Carlos J. Gil-Hernández

Carlos J. Gil-Hernández
European Commission | ec · Joint Research Centre (JRC)

PhD in Political and Social Sciences
Social Scientist at European Commission, Joint Research Centre - DIGCLASS Project: Social Classes in the Digital Age

About

21
Publications
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Introduction
I work as a social scientist at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (Sevilla) in the DIGCLASS project, looking at the impact of technological change on social inequality. I got my PhD at the European University Institute and carry out theoretically-driven empirical research with interests in social stratification, skill formation, and social policy. Before joining the Commission, I was a research fellow at the WZB in Berlin, Trinity College Dublin and Trento University.
Additional affiliations
October 2015 - June 2016
Tilburg University
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 2014 - February 2016
University Pompeu Fabra
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (21)
Article
Full-text available
This article bridges the literature on educational inequality between and within families to test whether high–socioeconomic status (SES) families compensate for low cognitive ability in the transition to secondary education in Germany. The German educational system of early-ability tracking (at age 10) represents a stringent setting for the compen...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores intergenerational class mobility patterns and the role played by education in Spain using counterfactuals. Both men and women born from 1926 to 1981 are analysed, meaning the study covers a period of profound economic and educational advances in a late-industrialised country. The results suggest that, among the cohorts born in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyses the impact of social background on the probability of over-education in a cohort of Spanish university graduates born in the 1970's and graduating in 1999/2000, based on the 2005 Refl ex survey. The infl uence of three resources associated to social origins (cultural, social and economic capital) is evaluated in order to chall...
Chapter
Full-text available
http://www.catarata.org/libro/mostrar/id/1022 ¿Es cierto que los jóvenes disponen de menos probabilidades que sus padres para escalar socialmente? ¿Ha dejado de funcionar el ascensor social? ¿En qué medida heredan los hijos la clase social de sus padres? ¿Quiénes son aquellos que en nuestro país trabajan de camareros teniendo titulación universita...
Preprint
Full-text available
Information and communications technology (ICT) skills are crucial for labour market success and full participation in society. Socioeconomic status (SES) inequality in the development of ICT skills would prevent disadvantaged children from reaping the benefits of the digital age. Besides, the digital divide in ICT literacy might add to the already...
Preprint
Full-text available
EGP (Erikson-Goldthorpe-Portocarero)-based occupational class schemas, rooted in industrial-age employment relations, are the standard measure of socioeconomic position in social stratification. Previous research highlighted EGP-based schemas’ difficulties to keep up with changing labour markets, but few tested alternative explanations. This articl...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To assess the impact of digital media usage on psychiatric symptoms in an adolescent population utilizing a longitudinal cohort design. Methods Using two waves of the GUI child cohort, age 13 (N = 7527) and age 17/18 (N = 6126), we used latent class analysis (LCA) to create latent groups centred around self-reported time spent online, a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The kick-off workshop was a high-level event with more than 100 participants that brought together 13 high-profile international experts on social inequality from different social science disciplines to discuss technological change and inequality, two topics directly under the European Commission’s priorities. The objective was to generate synergie...
Chapter
En este capítulo estudiamos desigualdades socioeconómicas en salud analizando el grado de estratificación social de cinco factores de riesgo asociados a la mortalidad por la COVID-19 con diversas bases de datos: (1) infección; (2) teletrabajo; (3) enfermedades crónicas previas; (4) hospitalización entre los infectados; y (5) vivir en residencias de...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive and noncognitive skills are key indicators of educational success and merit. However, even when accounting for inequalities in skill formation by family socioeconomic status (SES), a wide SES-gap in college enrolment remains. According to the compensatory advantage hypothesis, SES-gaps in educational transitions are largest among cognitiv...
Chapter
El efecto directo del origen social (DESO) entre individuos con el mismo nivel educativo ha recibido poca atención en los estudios de movilidad social inter-generacional. En los últimos años, se ha observado un renovado interés en el estudio del DESO como un importante canal (v.g., recursos económicos, sociales y culturales) para la transmisión int...
Thesis
Full-text available
In post-industrial societies, a college education is the main channel for upper classes to prevent their children falling down the social ladder, while, for working classes, it is the best bet for upward mobility. Despite attaining post-compulsory education was equalised and a driver of social mobility in the last decades, inequalities by socioecon...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies document a social-origins gap or direct effect of social origin (DESO) on labour market outcomes over and above respondents’ education, challenging the idea that post-industrial societies are education-based meritocracies. Yet, the literature offers insufficient explanations on DESO heterogeneity across education and different labour...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter studies long-term trends in intergenerational class mobility in Spain across the 20th century drawing from a large pooled dataset (n=81,475). From the 1960s, Spain underwent a late but intense economic, cultural and political modernization process. During this period of far-reaching institutional change, men and women experienced a sig...
