Carlos P. Carmona

Carlos P. Carmona
University of Tartu · Department of Botany

PhD- Ecology

About

86
Publications
39,418
Reads
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2,018
Citations
Introduction
During my PhD thesis, I studied the interaction between grazing disturbance and spatio-temporal resource availability in the composition and functional structure of grassland communities at different spatial scales. Currently, I am mostly focused on incorporating within-species trait variability into trait-based approaches, combining the development of analytical tools with experimental approaches.
Additional affiliations
March 2017 - March 2019
University of Tartu
Position
  • Researcher
December 2014 - present
University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice
Position
  • PostDoc Position
September 2013 - December 2014
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
February 2010 - November 2012
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Field of study
  • Ecology
October 2008 - February 2010
Universidad Autónoma de Madrid
Field of study
  • Ecology
October 1998 - October 2006
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Field of study
  • Ingeniero de Montes

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Analysis of the shifts in the climatic space for invasive species between native and introduced areas is a powerful tool for understanding their distribution patterns and the factors influencing their spread into new areas. In this study, we explored the shift in climatic distribution between ranges for invasive woody legumes and how the functional...
Article
In trait‐based ecology, phenotypic variation (PVar) is often quantified with measures expressing average differences between populations standardized in the range 0‐1. However, these measures disregard the within‐population trait variability. In addition, some of them cannot be partitioned between populations. These aspects can either alter their i...
Article
While biodiversity is expected to enhance multiple ecosystem functions (EFs), the different roles of multiple biodiversity dimensions remain difficult to disentangle without carefully designed experiments. We sowed plant communities with independent levels of functional (FD) and phylogenetic diversities (PD), combined with different levels of ferti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecological theory posits that temporal stability patterns in plant populations are associated with differences in species’ ecological strategies. However, empirical evidence is lacking about which traits, or trade-offs, underlie species stability, specially across different ecosystems. To address this, we compiled a global collection of long-term p...
Article
Full-text available
Drought is expected to increase in future climate scenarios. Although responses to drought of individual functional traits are relatively well-known, simultaneous changes across multiple traits in response to water scarcity remain poorly understood despite its importance to understand alternative strategies to resist drought. We grew 52 herbaceous...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Anthropocene is tightly associated with a drastic loss of species worldwide, and consequently, with the disappearance of key ecosystem functions. The ongoing reduction in species functionality is driven by global and local threats. The orders Testudines (turtles and tortoises) and Crocodilia (crocodilians and alligators) contain numerous threat...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Plant species diversity is expected to affect multiple ecosystem functions, such as soil nitrogen (N) availability. However, this effect may be related to the ecological differentiation between coexisting species, often expressed as either functional diversity (FD; diversity in traits) or phylogenetic diversity (PD; diversity in phylogeneti...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic plasticity is essential for organisms to adapt to local ecological conditions. It is expected that mutualistic interactions, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, mediate plant phenotypic plasticity, although it is not clear to what extent this plasticity may be heritable (i.e. transgenerational plasticity). We tested for plant...
Article
Full-text available
Trait and functional trait approaches have revolutionized ecology improving our understanding of community assembly, species coexistence, and biodiversity loss. Focusing on traits promotes comparability across spatial and organizational scales, but terms must be used consistently. While several papers have offered definitions, it remains unclear ho...
Preprint
In trait-based ecology, phenotypic variation (PVar) is often quantified with measures that express average differences between populations standardized in the range 0-1. A major problem with these measures is that they disregard the within-population trait variability. In addition, most of these measures cannot be decomposed across scales. This can...
Article
Installing patches of flowering plants is a commonly used strategy to enhance refuge and food resources for pollinators in intensive agricultural landscapes. Here, we evaluated how floral strips and semi-natural habitats impact the taxonomic and functional diversity of wild bees in intensively farmed sunflower fields. Pan traps were used to assess...
Article
Full-text available
Plant traits determine how individual plants cope with heterogeneous environments. Despite large variability in individual traits, trait coordination and trade-offs1,2 result in some trait combinations being much more widespread than others, as revealed in the global spectrum of plant form and function (GSPFF3) and the root economics space (RES4) f...
