...
Article
The empirical study of network dynamics has been limited by the lack of longitudinal data. Here we introduce a quantitative indicator of link persistence to explore the correlations between the structure of a mobile phone network and the persistence of its links. We show that persistent links tend to be reciprocal and are more common for people wit...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we survey the theories of gratuitous cooperation, i.e., in favour of non-relatives and without repeated interaction. We also describe our work on the area, whose objective is to integrate the various theories of gratuitous cooperation into a self-contained framework. Our conclusions are as follows. First: altruistic punishment, confor...
Article
When investment in individual reputation cannot solve contract incompleteness, group reputation becomes crucial to achieve social cooperation. In this article we develop a formal model in which the link between social pressure, group reputation formation and between groups trust is studied. Specifically, we model a transaction which involves trust...
Article
Full-text available
When investment in individual reputation cannot solve contract incompleteness, group reputation becomes crucial to achieve social cooperation. In this article we develop a formal model in which the link between social pressure, group reputation formation and between groups trust is studied. Specifically, we model a transaction which involves trust...
Article
Full-text available
We model the consumption life cycle of theater attendance for single movies by taking into account the size of the targeted group and the effect of social interactions. We provide an analytical solution of such model, which we contrast with empirical data from the film industry obtaining good agreement with the diverse types of behaviors empiricall...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of longitudinal data has prevented the study of dynamic network properties. Here, we use cellular phone billing data to analyze the coupling between network structure and dynamics. Using 10 panels we find that the persistence of social ties, defined as the probability of observing a tie when looking at a panel, is coupled to the network's...
Article
Full-text available
The following report details the results from the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commissions pilot study on the human, social and economic costs of drugs in the Americas. This program is the first of its kind in the hemisphere where a group of countries has embarked jointly on common economic impact studies. Although the participating countries...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The aim of this research project is the study of the electrophysiological correlation between the processes of attention and cognitive control in primary-school-aged children (with typically developing, attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome and autism) and the emergence of cooperative, competitive and aggressive behaviors.
Project
The study of the electrophysiological correlation between the processes of attention and cognitive control in primary-school-aged children (with typically developing, attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome and autism) and the emergence of cooperative, competitive and aggressive behaviors.
Project
Behavior within relations of trust, specifically trustworthiness, greatly determines the efficiency of social groups (La Porta et al, 1997). In order to contribute to our understanding of how these capacities are built, we will comparatively study the cognitive and behavioral response of agents drawn from different age groups when trust is placed in them. The research framework of our enquiry on the mechanisms underlying such response is that of Neuroeconomics, an emergent interdisciplinary field of study which combines the methods of experimental and behavioral economics with those of social neuroscience (see Camerer et al, 2005; Sanfey, 2007). A set of results from experimental economists show that behavior in a set of social dilemma behavior substantially varies across different age groups (Beneson et al, 2007; Harbaugh et al, 2007, 2012). In the context of relations of trust, the experimental evidence on the trustee's response not only shows variation at the behavioral level between different age groups, but also suggests differences in the underlying motives (Camerer, 2003; Belli et al, 2012). Developmental psychologists tend to understand these differences by emphasizing that the internalization of social rules is a gradual process (Kolhberg, 1971; Hy and Loevinger, 1996). Recent advances in social neurosciences, however, suggest that these differences might also have a neuroanatomical foundation. Three neurobiological systems are involved in the implementation of social behavior: the reward, the cognitive control and the social cognition systems (King-Casas and Chiu, 2012; Declerck et al, 2013). The degree of development of each system modulates the weight attached to such system in the social decision-making process. Steinbeis et al (2013), for instance, show that behavioral inhibition -modulated by the neuroanatomical development of the cognitive control systems- plays a crucial role in the implementation of fair behavior in bargaining games. The aim of this project is threefold. First, we would like to contribute to the stock of empirical evidence on the differences on prosocial behavior by studying the trustee's response for three different samples: children (10- 12), adolescents (14-16) and young adults (20-22). Second, we would like to identify which components of the agent's social preferences -with special attention to reciprocity and inequity aversion-motivates his response within each age group and how changes the weight attached to each component among them. Third, we would like to understand the role that differential development of the neurobiological systems involved in social behavior might play in explaining these differences. In order to fulfill this, we will study a modified version of Berg et al (1995)'s experimental design. During the participation in the behavioral experiment, the experimental subject's brain activity will be measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which detects associated blood flow of activated brain areas. In order to complement these measures, experimental subjects will participate of a behavioral inhibition task as their brain activity is captured with electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques to specifically investigate the maturity of the cognitive control system. In our modified version of Berg et al's Investment game, the trustee faces three possible scenarios: distrust, partial trust and full trust. In order to differentiate between intention-based and outcome-based motivations of the trustee, two alternative treatments are considered. In the baseline treatment, it is the truster who decides the level of investment. In the alternative treatment, the decision is randomly taken by a computer (the investment game becomes a set of dictator game in terms of the payoff structure). In contrast with most neuroeconomic studies, which have focused on the neural correlates of trusting behavior (e.g., Fett et al, 2013). Neurophysiological measures will be associated with the reaction of the trustee, first, when informed about the truster's decision; and, later, when he decides how to share the benefits from the truster's investment. We hope that a better account of age-specific behavioral responses and its motives in relations of trust together with a better understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms will help us identify deviating patterns that may represent early manifestation of risk factors associated with the socialization process. Our results in complementation to similar studies that have focused on trusting decisions should give us a more comprehensive understanding of relations of trust as whole in different stages of development and thus inform educational policies associated with improving the social life in our schools.