Working Paper
Full-text available
The study of aspirations among the children of migrants is critical to understanding the future integration and opportunities of ethnic-minority students. Previous studies on the factors leading to ethnic differences in educational aspirations have provided limited and inconclusive evidence, restricted to only a few specific national contexts. This...
Article
Full-text available
Confiar en la educación y la inversión en capital humano como la mejor solución para reactivar el ascensor social no parece ser la respuesta más eficaz por la inflación credencialista que provoca, aunque acaba siendo la más funcional y popular. John Goldthorpe, catedrático emérito del Nuffield College (Oxford University), explica en su contribución...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
There is an increasing concern in Europe about the implications of the digital revolution for social inequalities. The DIGCLASS project will revise existing theoretical and empirical approaches to social class analysis in the social sciences and update them to address the challenges posed by technological transformations. Our work will propose new taxonomies and analytical tools, it will assess whether the traditional links between social position and life chances are altered by digitalisation and whether new needs in terms of social protection are required in current societies. DIGCLASS aims to apply them to contemporary phenomena such as: The decline of the middle class Job polarisation Effects of digital technologies on inequalities Life chances The emergence of new types of economic relations https://joint-research-centre.ec.europa.eu/knowledge-research/centre-advanced-studies/digclass_en
Project
Early-life circumstances are crucial for skill formation and socio-economic attainment later in life. It is well-known that socioeconomic (SES)-gaps in skill development emerge already before preschool age and tend to persist over time, but we are only starting to understand underlying biological and environmental mechanisms. Furthermore, even when disadvantaged students achieve the same level of academic skills than more advantaged peers, they still have lower chances of getting ahead in the educational system. From a normative perspective, these regularities are at odds with the role of ability as the main criterion of merit for liberal theories of equality of opportunity. The dissertation bridges an inter-disciplinary literature on social stratification, human capital formation, developmental psychology, and epidemiology to study how parental socioeconomic status (SES) affects skill formation and educational achievement during childhood (age 5-11) in Germany, evaluating implications for social justice theories. The dissertation contributes to the literature on inter-generational educational inequality by: (1) analysing the consequences of prenatal health shocks (birth weight) in the development of cognitive (IQ) and non-cognitive skills (behavioural problems); (2) examining the effect of cognitive (IQ and test scores) and non-cognitive skills (personality traits) on transition rates to secondary academic education; (3) and assessing the stratification of these associations by parental SES. Drawing from compensatory advantage theories, I study how negative traits -low birth weight and low cognitive skills- may be less detrimental for high-SES kids from early stages of the status-achievement process. Particularly, I explore mechanisms such as parental investments (cultural activities and emotional warmth), aspirations, and teachers’ bias in assessments. Germany represents an ideal context to test the role of skills and compensatory advantage due to its educational system that enforces tracking into academic or vocational pathways as early as age 10. In this system of early ability tracking, SES-inequalities in accessing to the academic track are thought to be mainly driven by SES-gaps in school readiness, and teachers are supposed to objectively assess students as a function of their ability and behaviour. Thus, high-SES families may find particularly difficult to compensate for low ability or negative events. To carry out the empirical analyses, I draw data from the register-based panel Twin Life Study and the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), applying advanced quantitative methods and quasi-causal designs (twin fixed-effects and school fixed-effects). Empirical findings challenge the (liberal) normative conception of merit as the sum of ability plus effort in assessing equality of opportunity in education.
Project
En enero de 2016 se puso en marcha el proyecto que bajo el título de Global trends in social inequalities in Europe and Latin America and exploring innovative ways to reduce them through life, Occupational and educational trajectories research to face uncertainty presentó la Red INCASI y que recibió la financiación de la Comisión Europea en la convocatoria del programa marco Horizon 2020, sección de Ciencia de Excelencia: programa Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions, subprograma Research and Innovation Staff Exchange de 2015 (RISE, GA-691004), por un importe de 2,3 millones de euros. El objetivo del proyecto es crear y consolidar una red de investigación y de formación de postgrado entre Europa y América Latina en relación al análisis de las desigualdades sociales en una perspectiva comparada y derivar elementos de reflexión, de innovación social y recomendaciones para las políticas sociales. Web: incasi.uab.es