Article
Full-text available
The use of functional diversity analyses in ecology has grown exponentially over the past two decades, broadening our understanding of biological diversity and its change across space and time. Virtually all ecological sub‐disciplines recognize the critical value of looking at species and communities from a functional perspective, and this has led...
Article
Full-text available
Although species with larger body size and slow pace of life have a higher risk of extinction at a global scale, it is unclear whether this global trend will be consistent across biogeographic realms. Here we measure the functional diversity of terrestrial and freshwater vertebrates in the six terrestrial biogeographic realms and predict their futu...
Article
The exploitation of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been encouraged in order to reconcile economic uses, biodiversity conservation and the provision of ecosystem services. In this paper we investigate how increments on the açaí palm density (Euterpe oleracea) via forest management change tree assemblages across 47 plots in the Amazon estuari...
Preprint
Full-text available
We are in the midst of a sixth mass extinction but little is known about the global patterns of biodiversity when accounting for taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional information. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of global variation in taxonomic, functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity of more than 17,000 tetrapod species (te...
Article
Full-text available
Mountains provide a timely opportunity to examine the potential effects of climate change on biodiversity. However, nature conservation in mountain areas have mostly focused on the observed part of biodiversity, not revealing the suitable but absent species—dark diversity. Dark diversity allows calculating the community completeness, indicating whe...
Article
Aims The link between spectral diversity and in-situ plant biodiversity is one promising approach for using remote sensing for biodiversity assessment. Nevertheless, there is little evidence to whether this link is maintained at fine scales, as well as to how it is influenced by vegetation’s vertical complexity. Here we test, at community level in...
Article
Full-text available
1. We address associations of taxonomic diversity (TD), functional diversity (FD), and phylogenetic diversity (PD) of ant assemblages with gradients of elevation to assess whether energetic limitations or deterministic or stochastic niche-building processes are more relevant to the assembly of communities. 2. We sampled ant assemblages using pitfal...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: The observed positive diversity effect on ecosystem functioning has been scarcely assessed in terms of intraspecific trait variability within populations. Intraspecific phenotypic variability could stem both from underlying genetic diversity and plasticity in response to environmental cues. The latter might derive from modific...
Book
Full-text available
Handbook of Trait-Based Ecology - From Theory to R Tools Functional ecology is the branch of ecology that focuses on various functions that species play in the community or ecosystem in which they occur. This accessible guide offers the main concepts and tools in trait-based ecology, and their tricks, covering different trophic levels and organism...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme drought events have negative effects on forest diversity and functioning. At the species level, however, these effects are still unclear, as species vary in their response to drought through specific functional trait combinations. We used long-term demographic records of 21,821 trees and extensive databases of traits to understand the respo...
Article
Full-text available
Although one-quarter of plant and vertebrate species are threatened with extinction, little is known about the potential effect of extinctions on the global diversity of ecological strategies. Using trait and phylogenetic information for more than 75,000 species of vascular plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and freshwater fish, we chara...
Article
Questions What are the functional trade‐offs of vascular plant species in global alpine ecosystems? How is functional variation related to vegetation zones, climatic groups and biogeographic realms? What is the relative contribution of macroclimate and evolutionary history in shaping the functional variation of alpine plant communities? Location G...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic plasticity, within and across generations (transgenerational plasticity), allows organisms and their progeny to adapt to the environment without modification of the underlying DNA. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic modifications are important mediators of such plasticity. However, empirical studies have, so far, mainly focused on p...
Article
Full-text available
Functional diversity assessments are crucial and increasingly used for understanding ecological processes and managing ecosystems. The functional diversity of a community is assessed by sampling traits at one or more scales (individuals, populations, species) and calculating a summary index of the variation in trait values. However, it remains uncl...
Preprint
Full-text available
The use of functional analyses in ecology has grown exponentially over the past two decades, broadening our understanding of biological diversity and its change across space and time. Virtually all ecological sub-disciplines recognize the critical value of looking at species and communities from a functional perspective, and this has led to a proli...
Article
Aim The species pool specific for a site includes all species from the region that are theoretically able to live in the site's particular ecological conditions. The absent portion of the site‐specific species pool forms the site’s dark diversity, which is unobservable and can only be estimated. Most existing methods to designate dark diversity ac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Functional diversity assessments are crucial and increasingly used for understanding ecological processes and managing ecosystems. The functional diversity of a community is assessed by sampling traits at one or more scales (individuals, populations, species) and calculating a summary index of the variation in trait values. However, it remains uncl...
Article
The stability of ecological communities is critical for the stable provisioning of ecosystem services, such as food and forage production, carbon sequestration, and soil fertility. Greater biodiversity is expected to enhance stability across years by decreasing synchrony among species, but the drivers of stability in nature remain poorly resolved....
Article
Full-text available
The stability of ecological communities is critical for the stable provisioning of ecosystem services, such as food and forage production, carbon sequestration, and soil fertility. Greater biodiversity is expected to enhance stability across years by decreasing synchrony among species, but the drivers of stability in nature remain poorly resolved....
Article
Full-text available
Heterostyly is a genetically determined floral polymorphism of style length promoting outcrossing between individuals of different morphs, which usually coexist within populations at equal frequencies. Loss in the area and connectivity of suitable habitats may cause deviations from the expected equal morph frequencies. However, there is a need to e...
Article
Full-text available
Overyielding, the primary metric for assessing biodiversity effects on ecosystem functions, is often partitioned into “complementarity” and “selection” components, but this reveals nothing about the role of increased resource use, resource-use efficiency, or trait plasticity. We obtained multiple overyielding values by comparing productivity in a f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phenotypic plasticity is essential for organisms to adapt to local ecological conditions. Little is known about how mutualistic interactions, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, mediate plant phenotypic plasticity and to what extent this plasticity may be heritable (i.e. transgenerational effects). We tested for plant plasticity within-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although one quarter of the species of plants and vertebrates are threatened with extinction, little is known about how the potential effect of extinctions on the global diversity of ecological strategies. Using trait and phylogenetic information for more than 75,000 species of plants, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and freshwater fishes, we...
Article
Agricultural intensification is one of the main drivers of species loss worldwide, but there is still a lack of information about its effect on functional diversity of arable weed communities. Using a large scale pan European study including 786 fields within 261 farms from eight countries, we analysed differences in the taxonomic and functional di...
Article
Functional redundancy is considered a major component of the insurance mechanism, which theoretically maintains ecosystem stability by preventing the loss of ecosystem functions with species loss. Over the past decades, examination of functional trait patterns to elucidate processes of community stability and ecosystem functioning have stimulated c...
Article
Full-text available
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
Understanding biodiversity changes in the Anthropocene (e.g. due to climate and land‐use change) is an urgent ecological issue. This important task is challenging because global change effects and species responses are dependent on the spatial scales considered. Furthermore, responses are often not immediate. However, both scale and time delay issu...
Article
Full-text available
Saproxylic beetles depend on diverse microhabitats that are exploited by different species assemblages. We focused on anlyse the functional trait patterns and functional diversity components of two main assemblages that were collected with window traps (WTs) and hollow emergence traps (HETs) respectively, between three protected areas of the Iberia...
Article
1. Both intra-and interspecific differences in traits may modulate interactions between plants. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to regulate these effects: competitive hierarchies and trait dissimilarities, but it is unclear how the prevalence of each might depend on environmental conditions and on intra and interspecific differences. 2. We sowed s...
Article
Full-text available
Functional and phylogenetic diversity (FD and PD respectively) of the resident community are expected to exert a key role in community resistance to colonization by surrounding species, and their establishment success. However, few studies have explored this topic experimentally or evaluated the interactive effects of these diversity measures. We i...
Article
Full-text available
Functional diversity (FD) has the potential to address many ecological questions, from impacts of global change on biodiversity to ecological restoration. There are several methods estimating the different components of FD. However, most of these methods can only be computed at limited spatial scales and cannot account for intraspecific trait varia...
Article
DarkDivNet is a global research collaboration which explores the dark diversity— the set of species that are absent from a site despite being suitable under the site conditions and present in the region. Participants of the network survey vascular plant diversity both at local (10x10 m) and regional scales (radius 10 km) using a standardized approa...
Preprint
Full-text available
The biodiversity of a site includes the absent species from the region that are theoretically able to live in the site’s particular ecological conditions. These species constitute the dark diversity of the site. Unlike present species, dark diversity is unobservable and can only be estimated. Most existing methods to designate dark diversity act in...
Article
1.Traditionally, trait‐based studies have explored single‐trait‐fitness relationships. However, this approximation in the study of fitness components is often too simplistic, given that fitness is determined by the interplay of multiple traits, which could even lead to multiple functional strategies with comparable fitness (i.e. alternative designs...
Preprint
Full-text available
Questions: How do the traits of pastoral species respond to growth in mixture, nitrogen addition and season? What are the impacts of trait plasticity on community aggregate trait values? Study site: A large-scale field experiment on intensively managed dairy pastures in New Zealand. Methods: We measured traits linked to rate of return on investment...
Article
Despite their importance, how plant communities and soil microorganisms interact to determine the capacity of ecosystems to provide multiple functions simultaneously (multifunctionality) under climate change is poorly known. We conducted a common garden experiment using grassland species to evaluate how plant functional structure and soil microbial...
Article
1.Plant invasions can drastically change the structure of native communities, but it is not fully understood whether alien species occupy phylogenetic and functional space within the range occupied by natives, or provide a novel set of evolutionary origins and traits to the invaded communities. 2.Here, we evaluated this open question with data on l...
Article
Full-text available
Experimental demethylation of plant DNA enables testing for epigenetic effects in a simple and straightforward way without the use of expensive and laborious DNA sequencing. Plants are commonly demethylated during their germination with the application of agents such as 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). However, this approach can cause unwanted effects such...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its negative impacts on the environment and biodiversity, tree plantations can contribute to biodiversity conservation in fragmented landscapes, as they harbor many native species. In this study, we investigated the impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the taxonomic and functional diversity of ant communities, comparing ant communities sampl...
Code
Tools to calculate trait probability density functions (TPD) at any scale (e.g. populations, species, communities). TPD functions are used to compute several indices of functional diversity, as well as its partition across scales. These indices constitute a unified framework that incorporates the underlying probabilistic nature of trait distributio...
Article
Extensive livestock grazing is a global land use activity that has numerous social, cultural, and environmental benefits. Many marginal zones grazed for centuries are now suffering from abandonment, which has been found to be interrelated with species and functional diversity loss, and has potential consequences for the provision of ecosystem servi...
Article
Functional traits and phylogeny offer different, and often complementary, information about ecological differences between species, an essential step to uncover biodiversity assembly mechanisms and their feedbacks to ecosystem functions. However, traits and phylogeny are often related due to underlying trait evolution. Consequently, when combined,...
Article
Habitat partitioning is a common ecological mechanism to avoid competition among coexisting species, and the introduction of new species into existing assemblages can increase competitive pressures. However, situations of species in allopatry and sympatry only differing in species presence but not in environmental conditions are scarce. Thus, disce...
Article
Full-text available
Plant litter decomposition is one of the most important processes in terrestrial ecosystems, as it is a key factor in nutrient cycling. Decomposition rates depend on environmental factors, but also plant traits, as these determine the character of detritus. We measured litter decomposition rate for 57 common tree species displaying a variety of fun...
Article
How does grazing affect taxonomic diversity and functional structure of Mediterranean grassland communities? How do spatial and inter-annual variations in water availability, as a proxy for productivity, modulate grazing effects? Are shifts in taxonomic diversity systematically mirrored by analogous changes in functional diversity along these gradi...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use change is the major driver of biodiversity loss. However, taxonomic diversity (TD) and functional diversity (FD) might respond differently to land-use change, and this response might also vary depending on the biotic group being analysed. In this study, we compare the TD and FD of four biotic groups (ants, birds, herbaceous, woody vegetati...
Article
Full-text available
1. Increasing land use intensification is leading to biodiversity losses worldwide, which can reduce the functioning of ecosystems. However, it is increasingly clear that not all species are equally important for ecosystem processes: whereas the loss of a functionally unique species may reduce the capacity of the community to perform some functions...
Article
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Article
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While an increasing number of indices for estimating the functional trait diversity of biological communities are being proposed, there is a growing demand by ecologists to clarify their actual implications and simplify index selection. Several key indices relate to mean trait dissimilarity between species within biological communities. Among them,...